Muvattupuzha

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Muvattupuzha
മൂവാറ്റുപുഴ
Moovattupuzha
Big Town / Urban
Muvattupuzha is located in Kerala
Muvattupuzha
Muvattupuzha
Location in Kerala, India
Coordinates: 9°58′01″N 76°34′59″E / 9.9670°N 76.5830°E / 9.9670; 76.5830Coordinates: 9°58′01″N 76°34′59″E / 9.9670°N 76.5830°E / 9.9670; 76.5830
Country  India
State Kerala
District Ernakulam
Government
 • Type Municipality
 • Municipal Chairman Mr.U.R Babu
Area
 • Total 13.18 km2 (5.09 sq mi)
Elevation 15 m (49 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 30,397
 • Density 2,306.3/km2 (5,973/sq mi)
Languages
 • Official Malayalam, English
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 686661
Telephone code 0485
Vehicle registration KL-17
Nearest city Ernakulam,Kottayam, Thrissur
Sex ratio 1023 /
Lok Sabha constituency Idukki
Climate Tropical monsoon (Köppen)
Avg. summer temperature 32.5 °C (90.5 °F)
Avg. winter temperature 20 °C (68 °F)
Website muvattupuzha.in
The town where three rivers merge to form Muvattupuzha river.

Muvattupuzha (Malayalam: മുവാറ്റുപുഴ) is a municipality in Ernakulam district in the Indian state of Kerala. It is situated in the eastern side of Ernakulam district.The town is bordered by Kottayam district on southern side and Idukki district on eastern side approximately 20 km from the town. Muvattupuzha is situated 43 km (27 mi)[1] northeast of Ernakulam city on NH 49 (Kochi - Dhanushkodi National Highway) and lies on the popular Kochi-Munnar hill station tourist route.

History[edit]

Muvattupuzha was part of the Vadakkumkoor[2] Kingdom until it was captured by the Travancore Kingdom. Old documents show that parts of the lands of Muvattupuzha belonged to ‘Edappally Swaroopam’, but were later transferred to ‘Manas’ (Brahmin Families).[3]

After Indian Independence, from 1949 to 1956, Muvattupuzha was a part of the Kottayam district in Travancore-Cochin state.[4] In 1956, when Kerala state was formed, Muvattupuzha remained as a part of Kottayam district till 1958. Muvattupuzha, as a village union, came under the control of a council of three members nominated by the Government. V. P. Govindan Nair was the first president of the village union. By 1953, Muvattupuzha was declared a Panchayat. Kunnappillil Varkey Vaidyan was the first president of the elected Panchayat Committee. Muvattupuzha was raised to the status of a Municipality in the year 1958. N. Parameshwaran Nair became the first Municipal Chairman. Muvattupuzha made history as the first Municipality where the Communist Party came to power in a general election.

N. P. Varghese was the first elected M.L.A. from Muvattupuzha Assembly Constituency. Later, K. M. George, founder of Kerala Congress represented Muvattupuzha. The first M.P. of Muvattupuzha (Lok Sabha constituency) was George Thomas Kottukapally. Of all the Municipal Chairmen of the town, P. P. Esthose deserves special mention. He was simultaneously an MLA and the Municipal Chairman of Muvattupuzha. He got state-level recognition as the Chairman of Chamber of Chairmen. In its entire history, he is the only Communist member elected to the Parliament from the constituency.

St. Thomas, the Apostle of Jesus Christ who introduced Christianity to India, is believed to have visited this region. The Marth Mariam Syro-Malabar Catholic Church of Arakuzha has a recorded history of over 1000 years, making it one of the oldest Syrian churches in Kerala.[5][6] It is known for its paintings and sculptures. Muvattupuzha was also known as "Arakuzha Pakuthi" (meaning "half of Arakuzha").

Politics[edit]

The place falls under Muvattupuzha assembly constituency, which is part of Idukki (Lok Sabha constituency). It was part of Muvattupuzha (Lok Sabha constituency) until 2004.[7] The municipality is headed by the Municipal Chairman.

