Natick, Massachusetts

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Natick, Massachusetts
Town
Official seal of Natick, Massachusetts
Seal
Nickname(s): Home of Champions
Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts
Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts
Coordinates: 42°17′00″N 71°21′00″W / 42.28333°N 71.35000°W / 42.28333; -71.35000Coordinates: 42°17′00″N 71°21′00″W / 42.28333°N 71.35000°W / 42.28333; -71.35000
Country United States
State Massachusetts
County Middlesex
Settled 1651
Incorporated 1781
Government
 • Type Representative town meeting
Area
 • Total 16.1 sq mi (41.6 km2)
 • Land 15.1 sq mi (39.1 km2)
 • Water 1.0 sq mi (2.5 km2)
Elevation 181 ft (55 m)
Population (2010)
 • Total 32,786 [1]
 • Density 2,117.5/sq mi (817.8/km2)
Time zone Eastern (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST) Eastern (UTC-4)
ZIP code 01760
Area code(s) 508 / 774
FIPS code 25-43895
GNIS feature ID 0619407
Website www.natickma.gov

Natick /ˈntɨk/ is a town in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States. Natick is located near the center of the MetroWest region of Massachusetts, with a population of 33,006 at the 2010 census. Only 15 miles (24 km) west from Boston, Natick is considered part of the Greater Boston area. The center of population of Massachusetts in 2000 was located in Natick.[2]

Name[edit]

The name Natick comes from the language of the Massachusett Native American tribe and means place of hills. The original settlement, in the community of South Natick, is a hilly area. Located in the community of West Natick is Captain Tom's Hill, which was the site of a small Indian encampment during King Philips War.

History[edit]

Natick was first settled in 1651 by John Eliot, a Puritan missionary born in Widford, Hertfordshire, England who received a commission and funds from England's Long Parliament to settle the Massachusett Indians on both sides of the Charles River, on land deeded from the settlement at Dedham. They were called Praying Indians – Natick was the first and for a long time served as the center of Eliot's network of praying towns. While the town's were largely self-governing under Indian leaders, the praying Indians were subject to rules governing conformity to English Puritan culture (in practice Natick, like the other praying towns, evidenced a combination of traditional and English culture and practices). Eliot and Praying Indian translators printed America's first written Bible in the Algonquian language.[3][4]

The colonial government placed such settlements in a ring of villages around Boston as a defensive strategy. Natick was the first and best documented of such settlements. The land was granted by the General Court, part of the Dedham Grant.

A school was set up, a government established, and the Indians were encouraged to convert to Christianity. In November 1675, during King Philip's War, the Natick Indians were sent to Deer Island. Many died of disease and cold, and the Indians who survived found their homes destroyed. The Indian village did not fully recover, and the land held in common by the Indian community was slowly sold off to white settlers to cover debts, and, by 1785, most of the Natick Indians had drifted away.

In 1775, both English and Praying Indian citizens of Natick participated in the Battles of Lexington and Bunker Hill, as well as serving in the Continental Army. The names of the Praying Indian soldiers from Natick are memorialized on a stone marker, along with all of Natick's Revolutionary War veterans, on a stone marker on Pond St near downtown Natick.[5]

The town was officially incorporated in 1781. Henry Wilson, a U.S. senator born in 1812 who became eighteenth Vice President of the United States (1873–1875), and who lived most of his life in Natick as a shoemaker and schoolteacher and was known as the "Natick Cobbler",[6] is buried there. He is the namesake of one of Natick's middle schools.

Though Natick was primarily a farming town, the invention of the sewing machine in 1858 led to the growth of several shoe factories. The business flourished and peaked by 1880, when Natick, with twenty-three operating factories, was third in the nation in the quantity of shoes produced. The shoes made in Natick were primarily heavy work shoes with only one or two companies adding lighter dress shoes to their line. Natick was famous for its brogan (shoes), a heavy ankle-high boot worn by soldiers in the American Civil War.

