Serbs of Croatia
|Serbian Orthodox Church|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Other South Slavs|
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Serbs of Croatia (or Croatian Serbs) constitute the largest national minority in Croatia. There has been a substantial Serbian population in Croatia since the Middle Ages, although the population has been declining. From 1991 to 1995, during the War in Croatia, there existed a de facto independent state Republic of Serbian Krajina which included various territories in Croatia where Serbs were the majority population.
- 1 History
- 2 Demographics
- 3 Culture
- 4 Politics
- 5 Notable people
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
According to the 10th-century Byzantine work De Administrando Imperio written by Constantine Porphyrogenitos the Serbs settled in parts of modern-day Croatia during the rule of Heraclius (610–626) and soon formed a Serbian state which stretched across parts of modern-day Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro and Serbia. The Županates/Župania, of Pagania, Zachumlia and Travunia (which encompassed Dalmatia, roughly south of modern Split) were inhabited by Serbs.
"From Ragusa begins the domain of the Zachlumi (Ζαχλοῦμοι) and stretches along as far as the river Orontius; and on the side of the coast it is neighbour to the Pagani, but on the side of the mountain country it is neighbour to the Croats on the north and to Serbia at the front. [...] The Zahumljani (Захумљани) that now live there are Serbs, originating from the time of the prince (archont) who fled to emperor Heraclius [...] The land of the Zahumljani comprise the following cities: Ston (το Σταγνον / to Stagnon), Mokriskik (το Μοκρισκικ), Josli (το Ιοσλε / to Iosle), Galumainik (το Γαλυμαενικ / to Galumaenik), Dobriskik (το Δοβρισκικ / to Dovriskik)"
Višeslav of Serbia, a contemporary of Charlemagne (fl. 768-814), ruled the Županias of Neretva, Tara, Piva, Lim, his ancestral lands. According to the Royal Frankish Annals (821–822), Duke of Pannonia Ljudevit Posavski fled, during the Frankish invasion, from his seat in Sisak to the Serbs in western Bosnia, who controlled a great part of Dalmatia ("Sorabos, quae natio magnam Dalmatiae partem obtinere dicitur"). The event would have taken place during the rule of either Radoslav or his son, Prosigoj. In the 880s, the Serb Prince Mutimir exiled his two brothers due to treachery, but kept his nephew Petar at the court. Petar later fled to the Croatian principality. When Mutimir's son Pribislav had ruled for a year, Petar returned and defeated him, making him flee with his brothers Bran and Stefan to Croatia. In 894 Bran returned but was defeated and blinded. Pavle, the son of Bran, later returned and defeated Pavle with Bulgarian aid.
In 1222, the King of Serbia Stefan Prvovenčani gifted Mljet, Babino Polje, the Saint Vid church on Korčula, Janin and Popova Luka and churches of St. Stephen and St. George, to a Benedictine monastery on Mljet.
The first Serbian Orthodox monastery in Croatia, Krupa, was built in 1317 by Stephen Uroš II Milutin of Serbia, other medieval monuments include Krka (before 1345) and Dragović (late 14th century). Many monasteries and churches were damaged in the War in Croatia. In 1333 the Republic of Ragusa bought the Pelješac peninsula and the coast land between Ston and Dubrovnik from Serbian King Stefan Dušan, the Ragusans promised freedom of religion to the Orthodox Serbs.
In the 14th century, Dalmatian documents mention Morlachs for the first time. In August 1417, Venetian authorities were concerned by the "Morlachs and other Slavs" from the hinterland, that were a threat to security in Sibenik.
Members of the Orlović Serb clan settled in Lika and Senj in 1432, they later joined the Uskoks. In 1436, Serbs appeared at the Cetina river in the realm of Ivan Frankopan, he gave them the same privileges as his predecessors had.
Ottoman conquest and Habsburg Empire
As many former inhabitants of the Austrian-Ottoman borderland fled northwards or were captured by the Ottoman invaders, they left unpopulated areas. The Austrian Empire encouraged people, mostly Orthodox Serbs, and also Vlachs, from the Ottoman Empire, to settle as free peasant soldiers, establishing the Military Frontiers (Militärgrenze) in 1522 (hence they were known as Grenzers, Krajišnici). The militarized frontier would serve as a buffer against Ottoman incursions. The Military frontiers had territory of modern Croatia, Serbia, Romania and Hungary. The colonists were granted small tracts of land, exempted from some obligations, and were to retain a share of all war booty. The Grenzers elected their own captains (vojvode) and magistrates (knezovi). All Orthodox settlers were promised freedom of worship. By 1538, the Croatian and Slavonian Military Frontier were established. Serbs acted as the cordon sanitaire against Turkish incursions from the Ottoman Empire. The Military frontiers are virtually identical to the present Serbian settlements (war-time Republic of Serbian Krajina).
