Miltefosine (INN, trade names Impavido and Miltex) is a phospholipid drug.
Originally developed as an antineoplastic (and licenced for topical use), it is finding use as an antiprotozoal drug. It can be administered orally and topically.
It acts as an Akt inhibitor.
It is also under investigation as a potential therapy against HIV infection.
Current antiprotozoal and antifungal applications 
Leishmania: Miltefosine is registered and used by Zentaris GmbH in India, Colombia and Germany for the treatment of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis, and is undergoing clinical trials for this use in several other countries, such as Brazil and Guatemala. Several medical agents have some efficacy against visceral or cutaneous leishmaniasis, however a 2005 survey concluded that Miltefosine is the only effective oral treatment for both forms of leishmaniasis.
Investigatory antiprotozoal and antifungal usage 
Miltefosine is being investigated by researchers interested in finding treatments for infections which have become resistant to existing drugs. Animal and in-vitro studies suggest it may have broad anti-protozoal and anti-fungal properties:
- An in-vitro study found that Miltefosine is effective against metronidazole-resistant variants of Trichomonas vaginalis, a sexually transmitted protozoal disease.
Investigatory usage against HIV infection 
Miltefosine targets HIV infected macrophages, which play a role in vivo as long-lived HIV-1 reservoirs. The HIV protein Tat activates pro-survival PI3K/Akt pathway in primary human macrophages. Miltefosine acts by inhibiting the PI3K/Akt pathway, thus removing the infected macrophages from circulation, without affecting healthy cells.
Side effects 
The main side effects reported with miltefosine treatment are nausea and vomiting. Miltefosine has exhibited teratogenicity, and should not be administered to pregnant women.
- ^ Dorlo TP, van Thiel PP, Huitema AD, Keizer RJ, de Vries HJ, Beijnen JH, de Vries PJ (2008). "Pharmacokinetics of miltefosine in Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis patients.". Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52 (8): 2855–60. doi:10.1128/AAC.00014-08. PMC 2493105. PMID 18519729.
- ^ a b c Chugh P, Bradel-Tretheway B, Monteiro-Filho CM, et al. (2008). "Akt inhibitors as an HIV-1 infected macrophage-specific anti-viral therapy". Retrovirology 5 (1): 11. doi:10.1186/1742-4690-5-11. PMC 2265748. PMID 18237430.
- ^ "Parasitic Drug Shows HIV-Fighting Promise". AIDSmeds.com. 2008-02-01. Retrieved 2008-02-02.
- ^ Cristina, Márcia; Pedrosa, Robert (September 2005). "Hospital de Doenças Tropicais testa droga contra calazar". Sapiência (in Portuguese) (Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Piauí). Archived from the original on 2006-08-22. Retrieved 2006-09-01.
- ^ Soto J, Berman J (2006). "Treatment of New World cutaneous leishmaniasis with miltefosine.". Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 100: S34. doi:10.1016/j.trstmh.2006.02.022. PMID 16930649.
- ^ Berman, J. (2005). "Clinical status of agents being developed for leishmaniasis". Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs 14 (11): 1337–1346. doi:10.1517/135437126.96.36.1997. PMID 16255674.
- ^ Saraiva V, Gibaldi D, Previato J, Mendonça-Previato L, Bozza M, Freire-De-Lima C, Heise N (2002). "Proinflammatory and cytotoxic effects of hexadecylphosphocholine (miltefosine) against drug-resistant strains of Trypanosoma cruzi.". Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46 (11): 3472–7. doi:10.1128/AAC.46.11.3472-3477.2002. PMC 128733. PMID 12384352.
- ^ Widmer F, Wright L, Obando D, Handke R, Ganendren R, Ellis D, Sorrell T (2006). "Hexadecylphosphocholine (miltefosine) has broad-spectrum fungicidal activity and is efficacious in a mouse model of cryptococcosis.". Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50 (2): 414–21. doi:10.1128/AAC.50.2.414-421.2006. PMC 1366877. PMID 16436691.
- ^ Blaha C, Duchêne M, Aspöck H, Walochnik J (2006). "In vitro activity of hexadecylphosphocholine (miltefosine) against metronidazole-resistant and -susceptible strains of Trichomonas vaginalis". J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 57 (2): 273–8. doi:10.1093/jac/dki417. PMID 16344287.
- ^ Choubey V, Maity P, Guha M, et al. (February 2007). "Inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum choline kinase by hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide: a possible antimalarial mechanism". Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51 (2): 696–706. doi:10.1128/AAC.00919-06. PMC 1797733. PMID 17145794.
External links 
- Eissa M. M., Bardicy S. E., Tadros M. (2011). "Bioactivity of miltefosine against aquatic stages of Schistosoma mansoni, Schistosoma haematobium and their snail hosts, supported by scanning electron microscopy". Parasites & Vectors 4: 73. doi:10.1186/1756-3305-4-73.