Sisak

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For the Romanian village of Şuşca, called Sisak in Hungarian, see Pojejena.
For the legendary figure in Armenian history, see Sisak (eponym).
Grad Sisak
City of Sisak
City
Top left:Sisak Fortress and Kupa River, Top right:Sisak High School (Gimnazija Sisak) in Hrvatskih area, Middle left:A monument of Antum Gustav Matos, Middle right:Large Chapter House and Sisak Cathedral, Bottom left:Holland Storehouse (Holandska Kuca), Bottom right:Sisak Postrojenja Refinert in Rimska
Top left:Sisak Fortress and Kupa River, Top right:Sisak High School (Gimnazija Sisak) in Hrvatskih area, Middle left:A monument of Antum Gustav Matos, Middle right:Large Chapter House and Sisak Cathedral, Bottom left:Holland Storehouse (Holandska Kuca), Bottom right:Sisak Postrojenja Refinert in Rimska
Flag of Grad Sisak
Flag
Map of Sisak within Sisak-Moslavina County
Map of Sisak within Sisak-Moslavina County
Grad Sisak is located in Croatia
Grad Sisak
Grad Sisak
Location of Sisak within Croatia
Coordinates: 45°29′N 16°22′E / 45.483°N 16.367°E / 45.483; 16.367
Country Croatia
County Sisak-Moslavina County
Government
 • Mayor Kristina Ikić Baniček[1] (SDP)
Area
 • City 422.75 km2 (163.22 sq mi)
 • Metro 989.50 km2 (382.05 sq mi)
Elevation 98 m (321.52 ft)
Population (2011)[2]
 • City 47,768
 • Density 110/km2 (290/sq mi)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 44000
Area code(s) 044
Patron saints Quirinus of Sescia
Website http://www.sisak.hr/
Vetriano coin struck at Siscia mint in 350.

Sisak (pronounced [sǐːsak]) is a city in central Croatia located at the confluence of the Kupa, Sava, and Odra rivers, 57 km (35 mi) southeast of the Croatian capital Zagreb. The city's total population in 2011 was 47,768 of which 33,322 live in the urban settlement (naselje).[3]

Sisak is the administrative centre of the Sisak-Moslavina county, Croatia's biggest river port and a centre of river shipping industry (Dunavski Lloyd). It lies on the main road Zagreb-Hrvatski Sisak-Petrinja (M12.2) and the railroad Zagreb-Sisak-Sunja. Sisak is a regional economic, cultural and historical center. The largest oil refinery in Croatia is located here.[4]

Name[edit]

Prior to the invasion by the Roman Empire, the region was Celtic and Illyrian and the city there was named Segestica.[5]

In German the town is known as Sissek, in Hungarian as Sziszek, Latin as Siscia, in Serbian Cyrillic as Сисак, and in Slovene as Sisek

Geography[edit]

Sisak is usually considered to be where the Posavina (Sava basin) begins, with an elevation of 99 m.

History[edit]

Sisak Fortress

The long history of urban life here (around 2,500 years) as well the extremely favourable position on the confluence of three rivers (the Sava, the Kupa and the Odra), have made Sisak an important town in the history of Croatia.

During the Roman Empire when Sisak was known as Siscia, a Roman mint in the city produced coins under a series of emperors between 262 and 383 CE.[6] It was in this period that the Christian martyr Quirinus of Sescia was tortured and nearly killed during Diocletian's persecution of Christians. Legend has it that they tied him to a millstone and threw him into a river, but he freed himself from the weight, escaped and continued to preach his faith. Today he is the patron saint of Sisak.

Braslav of Pannonian Croatia reigned from Sisak until this last bastion of the Pannonian Croats was invaded.[7] According to Historia Salonitana maior, Duke Tomislav reclaimed it soon after.[8][9]

The 16th century triangular fortress of the Old Town, well-preserved and turned into the Native Museum, is the main destination of every tourist. The fortress is famous for the victory of the joint forces of Croats and Carniolans (Slovenes) over the Turks in 1593, known as the Battle of Sisak. It was one of the early significant defeats of the up-to-then invincible Turkish army on European territory. The Croatian Ban Toma Bakač Erdedi who led the defense in this battle became famous throughout Europe.

The Baroque palace of Mali Kaptol, the classicist Veliki Kaptol, the brick Stari most ("Old Bridge") over the Kupa, and the ethnological park are the most frequently visited landmarks.

In the late 19th and early 20th century, Sisak was a district capital in the Zagreb County of the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia.

From 1929 to 1939, Sisak was part of the Sava Banovina and from 1939 to 1941 of the Banovina of Croatia within the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.

During World War II, Sisak was the site of the Sisak Children's Concentration Camp which was part of the large Jasenovac cluster. Sisak Synagogue, built in 1880, today serves as a music school.