According to Croatian writer Branimir Anzulovic, native Vlachs of Croatia adopted the Croatian language prior to the Ottoman conquest, but still identified themselves as Vlachs, and the places with Vlach majority enjoyed privileges under the Statuta Valachorum.[better source needed] Catholic Vlachs were assimilated into Croats, while the Orthodox, under the Serbian Orthodox Church, identified with Serbs. Anzulovic claims that the serbianized Vlachs became the bulk of the Serbian population in Croatia.[better source needed] According to David Kideckeln, majority of the population of the Croatian Military Frontier were Orthodox Vlachs, originating from Southern and Central Balkans, who, under assimilation, spoke South Slavic language.
In 1593, Provveditore Generale Cristoforo Valier, mentions three nations constituting the Uskoks; "natives of Senj, Croatians, and Morlachs from the Turkish parts". Many of the Uskoks, who fought a guerrilla war with the Ottoman Empire were ethnic Serbs (Serbian Orthodox Christian) who fled from Ottoman Turkish rule and settled in Bela Krajina and Zumberak.
Stojan Janković (1636–1687), a notable general of the Dalmatian Serbs in Venetian service, was recorded by Cosmi, the Archbishop of Split (in the summer of 1685), as having brought 300 families with him to Dalmatia, and also that around Trogir and Split there were 5000 refugees from Turkish lands, without food - seen as a serious threat to the defense of Dalmatia. Grain sent by the Pope proved insufficient, and the Serbs were forced to launch expeditions into Turkish territory.
Venetian priest and writer Alberto Fortis mentions the "Morlachs in the Dalmatian hinterland" in his work Travels into Dalmatia, written in 1774. All chapters, except the Morlach "De' Costumi de' Morlacchi", were geographically divided, showing the anthropological status. He gave them the attributes of noble savagery. Edward Gibbon, however, called them "barbarians", and "a race of ferocious men, unreasonable, without humanity, capable of any misdeed", in his 1776 work. Fortis gave a sympathetic anthropological view of "barbarous" customs in Dalmatia, while Gibbon possibly found the presence of barbarians distasteful. Ivan Lovrić (died 1777), a Venetian Croat ethnographer from Sinj that wrote Observations on 'Travels in Dalmatia' of Abbot Alberto Fortis, said that the Morlachs were Slavs who spoke better Slavic than the Ragusians (owing to the growing Italianization of the Dalmatian coast). Croatian Boško Desnica (1886–1945), after analysing Venetian papers, concluded that the language of the Morlachs is always mentioned as "Servian". Furthermore, Lucius Ferraris (died 1763) had recorded that Vlachs had a negative connotation to Slavs, at it meant the lowest of status. Tihomir Đorđević points to the already known fact that the name 'Vlach' didn't only refer to genuine Vlachs or Serbs but also to cattle breeders in general. A letter of Emperor Ferdinand, sent on November 6, 1538, to Croatian ban Petar Keglević, in which he wrote "Captains and dukes of the Rasians, or the Serbs, or the Vlachs, who usually call themselves the Serbs". The Military Border was returned in 1881 to the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia. In 1918, it became part of the State of Slovenes, Croats, and Serbs, which immediately joined the Kingdom of Serbia to form the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.
World War II
Following the Invasion of Yugoslavia in April 1941 Axis powers occupied the entire territory of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. On the territory of the present-day Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia a puppet state called the Independent State of Croatia (NDH) was created, led by the Ustaše, a fascist Croatian movement.
The Ustaše government saw Serbs as "disrupting element" and immediately embarked on program of ethnic clensing and genocide. They went on to create concentration camps in which Serbs, Jews, Gypsies, anti-fascist Croats and homosexuals perished in large numbers, the most notorious of which was the Jasenovac concentration camp. According to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum between 320,000 and 340,000 Serbs were killed by the Ustaše or their allies during WWII.
The main paramilitary force Serbs of Croatia were involved with was the Chetniks. In March 1942 the Chetniks formed the Dinara Division, led by Orthodox priest Momčilo Đujić. This unit had a program to create Greater Serbia with a corridor between Herzegovina, northern Dalmatia and Bosnia, Lika to Slavonia. During the war, this division was involved in ethnic cleansing of this area. Chetniks in Croatia collaborated with fascist Italy to achieve their goals.
Serbs in Croatia during the period of Socialist Yugoslavia were greatly overrepresented in government, economy and police. Although making up 11.5% of total population, in 1984, Serbs made up 49.9% of Croatian police, with many of other ethnic Serbs declaring themselves as "Yugoslavs".