Demographics[edit]

As of 2001 India census,[8] Muvattupuzha had a population of 29,230. Males constitute 49% of the population and females 51%. Muvattupuzha has an average literacy rate of 84%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 85%, and female literacy is 82%. In Muvattupuzha, 11% of the population is under 6 years of age.

Religion[edit]

The region has Hindus,Syrian Christians, and Muslims.

Kavumpady Road in the heart of the town contains major Agraharam of Kerala Iyers. Konkanis are also in lesser numbers. Hindus are majority in the region with castes like Nair, Ezhava, Viswakarma and Namboodiri present around the Taluka.

Syrian Christian include Syro-Malabar Catholics, Syro-Malankara Catholics, Jacobites and Malankara Orthodox Christians. Muvattupuzha is the seat of Muvattupuzha diocese of Jacobite Syriac Orthodox Church and Kandanad East diocese of Malankara Orthodox Church. The late lamented Catholicose of Jacobite Church H B Mar Baselios Paulose 2 resided in Piramadom, a village few kilometers far from Muvattupuzha until his demise.

Christ the King Latin Church is situated near Vazhappilly junction founded in 1925.[9] A strong Latin community though small in number consisting of people originally from Varapuzha, Kottappuram and Kochi lives here.

Muvattupuzha-Kothamangalam region is a main centre for Mappila Muslims. unlike southern districts of Kerala, Mappila Muslims makes up most of the Muslim population. Thulukkar, the Hanafi school of Islam followers are majority in southern parts of Kerala. In Muvattupuzha, Thulukkar are concentrated around Pettah, near Post office Junction. Muslims include Sunni, Ahmediyya. Towns of Perumbavoor, Kothamangalam and Muvattupuzha have a strong Mappila Muslim community which also spreads through the villages around these towns.

Geography[edit]

The town is situated on highland regions.[10] Essentially, the regions of Thodupuzha, Muvattupuzha and Kothamangalam were called "Keezhmalanad"[11] of erstwhile Vadakkumkoor Kingdom[12] indicating these as lands with fertile soils deposited by Thodupuzha and Muvattupuzha rivers over a period of time due to floodings of the banks. The town is 20m above mean sea level (MSL).

Muvattupuzha River[edit]

Beautiful River

The town is named after the Muvattupuzha river (Muvattupuzha Aaru) which flows through it. The name is made up of three Malayalam words: 'Moonnu', which stands for 'three', 'aaru' - small river, and 'puzha', which also means river. 'Aaru' is a word that is usually used for rivers in the southern half of Kerala, while the term 'puzha' is used in the northern parts. The three rivers in this case are the Kothamangalam river or Kothayaar, Kaliyar and Thodupuzha aaru, which merge to form a single river. This place is called 'Thriveni Sangamam' in Malayalam which means `the point of confluence of three rivers'. Muvattupuzha river was practically free from pollution which slowly is changing due to the growth of small towns on the river's banks as well as industrial endeavours.

Muvattupuzha Old and New Bridges

Muvattupuzha river (Malayalam: മൂവാറ്റുപുഴയാര്‍) which starts and flows through Muvattupuzha town runs for 121 km and enters Kottayam district as well. The major source of water is the Thodupuzha river which starts in the Idukki district and provides water throughout the year, enabled by the supply of water from Idukki arch dam. Idukki dam is the largest arch dam in India and it is used for hydro-electric power generation.[13] this is a old heritage route all along the river's path up to Vaikom. Old settlements along the path of the river evolved into towns along the Muvattupuzhayaar flow. be it Vaikom, Piravom, Muvattupuzha. ancient times transportation was essentially through Kettuvallam(Country boat) travelling to Vettikkattumukku and Vaikom to reach Alappuzha and Kochi. before Kothamangalam and Thodupuzha evolved as prominent hill produce market, Muvattupuzha was the old centre owing to the connectivity through the river. Muvattupuzha river is the prime victim of river pollution nowadays. Green People, an environmental organization is now leading a campaign to save the Muvattupuzha river.Companies like Hindusthan Newsprint Limited functions near the banks of this river but this company was having advanced effluent treatment system but these days this system is not functioning as per expectation and the river water turns black where effluent joins river at pipeline junction.