The wound core for a more resilient baseball was developed by John W. Walcott and combined with the figure-eight stitching devised by Col. William A. Cutler. It was manufactured by the firm of H. Harwood & Sons in their factory built in 1858 – the first plant in the world for the manufacture of baseballs. In 1988 the H. Harwood & Sons factory was converted into baseball factory condominiums[7]

In 1874, a great fire in downtown Natick demolished 18 business blocks, two shoe factories, the Town Hall, Natick's only fire engine house and the Congregational Church, as well as many private homes. Though no lives were lost, the loss of property was greater in proportion to the town's wealth than the Great Chicago Fire of 1871. In 1875, Natick's new Central Fire Station was completed on Summer Street and opened with grand ceremony on the same city block where the great fire was first discovered. The Central Fire Station is now the home of a private non-profit community performing arts center called The Center for Arts in Natick (TCAN).

Miles 8 through 12 of the Boston Marathon run through Natick on Patriots Day every year along Route 135/Central St., and thousands of residents and visitors line the road to watch.

2010 Census Data[edit]

[1]

  • The median population of Natick according to the 2010 us census was 41.1 years old.
  • There were 15,777 male citizens, accounting for 48.1% of the total population.
  • There were 17,009 female citizens, accounting for 51.9% of the population.
  • There were 29,233 White or Caucasian citizens, accounting for 89.2% of the population.
  • There were 2,714 Asian citizens, accounting for 8.3% of the population.
  • There were 982 Hispanic or Latino citizens, accounting for 3.0% of the population.
  • There were 865 Black or African American citizens, accounting for 2.6% of the population.
  • There were 135 American Indian and Alaska Native citizens, accounting for 0.4% of the population.

Geography and climate[edit]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 16.0 square miles (41 km2), of which, 15.1 square miles (39 km2) of it is land and 1.0 square mile (2.6 km2) of it is water. The total area is 7.04 percent water, including bodies of water Lake Cochituate and Dug Pond.

Climate data for Natick, Massachusetts (1981−2010 normals)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °F (°C) 33.7
(0.9)
37.1
(2.8)
46.2
(7.9)
58.9
(14.9)
68.8
(20.4)
75.5
(24.2)
81.5
(27.5)
80.6
(27)
73.7
(23.2)
59.8
(15.4)
51.6
(10.9)
39.6
(4.2)
58.9
(14.9)
Average low °F (°C) 16.4
(−8.7)
18.0
(−7.8)
25.5
(−3.6)
35.6
(2)
45.0
(7.2)
56.3
(13.5)
62.1
(16.7)
60.2
(15.7)
51.7
(10.9)
39.5
(4.2)
31.8
(−0.1)
21.9
(−5.6)
38.7
(3.7)
Precipitation inches (mm) 3.41
(86.6)
3.17
(80.5)
4.03
(102.4)
4.14
(105.2)
3.91
(99.3)
4.02
(102.1)
3.80
(96.5)
3.72
(94.5)
3.83
(97.3)
4.39
(111.5)
4.28
(108.7)
4.05
(102.9)
46.77
(1,188)
Snowfall inches (cm) 15.8
(40.1)
10.8
(27.4)
7.8
(19.8)
2.2
(5.6)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
1.6
(4.1)
10.0
(25.4)
48.2
(122.4)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 10.3 9.2 10.3 11.1 12.4 11.3 9.8 9.7 9.0 10.2 11.0 10.7 125
Avg. snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 5.4 3.8 2.6 .4 0 0 0 0 0 0 .7 3.4 16.3
Source: NOAA [8]

Communities and neighborhoods[edit]

Natick Center[edit]

Natick Center

Natick Center, which is also known as Downtown Natick, is located at the intersection of Central Street and Main Street and serves as the civic and cultural hub of the town.

Many public services and public land use are located downtown. Municipal buildings like the Natick Town Hall, Natick Fire Department, Natick Police Department and Morse Institute Library are located here along East Central Street. Also located directly downtown is the Natick Town Common where many town events and community activities are held. An MBTA Commuter Rail station links Natick with Boston and Worcester. In the 1990s new downtown construction of a town hall, fire/police station, and enlargement to the library gave the downtown a fresh new look. New municipal buildings exist alongside several historic buildings and churches, the restored Central Fire House, several banks, restaurants and small businesses.

