A typical serving of a plate of Momo with Sesame Yellow and Red Garlic Chilli Sauce in Nepal
|Place of origin||Nepal|
|Region or state||Tibet, Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim, Darjeeling district and Ladhak and Thailand|
|Main ingredient(s)||flour-and-water dough, white flour and meat, vegetable, or cheese fillings|
|Variations||Kothey Momo, C-Momo|
Momo (Nepali: मम:; Nepal Bhasa: ममचा, मम:; Tibetan: མོག་མོག་, Wylie: mog mog; simplified Chinese: 馍馍; traditional Chinese: 饃饃; pinyin: mómo); is a type of dumpling native to Nepal, Tibet, the bordering regions of Bhutan, and the Himalayan states of India including Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh. It is similar to the Chinese baozi and jiaozi, the Mongolian buuz or the Japanese Gyoza.
Momos are made with a simple flour-and-water dough—white flour is generally preferred—and sometimes a little yeast or baking soda is added to give a more doughy texture to the finished product. Sometimes MSG (monosodium glutamate) is also used to enhance the taste. The filling may be one of the several mixtures:
- Meat: Different kinds of meat fillings are popular in different regions. In Nepal, Tibet, Darjeeling district, Sikkim, Bhutan and North-East India, pork, chicken, goat meat, buffalo meat are commonly used. In Ladakh, lamb and yak meat are common. Minced meat is combined with any or all of the following: onions/shallots, garlic, ginger and cilantro/coriander. Some people also add finely puréed tomatoes and soya sauce.
- Vegetables: Finely chopped cabbage, potato or chayote (iskush) are used as fillings in Darjeeling, Nepal, Sikkim and some parts of India.
- Cheese: Usually fresh cheese or the traditional chhurpi is used. This variety is common in Bhutan, Sikkim and Darjeeling.
- Khuwā: Momos filled with milk solids (khuwā) mixed with sugar are popular as dessert in the Kathmandu Valley.
- Mashed potato: Mashed potato (ālu) is another popular filling in the Kathmandu Valley.
- Paneer: Another recent and already popular filling in Kathmandu
The dough is fashioned into small circular flat pieces. The filling is then enclosed either in a round pocket or in a half moon shape or crescent. The dumplings are then cooked by steaming over a soup (either a stock based on bones or tomato-based), which is served with the dumplings, along with chili sauce. The dumplings may also be pan-fried or deep-fried after being steamed.
Momos were introduced from Han China, as Momo is a loanword from the Chinese mómo 馍馍, a type of steamed bun. Momos have become a traditional delicacy in Tibet, Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim, Darjeeling district and Ladakh. They are one of the most popular fast foods in many regions of the Indian Subcontinent populated with people of Tibetan, Nepali or other Himalayan origins, and in places with a significant Tibetan and Nepalese diaspora, such as Assam, Delhi, Mizoram, Manipur, Nagaland, Meghalaya, Himachal Pradesh, Shillong, Arunachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand and West Bengal.
There are different varieties of momos, such as fried and steamed momos. Momos are usually served with a dipping sauce normally consisting of tomatoes as the base ingredient, from which numerous variations can be made. Momo soup is a dish that has steamed momos immersed in a meat broth. Momos that are pan fried after steaming first are known as kothey momos. Momo can also be prepared by directly deep frying without steaming first. Steamed momos served in hot sauce is called C-Momo. These are some of the most common items served in Tibetan and Nepalese restaurants. Tibetan dumplings are eaten with a fiery sauce of dried red chilies and a bowl of chicken broth.
- Jīn Péng 金鹏 (ed.): Zàngyǔ jiǎnzhì 藏语简志. Mínzú chūbǎnshè 民族出版社, Beijing 1983, p. 31. This is not the same as dumpling.
- "Momo recipe". Himalayanlearning.org. Retrieved April 6, 2011.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Momos|
|Wikibooks Cookbook has a recipe/module on|
- YoWangdu's Tibetan momo recipe: meat or veg
- Newari momos
- Tibetans’ (Forbidden) Special Treat (New York Times, February 21, 2012)