Suburbs[edit]

The town consists of two regions separated by the Muvattupuzha bridge. Kacherithazham is the main centre of the town to the east of the Muvattupuzha bridge. Nehru Park, Velloorkunnam and Vazhappilly are to the north of the bridge. TB.Junction and P.O Junction lies East of the bridge. Kavumkara is an old market which lies to the northeast of the town after the bridge on the Muvattupuzha-Kothamangalam road.

Latha bridge or Thodupuzha bridge is over the Thodupuzha river, which flows through the southeast portions of the town before merging with Muvattupuzha river near Kacherithazham. Kizhakkekara and Randaattinkara (Randarkara or Randar) lies on the eastern part of the town on the banks of the Muvattupuzha river. From the olden times, south of Marady (മാറാടി) panchayat towards Kottayam were sparsely occupied and still has old rubber plantations and a hilly terrain till Koothattukulam. Aaroor (ആറൂര്‍) (near Meenkunnam) was a forest before 5-6 decades. While every direction from Muvattupuzha is populated and almost urbanized, the southern direction towards Kottayam via M C Road is not so developed in terms of infrastructure. At a distance approximately 8 km southwards, Muvattupuzha town is covered by a curve-like hilly region of 40-60 MSL in the whole southern side which crosses Kottayam and Piravom routes. Most of these hills are rubber plantations.[14] KSTP's second phase project of straightening of the Muvattupuzha - Chengannur MC Road is recently inaugurated.

The old Muvattupuzha bridge built over the Muvattupuzha river was the first concrete bridge in Asia. It was completed in 1914.[15] This serves as the connection between Nehru Park and Kacherithazham.

The nearby panchayaths are mostly into agriculture, small- and medium-scale industries. Pineapple and rubber plantations are the common agrarian efforts. Match box industries, plywood factories, saw mills, paper, plastic and wood carton making are the main industries in this area. KINFRA's Small Industries Park at Nellad is 9 km from Muvattupuzha on SH41.[16]

Nearby towns[edit]

The nearby towns are Kothamangalam, Vazhakulam, Thodupuzha, Piravom, Koothattukulam, Kolenchery, Perumbavoor and Kalloorkkad.

Neighbouring cities & towns

Culture[edit]

Muvattupuzha has a rich cultural tradition. Margamkali and martial arts like Parichamuttukali, are popular among the Syrian Christian community. It is performed by men and women separately. In the past, it was performed during Syrian Christian weddings. Shadkala Govinda Marar was born on the banks of the Muvattupuzha river. In the new era,Mela (Muvattupuzha Enlightened Lovers of Arts) - a registered fine arts society which was established in 1968 plays the lead role in the cultural life of this town. Chalana Film Society, now renamed as SYNE Foundation, established in 1997 conducts annual Film Festivals from the year 2000 onwards and leads the cultural life.

Notable people[edit]

Places of worship[edit]

Temples and Ashramas[edit]

Velloorkunnam Shiva Temple[edit]

‘Velloorkunnu’ means the hill of light.This is one of the rarest Siva Temples situated near The three rivers,which merge to form a single river. Lord Maheswara is the eliminator of all the worries. He gets easily pleased with those who worship. He awards peace in this World and salvation in the other World. He is the annihilator of the wicked and protector of the good. The idol in Velloorkunnam Mahadeva Temple is Kirathamoorthy, who gets easily pleased in his Devotees. They believe that the fore sating of arrogance and the trust in Lord Sankara bring them auspices. The other deities are Vinayaka, Sreekrishna, Sreedharma Sastha and Naga. Mondays, Saturdays and Pradosha days are important here.Among the Hindu temples the Velloorkunnam temple is the oldest and most traditional. Old peoples say that during the period of invasion of Tippu terrified with the attack at any time the flag mast of this temple was removed and deposited in the river by the devotes. Still one can find the basement of this staff at the temple courtyard. Stories also live as to the hiding of the flag mast and valuables of Narasimha Temple at the pond in the temple compound. The ‘Sreekovil’ (sanctum sanctorum) of this temple which is round in shape is so beautiful incomparable with anyone of its kind. Narasimha Temple is also an old and traditional one owned by various ‘Manas’