Sisak Old Bridge (Sisak Stari Most) in Zitna Street

Sisak suffered much damage during the Croatian War of Independence starting in 1991. While Sisak remained within Croatian hands, the territory immediately south of the city was controlled by Serbs, who often shelled the city indiscriminately, causing many civilian casualties. The threat to Sisak was removed in 1995 following Operation Storm. Between 1991 and 1992, 24 Serb civilians were murdered in Sisak.[10]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
of Sisak
Year Pop. ±%
1857 15,738 —    
1869 18,669 +18.6%
1880 20,433 +9.4%
1890 22,829 +11.7%
1900 24,277 +6.3%
1910 26,014 +7.2%
1921 26,234 +0.8%
1931 28,799 +9.8%
1948 28,893 +0.3%
1953 34,776 +20.4%
1961 43,382 +24.7%
1971 55,095 +27.0%
1981 59,812 +8.6%
1991 61,413 +2.7%
2001 52,236 −14.9%
2011 47,768 −8.6%
Source: Naselja i stanovništvo Republike Hrvatske 1857–2001, DZS, Zagreb, 2005 & Popis stanovništva 2011

The city administrative area is composed of the following settlements:[2]

In the 2011 census, of the total population of 47,768 there were 40,590 Croats (84.97%), 3,071 Serbs (6.43%), 1,646 Bosniaks (3.45%), 648 Romani (1.36%), 179 Albanians (0.37%), 29 Montenegrins (0.06%), and the rest were other ethnicities.

In the 2011 census, the population by religion was 37,319 Roman Catholics (78.13%), 3,279 Orthodox Christians (6.86%), 2,442 Muslims (5.11%), and others.

Education[edit]

The city hosts University of Zagreb's Faculty of Metallurgy.

Miscellaneous[edit]

Chief occupations are farming, ferrous metallurgy (iron works), chemicals, leather (footwear), textiles and food processing plants (dairy products, alcoholic beverages), building material, crude oil refinery, and thermal power.

Sisak features the largest Croatian metallurgic factory and the largest oil refinery in Croatia

Sisak has many rich mineral springs (spas) with healing properties in the temperature range from 42 to 54 °C (108 to 129 °F).

Sports and recreation facilities in the town and the surroundings include mainly the waters and alluvial plains a public beach on the Kupa. All rivers (Kupa, Odra, Sava) with their backwaters offer fishing opportunities. There are hunting grounds in the regions of Turopolje and Posavina. Sisak is the starting point for sightseeing tours into Lonjsko Polje (Field of Lonja river) nature park.

The local football club is HNK Segesta.

Sisak features the oldest ice hockey club in Croatia, KHL Sisak est. 1934

Sisak is a popular destination in the summer and many people from the surrounding cities visit the cafés situated along the river Kupa. As of recently, numerous clubs have opened and their popularity has been bolstered through nights sponsored by various beer manufacturers.

International relations[edit]

Twin towns — Sister cities[edit]

Sisak is twinned with:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Cresswell, Peterjon; Atkins, Ismay; Dunn, Lily (10 July 2006). Time Out Croatia (First ed.). London, Berkeley & Toronto: Time Out Group Ltd & Ebury Publishing, Random House Ltd. 20 Vauxhall Bridge Road, London SV1V 2SA. ISBN 978-1-904978-70-1. Retrieved 10 March 2010. 

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.izbori.hr/2013Lokalni/rezult/krug-2/rezultati.html
  2. ^ a b "Enumerated persons, households and housing units, 2011 census". Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2011. Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics. December 2012. Retrieved 2013-06-17. 
  3. ^ http://www.dzs.hr/Hrv/censuses/census2011/results/htm/H01_01_01/h01_01_01_zup03_3913.html
  4. ^ http://www.mol.hu/en/business_centre/refining_marketing/refining/
  5. ^ John T. Koch (2006). Celtic Culture. p. 1662. ISBN 1-85109-440-7. 
  6. ^ http://finds.org.uk/romancoins/mints/mint/id/197, accessed 2013-03-28
  7. ^ John Van Antwerp Fine, John V. A. Fine, Jr. (2006). When Ethnicity Did Not Matter in the Balkans. University of Michigan Press. p. 28. ISBN 0-472-11414-X. 
  8. ^ John Van Antwerp Fine, John V. A. Fine, Jr. (2006). When Ethnicity Did Not Matter in the Balkans. University of Michigan Press. p. 178. ISBN 0-472-11414-X. 
  9. ^ Stanko Guldescu (1964). History of Medieval Croatia. Mouton. p. 113. 
  10. ^ "Presuda za ubistva" (in Serbian). B92. 2011-02-07. 
  11. ^ "Twin Towns". gabrovo.bg. Retrieved 27 April 2014. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 45°28′N 16°23′E / 45.467°N 16.383°E / 45.467; 16.383