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Palakkad Gap or Palghat Gap is a 30-40 kilometers (19–25 miles) wide low mountain pass in the Western Ghats, near Palakkad town (previously known as Palghat) in the South Indian State of Kerala. It has an elevation of 300 metres (980 ft). The hills rise to 1100m to the North of the gap, and 2000m to the South. The average height of the gap is 144m.
The gap is the lowest pass through the Western Ghats. It is also the only break in that stretch of the Ghats that otherwise runs along the entire eastern edge of Kerala, isolating the State from neighbouring Tamil Nadu. It acts as a corridor between the two States by linking Palakkad District of Kerala with Coimbatore District of Tamil Nadu, and has served as a vital part of the important trade route between the East and West coasts of peninsular India since ancient times. Palakkad Fort, stands as a reminder of the strategic importance the gap once had as a gateway to Kerala for would be invaders from the other side of the Ghats.
There are various theories about the origin of Palakkad gap. One among them is that it is caused by the landslide due to rivers flowing in opposite directions. The Bharatha Puzha river originates in the Palakkad Gap from rivulets and tributaries feeding from steep escarpment slopes along the flanks of the Ghats.
The gap is important to the climate of southern India in that it allows the moisture-laden Southwest monsoon winds into the Coimbatore region, which moderates Coimbatore's summer temperatures and generates greater rainfall in the region relative to the rest of lowland Tamil Nadu. At the same time, due to hot winds coming from Tamil Nadu, the district of Palakkad is warmer than the rest of Kerala during summer.
Historically, Palakkad gap has played a major role in enabling migrations into Kerala from other parts of India. Tamil Brahmins ("Palakkad Brahmins") are a prominent group that migrated to Palakkad from Thanjavur, Kumbakkonam and surrounding areas in Tamil Nadu via the Palakkad gap from the 15th century to 18th century. Also, right from 300 B.C. to 13th century, it also helped the Cheras rule entire Kerala and the areas of Kongunadu (Coimbatore, Erode, Karur) as one geographical unit.
The Palakkad Gap funnels the winds blowing from the west on to the towns and villages in Coimbatore and Tirupur districts in TamilNadu. The average annual wind speed is 18-22 km/hr. Large windmill farms can be seen in and around Udumalaipettai, Myvadi and Kadathur. Because of Palakkad Gap, this region is among the four major wind power generation areas in TamilNadu.
Palghat-Coimbatore NH 47 Through the gap.
- Nair, Dr. S. Sathis Chandran, (20 May 2004 ). A Note on the Ecological Impact of the Proposed Pathrakkadavu Hydro-Electric Project (PHEP) in the Kunthi River, Palakkad District of Kerala: India - Silent Valley Rainforest Under Threat Once More.
- "Tiruppur District Official Webpage". Retrieved 6 November 2013.
- "TamilNadu Energy Development Agency". Retrieved 6 November 2013.
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