This is one of the rarest Siva Temples situated near The three rivers,which merge to form a single river. Lord Maheswara is the eliminator of all the worries. He gets easily pleased with those who worship. He awards peace in this World and salvation in the other World. He is the annihilator of the wicked and protector of the good. The idol in Velloorkunnam Mahadeva Temple is Kirathamoorthy, who gets easily pleased in his Devotees. They believe that the fore sating of arrogance and the trust in Lord Sankara bring them auspices. The other deities are Vinayaka, Sreekrishna, Sreedharma Sastha and Naga. Mondays, Saturdays and Pradosha days are important here.

Puzhakkarakavu Bhagavati Temple[edit]

Puzhakkarakavu temple is dedicated to the Divine Mother. It is situated at the confluence of the three rivers and is the oldest temple in the town. The town grew around it. Sangharakshita gives some details about this place in his book.

Puzhakkarakavu' on which the beauty, glory and fame of Muvattupuzha are founded requires particular mention. Even people from distant places come to worship here. The idol or ‘Vigharam’ in this temple is ‘Swayambhoo’, self made, naturally born. With the joint efforts of the king’s servants and local chiefs the temple was constructed at ‘Thriveni Sangamam’, point of harmony of the rivers, where the deity was discovered. The ‘Chirappu Maholsavam’ here is grand and colorful. It was started during the rule of the king, which is still celebrated with all devotion and glamour by the people of muvattupuzha irrespective of the cast and the religion. Colorful cultural programs, rituals and prayers are the specialities of this age-old festival. There is an ‘Aanapandal’ ( A canopy for the elephant) in this kavu which also bears a historical story. As the predecessor to the concrete Thodupuzha Bridge, there was a bridge made of wood, pillars been made of granite stones, constructed in the year 1917. Chattanathakaralayar of chenkottai was the contractor for the work. The stone pillars failed to stick well to the ground and become firm despite all the engineering skills. A perplexed god fearing contractor made an offering to the goddess by donating the ‘anapandal’ when everything was made all right. This historical fact is inscribed in the stone laid in the temple.

Pallikavu Bhagavati Temple[edit]

Pallikavu Bhagavati temple is situated on the banks of muvattupuzha river. The temple is dedicated to 'Pallikavilamma.' It is situated off the Muvattupuzha-Arakuzha road. The divine presence of Pallikavilamma is believed to have been radiating from Chottinakkara. The temple is more than hundred years old.

Mattapili Sri. Krishna Temple[edit]

Sri. Krishna temple is dedicated to lord Krishna . It is situated on the banks of muvattupuzha river, off the Muvattupuzha-Arakuzha road .Its name is Mattapilli Sree Krishna Swamy temple. This temple is hundreds of years old. its believed that its by the bhramins who fled in fear of Tippu sulthan from Malabar placed their Lord in this place. There is Goddess kali with krishna in this temple.

Sivankunnu Temple[edit]

This temple of Shiva, situated at a great height, is almost as old as the one at the confluence. Sangharakshita mentions this place too in his book. It has almost 108 steps

Ramakrishna Math[edit]

This Math is known locally for long as Sri Ramakrishna Ashrama. It is situated on a little hillock called Ashramam Kunnu and was founded in 1931 on behalf of Ramakrishna Mission by Swami Nirmalananda who was one of the Direct Disciples of Ramakrishna Paramahamsa. Though some renovation work was done between 2006 to 2008, this Math still exudes an old world charm. This Math has paid host to a number of noted monks of the Ramakrishna Mission starting with Swami Nirmalananda. They include Swami Niranjanananda (Junior), Swami Sailajananda (both disciples of Swami Nirmalananda) and others. Swami Chitswarupananda (1948–78) and Swami Purushottamananda (1978–1997) managed the Ashrama as instructed by Ramakrishna Mission. Here stayed and worked for about fifteen months in 1947-48, the future Sangharakshita and Buddharakshita as Angarika Dharmapriya and Angarika Satyapriya. In his books `Thousand Petalled Lotus: The Indian Journey of an English Buddhist' and `The Rainbow Road' (both having many common chapters) - Sangharakshita devotes three very informative chapters to the sights he saw and experienced here. This began as a branch of Tiruvalla centre of Ramakrishna Mission and at present is a sub-center of Ramakrishna Math, Belur Math under the direct administrative control of its branch center at Kalady[18][19][20][21][22][23]