The Massachusetts Cultural Council voted unanimously Tuesday, August 21, 2012 to make Natick Center one of the newest state-designated cultural districts, the tenth district to win this designation from the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. The Cultural Districts Initiative is designed to help communities attract artists and cultural enterprises, encourage business and job growth, expand tourism, preserve and reuse historic buildings, enhance property values, and foster local cultural development. Natick's Cultural District is anchored by The Center for Arts in Natick, Morse Institute Library and the Natick Common.

South Natick[edit]

South Natick, known for its scenic nature, is where the Native American settlers first arrived and began the town on the shores of the Charles River. Housing developers like Martin Cerel lived in South Natick, and thus refrained from building major tract neighborhoods in this part of town.

A common mistake[citation needed] is the belief that South Natick is a separate town or village, but that is not the case. South Natick is simply a section of the town, governed by the Town of Natick. This misconception may be due to street signage such as a sign located in Wellesley along Route 16 that has the destination listed as "So. Natick." Due to this and many other reasons,[clarification needed] it is common to see mail addressed to South Natick,[citation needed] Massachusetts rather than just Natick, Massachusetts.

East Natick[edit]

East Natick is a community of Natick that is located along Oak Street and at the intersection of Oak Street and Worcester Street. Notable landmarks include Jennings Pond, the Industrial Park on Oak St North, and the Lilja School. A sports and tennis club is located in East Natick off Oak St. in a part of the Industrial Park. The stretch of Route 9 in East Natick as one heads into Wellesley, contains a multitude of ever-changing retail businesses.

West Natick[edit]

West Natick is a large section of Natick that borders the town of Framingham. The Natick Mall, as well as the strip mall called Sherwood Plaza with its office Industrial Park behind, are considered to be the commercial hub of West Natick. In addition to its retail development, post World War II housing developments like Westfield, Pelham, and Sherwood as well as the National Guard depot and a golf course on Speen St brought many people to this part of town.

There are many businesses in West Natick along West Central Street as well as another MBTA Commuter Rail station in addition to the one downtown. The area in West Natick, along Route 135 is the most densely populated section of town, with its thousands of condominiums and apartments clustered across the street from the train station.

Neighborhoods[edit]

Natick is a small town, and thus, the various sections of tract development homes are considered neighborhoods. These were houses built by several contractors in the late 1940s until the late 1950s. Listed here, are a few of these sections.

Sherwood[edit]

One of the earliest post World War II developments in West Natick, the homes are colonial in style, with street names reminiscent of the Robin Hood legend. The homes were built in 1948 and the neighborhood remains popular due to the fact that there's no through traffic, and most of the houses have been enlarged with additions.

Walnut Hill[edit]

Walnut Hill is a neighborhood located north of downtown. It is known for the private boarding school, Walnut Hill School as well as many Victorian era houses lining Walnut and Bacon Streets.

Wethersfield[edit]

The Wethersfield area of Natick is a residential neighborhood North of Route 9. It is a typical 1950s development of Campanelli ranch houses, and remains popular with first time home-buyers, due to the relatively inexpensive nature of slab style houses. This area includes Drury lane and all connecting roads within the boundaries of route 9, Pine st. and Route 27.

Oak Street[edit]

South of Rte 9, this section began as a summer vacation area, with tiny cottages surrounding Jennings Pond. Over the years, some houses were enlarged, but the area remains quaint, and quiet with no thru-traffic. On the westerly side of South Oak, is a neighborhood of Cape style houses with streets named after World War II Generals. North of Route 9, other developments of small Cape-style homes were built in the early and mid-1950s and these houses remain popular with first-time home buyers due to the affordability of the houses. There are two Industrial Parks along north Oak St which contain office buildings on one side of the road, and larger warehouses on the eastern side.

Little South[edit]

Just south of the Natick Common, Cottage Street begins what is commonly called Little South, named so because of its proximity to South Natick. Little South nomenclature extends to the east portions of Everett Street, down to Eliot St. Homes along Cottage St. were primarily built in the early 1950s and are mostly modest, and well maintained. The best known landmarks in Little South are a WWII monument dedicated to the fallen soldiers from Natick, and The Tobin School, a private daycare and elementary school that has two large, attractive buildings off of Cottage St. Everett St. has larger farm homes situated on generous lots. Eliot St., which runs parallel to the Charles River, boasts some of the oldest and nicest homes in Natick. Just before South Natick begins, there is a beautiful Virgin Mary statue on a large rock on the south side of the Charles River, enveloped by graceful pine trees.

