A typical serving of a plate of Momo with Sesame Yellow and Red Garlic chilli sauce in Nepal
|Place of origin:|
|Region or state:|
|Tibet, Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim, Darjeeling district and Ladhak|
|flour-and-water dough, white flour and meat, vegetable, or cheese fillings|
|Kothey momo, C-Momo|
|Recipes at Wikibooks:|
|Media at Wikimedia Commons:|
Momo (Nepali: मम:; Nepal Bhasa: ममचा, म:म:; Tibetan: མོག་མོག་, Wylie: mog mog; simplified Chinese: 馍馍; traditional Chinese: 饃饃; pinyin: mómo) is a type of dumpling native to Nepal; also popular in bordering region of Tibet, Bhutan, and Northeast India . It is similar to the Chinese Baozi and Jiaozi, the Mongolian Buuz, the Japanese Gyoza or the Korean Mandu.
This origin and etymology of momo in Nepal is uncertain, but the dish is thought to be rustic in origin. Since this dish is popular among the Newar community of Kathmandu valley, one prevalent belief is that Newari traders brought momo techniques from Lhasa, Tibet. They modified the seasonings of the dish with available ingredients, using water buffalo meat, and gave the dish a Nepali name. Others believe the dish was introduced to Nepalese cuisine by Tibetans who migrated to live in the Himalaya region of Nepal. Whatever its origins, the momo has since evolved to suit the Nepali palate.
Momo is a type of steamed bun with or without fillings. Momo have become a traditional delicacy in Nepal and also Tibet, Bhutan, eastern India. They are one of the most popular fast foods in many regions of the Nepal populated with people of Tibetan, Nepali or other Himalayan origins, and in places with a significant Tibetan and Nepalese diaspora, such as Assam, Delhi, Mizoram, Manipur, Nagaland, Meghalaya, Himachal Pradesh, Shillong, Arunachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, and West Bengal of India. The same concept appears in Russian cuisine as Pelmeni, which is a Finno-Ugric loan word literally meaning "ear-shaped bread".
Momo are made with a simple flour-and-water dough—white flour is generally preferred—and sometimes a little yeast or baking soda is added to give a more doughy texture to the finished product. Sometimes MSG (monosodium glutamate) is also used to enhance the taste. The filling may be one of the several mixtures:
In Nepal, the traditional momo is prepared with ground meat filling, but over the past several years, this has changed and become more elaborate. These days, momos are prepared with virtually any combination of ground meat, vegetables, tofu, paneer cheese, vegetable & meat combination. Today, momos are given fancy names such as meetho momo (मीठो म: म:), swaadista momo (स्वादिस्ट म: म:), raseelo momo (रसीलो म: म:), Himalayan momo (हिमालयन म: म:) and the list goes on and on. For meat filling, any variety of ground meat, such as goat, lamb, pork, water buffalo, yak, chicken, turkey and sea food combined with fresh herbs and spices can be used for filling. Sometimes two different kinds of meat and vegetables are used to give a different taste. Traditionally Nepalese prefer the meat that has a lot of fat, because it produces intensively flavored juicy momos. The best momos are always juicy, so sometimes a little oil is added to the leanest types of ground meat to keep the filling moist. All sorts of vegetables can be used to create the vegetable filling. The vegetables must be cut into very small pieces, and flavored with fresh herbs and spices and cooked lightly before used for filling. The filling mixture should not be watery, as it will be difficult to seal the dough wrappers as the filling mixture will fall apart. Potatoes and cabbage are a popular vegetable combination. 
- Meat: Different kinds of meat fillings are popular in different regions. In Nepal, Tibet, Darjeeling district, Sikkim, and Bhutan, pork, chicken, goat meat, buffalo meat are commonly used. In Himalyan Region of Nepal and Indian region Ladakh, lamb and yak meat are common. Minced meat is combined with any or all of the following: onions/shallots, garlic, ginger and cilantro/coriander. Some people also add finely puréed tomatoes and soya sauce.
- Vegetables: Finely chopped cabbage, potato or chayote (iskush) are used as fillings in Nepal and some parts of India.
- Cheese: Usually fresh cheese or the traditional chhurpi is used. This variety is common in eastern Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim and Darjeeling.
- Khuwā: Momo filled with milk solids (khoa) mixed with sugar are popular as dessert in the Kathmandu Valley.
- Mashed potato: Mashed potato (ālu) is another popular filling in the Kathmandu Valley.
- Paneer: Another recent and already popular filling in Kathmandu
The dough is fashioned into small circular flat pieces. The filling is then enclosed either in a round pocket or in a half moon shape or crescent. The dumplings are then cooked by steaming over a soup (either a stock based on bones or tomato-based), which is served with the dumplings, along with chili sauce. The dumplings may also be pan-fried or deep-fried after being steamed.
There are different varieties of momo, such as fried and steamed momo. Momo are usually served with a dipping sauce normally consisting of tomatoes as the base ingredient, from which numerous variations can be made. Momo soup is a dish that has steamed momo immersed in a meat broth. Momo that are pan fried after steaming first are known as kothey momo. Momo can also be prepared by directly deep frying without steaming first. Steamed momo served in hot sauce is called C-Momo. These are some of the most common items served in Tibetan and Nepalese restaurants. Nepalese and Tibetan dumplings are eaten with a fiery sauce of dried red chilies and a bowl of chicken broth.
- Nepalese cuisine
- Newa cuisine
- Har gow
- Jau gok
- Manti (dumpling)
- Mandu (dumpling), Mandugwa
- Buuz, Khuushuur, Bansh, the Mongolian variants (steamed, fried, boiled, respectively)
- Jīn Péng 金鹏 (ed.): Zàngyǔ jiǎnzhì 藏语简志. Mínzú chūbǎnshè 民族出版社, Beijing 1983, p. 31. This is not the same as dumpling.
- "Momo recipe". Himalayanlearning.org. Retrieved April 6, 2011.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Momos.|
|Wikibooks Cookbook has a recipe/module on|
- A simple momo recipe by ladieslounge.co.in
- Newari momos
- Tibetans’ (Forbidden) Special Treat (New York Times, February 21, 2012)