Churches[edit]

Marth Mariam Syrian Catholic (Syro-Malabar) Forane Church in Arakuzha

Muvattupuzha is a major center for Syrian Christians (commonly known as Nasrani) in Kerala. Syrian Christians of Muvattupuzha include Syro-Malabar Catholic, Syro-Malankara Catholic, Jacobite and Malankara Orthodox. Important churches in the region are:

Holy Magi Syro-Malabar Catholic Forane Church[edit]

Holy Magi Syro-Malabar Catholic Forane Church, a Syrian Catholic Church situated in the centre of the city. The Church is under the Syro-Malabar Catholic Diocese of Kothamangalam

The Syrian Church located at the Post Office Junction is known as Holy Magi Church. In the first quarter of 19th century, after circuit to the northern region, the King’s administrators were returning to south in ‘Manchal’ accompanied by the pedestrian forces. When they reached Muvattupuzha it was getting dark. They had to reach Koothattukulam, the nearby Inn for their stay. The team was upset due to lack of adequate lamps. Geevarghese achan of Arakuzha Pittapillil family helped them by arranging torches made of dried coconut leaves. As an expression of gratification for this, the ‘Adhikari’ recommended Achan to the king. Achan was invited to the palace and honoured with a ‘Vadi and Pidi’ (Stick with a Grip). Considering of goodwill of Achan, king allotted some land for the construction of a church. In July 27, 1820 the ancient form of the present church, a small chapel, came into existence.[citation needed] Apart from the native Christians who mainly hail from Arakuzha and Mylakompu foranes, who constitute majority of the laity, Syrian Christians from Kizhakkambalam,Palai, Mannathoor, Veliyannoor, Nediyasala and other places migrated to this land and a powerful Syrian Catholic community made its roots here.

St. Joseph's Syro-Malankara Catholic Cathedral[edit]

St. Joseph's Syro-Malankara Catholic Cathedral is the headquarters of the Syro-Malankara Catholic Diocese of Muvattupuzha.[24]

Marth Mariam Syro-Malabar Catholic Forane Church[edit]

Marth Mariam Syro-Malabar Catholic Forane Church is in Arakuzha village, 6 km from Muvattupuzha. It was erected in 999 A.D. [25]

Mosques[edit]

Education[edit]

Colleges in Muvattupuzha are affiliated to the Mahatma Gandhi University of Kottayam.

The Nirmala Group of Institutions includes

These are run by the Syrian Catholic Diocese of Kothamangalam. Nirmala College founded in 1953 by Mar Augustine Kandathil is the oldest college in the town.[28][29]

Other schools St. Augustines Girls Higher Secondary School

  • St. Thomas Public School
  • Vimelagiri International School
  • Presidency Central School
  • Ilahia Public School
  • Arafa Public School
  • Govt. Model HSS
  • Vivekanandha Vidyalaya

Ilahia College of Engineering and Technology and Ilahia Arts and Science College are colleges run by Ilahia Trust.[30][31] Town U.P. School is the oldest school in the town. St. Thomas Public School is the first CBSE school in Muvattupuzha. It was established in 1990. St. Augustines Girls Higher Secondary School at Muvattupuzha is the only girl’s high school here.

Transportation[edit]

KL-17 is the RTO code for Muvattupuzha taluka including Muvattupuzha town. Muvattupuzha KSRTC depot is located on MC Road towards south of the town. KSRTC operates few long distance services and mostly caters to the Ernakulam to Thodupuzha route. Private bus services run into several neighboring towns. Auto rickshaws are commonly used for small distances. Taxis are also available in plenty. The nearest railway station is Aluva 34 km away. The Cochin International Airport at Nedumbassery is 34 km away from the town.