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Year Pop.   ±%  
1850 2,744 —    
1860 5,515 +101.0%
1870 6,404 +16.1%
1880 8,479 +32.4%
1890 9,118 +7.5%
1900 9,488 +4.1%
1910 9,866 +4.0%
1920 10,907 +10.6%
1930 13,589 +24.6%
1940 13,851 +1.9%
1950 19,838 +43.2%
1960 28,831 +45.3%
1970 31,057 +7.7%
1980 29,461 −5.1%
1990 30,510 +3.6%
2000 32,170 +5.4%
2010 33,006 +2.6%

As of the census[9] of 2010, there were 32,786 people, 13,080 households, and 8,528 families residing in the town. The population density was 2,132.9 people per square mile (823.7/km2). There were 13,368 housing units at an average density of 886.3 per square mile (342.3/km2). The racial makeup of the town was 87.3% White, 2.6% African American, 0.11% Native American, 7.2% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.77% from other races, and 2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.2% of the population.

There were 13,080 households out of which 30.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.5% were married couples living together, 8.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 34.8% were non-families. 28.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 3.02.

In the town the population was spread out with 23.0% under the age of 18, 5.1% from 18 to 24, 34.3% from 25 to 44, 23.3% from 45 to 64, and 14.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 89.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.3 males.

According to a 2007 estimate,[10] the median income for a household in the town was $81,855, and the median income for a family was $105,056. Males had a median income of $51,964 versus $41,060 for females. The per capita income for the town was $36,358. About 1.7% of families and 2.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2.4% of those under age 18 and 5.3% of those age 65 or over.

Natick is surrounded, on three sides, by five of the ten most affluent towns in Massachusetts [11] with Wayland to the north, Weston to the northeast, Wellesley to the east, Dover to the southeast, and Sherborn to the southwest. In addition to these five very-wealthy communities, Framingham lies immediately to the west. Framingham is largely middle class and has areas of semi-rural affluence, although Framingham has the issue of urban blight in its downtown area which Natick has managed to avoid.

Government[edit]

Town[edit]

Natick has representative town meeting form of government with a Board of Selectmen and a Town Administrator.[12] The current[when?] members of the Board and the dates their terms end are:

  • Joshua Ostroff, Chairman, 2015;
  • Charles M. Hughes, Vice Chair, 2016;
  • Nicholas S. Mabardy, Clerk, 2017;
  • Richard P. Jennett, 2016; and
  • John Connolly, 2017.

County[edit]

Mismanagement of Middlesex County's public hospital in the mid-1990s left the county on the brink of insolvency, and in 1997 the Massachusetts legislature stepped in by assuming all assets and obligations of the county. The government of Middlesex County was officially abolished on July 11, 1997. The sheriff and some other regional officials with specific duties are still elected locally to perform duties within the county region, but there is no county council or commissioner. However, communities are now granted the right to form their own regional compacts for sharing services.

These are the remaining elected officers for Middlesex County:

  • Clerk of Courts: Michael A. Sullivan
  • County Treasurer: Position Eliminated
  • District Attorney: Marian Ryan
  • Register of Deeds: Richard P. Howe, Jr. (North at Lowell), Eugene C. Brune (South at Cambridge)
  • Register of Probate: Tara E. DeCristofaro
  • County Sheriff: Peter Koutoujian

Education[edit]

Public schools[edit]

The Natick Public School District operates the following schools:[13]