Muvattupuzha town is a major junction for highways passing through the town. major highways are:

Muvattupuzha is surrounded by a few small, populous commuter villages, connected to the town by buses. The notable ones are Ayavana, Paipra, Avoly, Valakom, Cheruvattor, Mannoor, Marady etc. Vazhakulam town is one of the main interchange points for public transport.

Health[edit]

Major Hospitals in Muvattupuzha are Muvattupuzha Medical Center, Nirmala Medical Centre run by Franciscan Clarist Sisters under the Syrian Catholic Eparchy of Kothamangalam,[32][33] Nedumchalil Trust Hospital and Vallakalil Hospital apart from the Government District Hospital. It also has many homeopathic and ayurvedic clinics. Sabine Hospital and Research Centre is an advanced referral centre for infertility, laparoscopic surgeries, high risk pregnancy and neonatology run by Dr Sabine S, a renowned infertility specialist in Kerala.

The Referral Hospitals near to Muvattupuzha are Kolenchery Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church Medical College 13 km from the town, Medical Trust Hospital, Kochi 42 km from the town and AIMS, Ponekkara 40 km from the town. Kottayam Medical College lies 50 km from the town.

Economy[edit]

Ernakulam and Muvattupuzha are culturally and geographically different as Muvattupuzha taluk consists of midlands and highlands with agriculture and small-scale industries as its primary economic base, while Ernakulam has coastal regions for which fishing is an important industry. Muvattupuzha was an important commercial centre and a prominent town till about 1975. Two decades back a separate Muvattupuzha district was to be carved out of the districts Ernakulam, Idukki and Kottayam. Demand for Muvattupuzha District still exists. But the new district formation is not yet supported from Kerala government. The assumption of assimilating Northern Travancore region of Muvattupuzha, Kothamangalam to Kochi Urban limits may have prevented the Muvattupuzha district formation. Census of India, 2011 noted a new, separate and distinct urban agglomeration including parts of Muvattupuzha and Kothamangalam talukas.[34] Lately, Kerala Government is supporting and considering the formation of Muvattupuzha district; but faces opposition from a regional party Kerala Congress (M).But Muvattupuzha still is a town with its own history and old glory being a major city in the mid-kerala and the second biggest in the district[35]

Entertainment[edit]

Canton shopping mall is situated near 130 junction, Muvattupuzha. this mall contains a 2 screen 3D multiplex.[36]

Movie houses in the town[edit]

  • Issac's and Maria A/C[DTS] Theatre, 130th mile junction near to K.S.R.T.C Bus Stand.
  • EVM Latha Theatre A/C[DTS], after Latha Bridge, Thodupuzha road.
  • Vettukattil Movies A/C[DTS], Velloorkkunnam.

Many old theatres once famous in Muvattupuzha town was closed down. five decades back, Muvattupuzha boasted 5 theatres. Theatres which are closed:

  • Lakshmi theatre, Velloorkkunnam
  • Apsara theatre, market road
  • Sindhu theatre
  • Union theatre

Infrastructure[edit]