  • High school:
    • Natick High School; The High School building on the shore of Dug Pond, was opened in 1954. In order to avoid loss of accreditation, the residents voted approval of a tax override, aka. a "debt exclusion" for construction of a new High School building and related improvements. Demolition on the 1954 building began on June 25, 2012.[14] The new building design is based on a model approved by the state of Massachusetts. This was necessary in order to maximize state reimbursement for design and construction. It cost $80 million. The new high school is adjacent to the old high school and opened to students on August 29, 2012.
  • Middle schools:
    • Kennedy Middle School;
    • Wilson Middle School.
  • Elementary schools:
    • Brown Elementary School;
    • Lilja Elementary School;
    • Memorial Elementary School;
    • Bennett-Hemenway (Ben-Hem) Elementary School;
    • Johnson Elementary School;

Private schools[edit]

Notable residents[edit]

In alphabetical order:


Points of interest[edit]

Eliot Church in South Natick, Mass.
  • The Bacon Free Library, which opened in 1881, is located at 58 Eliot Street. This building was a gift to the community under the will of Oliver Bacon who died in 1878. It has been operating as a public library ever since. The library overlooks the Charles River in South Natick. The Natick Historical Society resides in the lower portion of the building.
  • Temple Israel of Natick, Natick's oldest Synagogue, is located on Hartford street. It is currently[when?] the largest Conservative Synagogue in the area, and serves many communities in the Metro West area.
  • The Natick Historical Society, located in the lower level of the Bacon Free Library. Archives and exhibits on John Eliot and Praying Indians, natural history collections, life during colonial times, early republic and industrial revolution, memorabilia of famous Natick citizens.
  • Eliot Church, originally founded as a meetinghouse in 1651, is the fifth structure on the site. The present church dates from the 1830s. A sign erected in front of the church in 1930, on the 300th anniversary of the founding of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, reads,"INDIAN MEETINGHOUSE – On this site John Eliot helped his Indian converts to build their first meetinghouse in 1651, with a 'prophet's chamber' where he lodged on his fortnightly visits to preach to them in their language. His disciple Daniel Takawambait succeeded to the pastoral office in 1698."
  • The U.S. Army Soldier Systems Center (SSC) (Also known as The Natick Army Labs), a complex of military R&D facilities, produces military-use items such as field rations, personal protective field equipment, and specialized uniforms.
  • Natick Mall, managed by General Growth Properties, Inc. of Chicago, is one of Boston's premier shopping centers and recently[when?] completed a major expansion. The newly renovated wing opened 9/7/07.
  • Cognex Corporation Corporate Headquarters.
  • MathWorks Corporate Headquarters.
  • Boston Scientific Corporate Headquarters. This site used to be the HQ for mini-computer manufacturer Prime Computer, Inc. Before Prime, Carling ran a Black Label brewery there. The building was recently bought by MathWorks as an additional building to their currently expanding workforce.
  • The Walnut Hill School is one of the nation's leading private secondary schools, offering particular emphasis in the studio and performing arts. Walnut Hill graduates more students to the Juilliard School than any other secondary school in the world.
  • The Center for Arts in Natick (TCAN), located in Natick's historic Central Fire Station, is a favored performance venue for musicians in jazz, folk, classical, and rock genres. TCAN also hosts theatrical productions by the TCAN Players and children's classes in theatre and dance. Artists performing at TCAN have included Judy Collins, Don McLean, George Winston, Paula Poundstone, Shawn Colvin, Marshall Crenshaw, Jimmy Webb, Karla Bonoff, John Sebastian and Adrian Belew.
Casey's Diner
  • Casey's Diner, constructed in 1922, is one of the oldest operating ten-stool diners in the United States. Casey's Diner is diminutive in size at only 10 feet (3.0 m) by 20-1/2 feet, and was constructed by the Worcester Lunch Car Company in Worcester, Massachusetts. Famous for its steamed hot dogs, Casey's originated as a horse-drawn lunch wagon that was parked on Natick Common.
  • The Boden Lane Cemetery is a very small burial site established in 1815. Although the cemetery was established in that year, many of the gravestones are dated even earlier than this date, with some dating back to the Revolutionary War. The cemetery is located on Boden Lane, to the right of Beaver Dam, and directly across the street from the Chabad Center of Natick.
  • The Natick Community Organic Farm, located in South Natick on conservation land. It is a certified-organic, fully functioning working open year-round with no admission fee for the public's visits and purchases. The farm welcomes volunteers and runs a bevy of hands-on educational programs for adults and children. The farm has a barn built in 1815, a timber-framed nature center, two greenhouses, two hoophouses, four acres of market gardens, bee hives, woodland walking trails, a composting toilet, and a host of animals including chickens, turkeys, pigs, rabbits, sheep, goats, and cows.
  • Henry Wilson Shoe Shop, 181 West Central Street, listed on the National Register of Historic Places
Station Tree in Natick, Mass.
Station Oak Tree, January 2012
  • The station tree is a 500-year-old black oak that the original surveyors used to mark the boundary between Natick and what was then part of Needham. That boundary is now the Natick-Weston town line on Winter Street, near the campus of The Rivers School in Weston, MA. One other notable landmark tree—the Eliot Oak next to the Eliot Church in South Natick—was removed in 1936 after the installation of underground gas lines damaged the root system, ultimately killing it.
  • The Chabad Center in Natick is a synagogue and Jewish educational center which is dedicated to strengthening Jewish awareness in the Metrowest area. The Hebrew School for the Arts is a breakthrough in typical Hebrew school education. Located at the Chabad Center, Hebrew School for the Arts teaches traditional Judaism while integrating the modern arts of drama.
  • Sassamon Trace Golf Course, built atop the former town landfill, is a branch of the Natick Recreation Department.
  • Natick's Recycle Center, adjacent to the town-owned golf course, and the High School athletic fields, serves the town's recycle needs.
  • St. Patrick's Church, located in Natick center, is Natick's Tallest structure, and is also the largest Roman Catholic Parish in Natick.[16]

In popular culture[edit]

Natick appears on the Family Guy episode "Da Boom" when the family sets out to the town after Peter reveals that there is a Twinkie factory there. (When the episode originally aired in 1999 this was true, as a Hostess bakery did once exist on Speen Street, although part of the Factory was in Framingham, the factory was torn down in 2007 when the Natick Mall used the property to build an expansion) He eventually starts a town on the ruins of the community, naming it New Quahog.

To solvers of The New York Times crossword puzzle, the term Natick has a particular meaning. It refers to any square on the puzzle grid that a solver cannot fill in correctly except by a lucky guess, because the solver does not know the answer to either the ACROSS clue or to the DOWN clue (generally proper nouns).[17][18]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b http://www.zip-codes.com/zip-code/01760/zip-code-01760-2010-census.asp
  2. ^ "Population and Population Centers by State: 2000". Retrieved January 27, 2011. 
  3. ^ John Eliot Bible, 1st Ed. 1663, From Natick Historical Society Collection
  4. ^ "The Eliot Indian Bible: First Bible Printed in America." Library of Congress Bible Collection. Library of Congress, n.d. Web. 5 Sep 2011.
  5. ^ Massachusetts Soldiers and Sailors of the Revolutionary War
  6. ^ James M. McPherson, Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era (New York: Bantam Books, 1989), p. 139.
  7. ^ http://www.baseballfactory.org
  8. ^ "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2013-02-09. 
  9. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  10. ^ "Natick town, Middlesex County, Massachusetts – Fact Sheet – American FactFinder". Factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved January 27, 2011. 
  11. ^ "List of Massachusetts locations by per capita income – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia". En.wikipedia.org. Retrieved January 27, 2011. 
  12. ^ Town of Natick (December 28, 2010). "Town of Natick – Board Of Selectmen/Town Administrator". Natickma.gov. Retrieved January 27, 2011. 
  13. ^ Natick Public Schools
  14. ^ http://www.metrowestdailynews.com/news/x425597803/Natick-High-grad-kicks-off-school-demolition
  15. ^ "Two Montessori schools to merge in Natick". The MetroWest Daily News. April 10, 2010. Retrieved November 30, 2011. 
  16. ^ http://www.stpatsnatick.org/
  17. ^ Sharp, Michael (July 6, 2008). "Sunday, July 6, 2008". Rex Parker Does the NY Times Crossword Puzzle. Retrieved June 20, 2012. 
  18. ^ Amlen, Deb (March 22, 2011). "Wednesday: It May Have a Square in the Middle". New York Times "Wordplay" blog. Retrieved June 20, 2012. 

External links[edit]