Muvattupuzha is a part of Central Kerala. It lies between Angamaly and Kottayam on the Main Central Road which runs along the length of the old Travancore, from Thiruvananthapuram to Angamaly. The first and second longest state highways of Kerala, Main Central Road (Angamaly - Thiruvananthapuram / SH-01 / 240 km) and Main Eastern Highway (Muvattupuzha - Punalur / SH-08 / 154 km), meet here. The Kochi - Madurai NH 49 passes through Muvattupuzha. The Muvattupuzha - Theni Highway (SH 43) starts at the Chalikkadavu Bridge and goes through Randattinkara, Kotta, Udumbannoor, Nedumkandam and Cumbum before ending at Theni. This is a shorter route to Madurai in neighbouring Tamil Nadu.[37] A bypass has been planned from Kadathy to Puthuppady to avoid traffic from the Kochi - Madurai NH 49 which is also the route to Munnar, a popular hill station.[citation needed] A bypass to Thodupuzha Road and MC Road is planned from Kadathi on NH49 via the proposed new bridge at Murikkallu.[38] Later the road will join MC Road towards Kottayam at Marady. A Muvattupuzha-Kakkanad-Palarivattom four-lane highway project is at discussion levels. Proposed route is via Vazhappilly, Pattimattom, Kizhakkambalam, Infopark to Reach Vyttila Central Bus Terminal in 30 minutes over 31 km.[39][40] Chalikkadavu bridge helps long distance travelers from being caught in traffic, particularly during the rush hour.[citation needed] The bypass will go through Kizhakkekara to Marady to link the SH-8 to Thodupuzha and to the MC Road.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Ernakulam, Kerala, India to Muvattupuzha, Kerala". Maps.google.com. 1970-01-01. Retrieved 2013-04-16. 
  2. ^ http://inorite.wordpress.com/2010/04/04/the-rajahs-of-vadakkumkur/
  3. ^ http://www.muvattupuzha.com/religion.htm
  4. ^ K. M. Mathew, ed. (2006). Manorama Year Book. Malayala Manorama. p. 116. 
  5. ^ http://nasrani.net/2007/01/16/ancient-stone-crosses-of-kerala-saint-thomas-cross-nazraney-sthambams-persian-crosses/
  6. ^ Arakuzha Church
  7. ^ "Assembly Constituencies - Corresponding Districts and Parliamentary Constituencies" (PDF). Kerala. Election Commission of India. Retrieved 2008-10-19. 
  8. ^ "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01. 
  9. ^ http://www.vijayapuramdiocese.org/vijayapuram_diocese_parishesmore.php?id=50
  10. ^ http://www.ekm.kerala.gov.in/physio.htm
  11. ^ http://www.southdreamz.com/tourisum/kerala-cities/thodupuzha
  12. ^ http://idukki.nic.in/formation.htm
  13. ^ http://www.zonkerala.com/tourism/Idukki-6/
  14. ^ http://wikimapia.org/#lat=9.9642857&lon=76.5966797&z=13&l=0&m=t
  15. ^ http://www.metrovaartha.com/2008/12/31142059/muvattupuzha-bridge.html
  16. ^ "Kinfra park at Nellad fully occupied". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 2007-11-13. 
  17. ^ Payyappilly Palakkappilly Varghese Kathanar
  18. ^ Annual General Reports of the Ramakrishna Mission issued by the General Secretary since the year 2006
  19. ^ Swami Nirmalananda - His Life and Teachings by Swami Vishadananda and others
  20. ^ http://www.vivekananda.net/PDFBooks/Nirmalananda.pdf
  21. ^ http://www.sangharakshita.org/bookshelf/rainbow-road.pdf
  22. ^ The Rainbow Road - by Sangharakshita (Dennis Philip Edward Lingwood)
  23. ^ Thousand-Petalled Lotus by Sangharakshita
  24. ^ http://www.muvattupuzhadiocese.com
  25. ^ http://www.smcim.org/church/arakuzha/article/391
  26. ^ http://www.cmjmasjid.org/about.php
  27. ^ http://nirmalapbs.org/
  28. ^ Nirmala College
  29. ^ Mar Augustine Kandathil
  30. ^ * Ilahia College of Arts and Science
  31. ^ * Ilahia College of Engineering and Technology
  32. ^ Nirmala Medical Centre
  33. ^ Franciscan Clarist Sisters
  34. ^ http://www.censusindia.gov.in/2011-prov-results/data_files/kerala/Final_Kerala_Paper_1_Pdf.pdf
  35. ^ http://www.khaleejtimes.com/displayarticle.asp?xfile=data/international/2012/January/international_January1047.xml&section=international&col=
  36. ^ http://www.cinepoint.in/
  37. ^ http://www.metrovaartha.com/2009/01/09150145/MUVATTUPUZHATHENIROAD.html
  38. ^ http://www.mathrubhumi.com/localnews/story.php?id=151874&v_id=73
  39. ^ http://www.metrovaartha.com/2009/09/05092203/four-line-road.html
  40. ^ http://forum.skyscraperpage.com/showpost.php?s=01f8717204b946b43560c3c84e092206&p=4446928&postcount=3857
  1. Syne International Film Festival, Muvattupuzha
  2. Kerala PWD
  3. Statehighways in Yahoo Maps
  4. State Highway list

External links[edit]