War in Croatia
Amid political changes during the breakup of Yugoslavia and following the Croatian Democratic Union's victory in the 1990 general election, the Parliament of Croatia ratified a new constitution in December 1990 which changed the status of Serbs from a constitutional nation to a national minority, listed with other minorities. A majority of Serb politicians have misread this as taking away some of the rights from the Serbs granted by the previous Socialist constitution, because the Constitution of SR Croatia treated solely Croats as a constitutive nation. Croatia was the "national state" for Croats, "state" for Serbs and other minorities.
The percentage of those declaring themselves as Serbs, according to the 1991 census, was 12.2% (78.1% of the population declared itself to be Croat). Today a majority of Serbs are able to return to Croatia legally. However, in reality a majority of Serbs who left during organized evacuation (citing: see section "Literature") in 1995 choose to remain citizens of other countries in which they gained citizenship. Consequently, today Serbs constitute 4% of Croatian population, down from the prewar population of 12%.
Before the Croatian War of Independence, part of the Croatian Serbs rebelled ("balvan revolucija") and led a military campaign against the Croatian state, creating an unrecognized state called Republic of Serbian Krajina in hopes of achieving independence, international recognition, and complete self-governance from the government of Croatia. Rebellion was allegedly incited from Serbia. As the popularity of the unification of Serbian people into a Greater Serbia with Serbia proper increased, the rebellion against the Croatian rule also increased. Some Serb politicians from Croatia sought a peaceful solution. Some of them organized Serb parties in the Croatian government-controlled areas, like Milan Đukić; some of them (Veljko Džakula) unsuccessfully tried to organize the parties in the rebelled areas, but their work was prevented by Serb warmongers.
The Republic of Krajina had de facto control over one third of Croatian territory during its existence between 1991 to 1995 but failed to gain international recognition.
The war ended with a military success of the Croatian government in 1995 and subsequent peaceful reintegration of the remaining renegade territory in eastern Slavonia in 1998 as a result of the signed Erdut Agreement from 1995. Local Serbs are, on the ground that Agreement, established the Serb National Council and gained the right to establish the Joint Council of Municipalities.
The exodus of Serbs in 1995 was prompted by the advance of the Croatian troops, but was mostly self-organized rather than forced. All Serbs were officially called upon to stay in Croatia shortly before the operation. Many Croat refugees moved to homes abandoned by Serbs during Operation Storm, ostensibly because their homes were destroyed by the Serbs. At the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia at The Hague, Milan Babić was indicted, pleaded guilty and was convicted for "persecutions on political, racial and religious grounds, a crime against humanity". Babić stated during his trial that "during the events, and in particular at the beginning of his political career, he was strongly influenced and misled by Serbian propaganda".
Tension amd violence between Serbs and Croats has reduced since 2000 and has remained low to this day, however, significant problems remain. The participation of the largest Serb party SDSS in the Croatian Government of Ivo Sanader has eased tensions to an extent, but the refugee situation is still politically sensitive. The main issue is high-level official and social discrimination against the Serbs. At the height levels of the government, new laws are continuously being introduced in order to combat this discrimination, thus, demonstrating an effort on the part of government. For example, lengthy and in some cases unfair proceedings, particularly in lower level courts, remain a major problem for Serbian returnees pursuing their rights in court. In addition, Serbs continue to be discriminated against in access to employment and in realizing other economic and social rights. Also some cases of violence and harassment against Croatian Serbs continue to be reported.
The property laws allegedly favor Bosnian Croats refugees who took residence in houses that were left unoccupied and unguarded by Serbs after Operation Storm. Amnesty International's 2005 report considers one of the greatest obstacles to the return of thousands of Croatian Serbs has been the failure of the Croatian authorities to provide adequate housing solutions to Croatian Serbs who were stripped of their occupancy rights, including where possible by reinstating occupancy rights to those who had been affected by their discriminatory termination.
The European Court of Human Rights decided against Croatian Serb Kristina Blečić, stripped her of occupancy rights after leaving his house in 1991 in Zadar. In 2009, the UN Human Rights Committee found a wartime termination of occupancy rights of a Serbian family to violate ICCPR. In 2010, the European Committee on Social Rights found the treatment of Serbs in Croatia in respect of housing to be discriminatory and too slow, thus in violation of Croatia's obligations under the European Social Charter.
According to the 2011 census there were 186,633 ethnic Serbs living in Croatia, 4.4% of the total population. Their number was reduced by more than two thirds in the aftermath of the 1991–95 War in Croatia as the 1991 pre-war census had reported 581,663 Serbs living in Croatia, 12.2% of the total population.
Counties with significant Serbian minority (10% or more):
Cities with significant Serbian minority (10% or more):
- Vrbovsko (1,788 or 35.22%)
- Vukovar (9,654 or 34.87%)
- Obrovac (1,359 or 31.44%)
- Glina (2,549 or 27.46%)
- Beli Manastir (2,572 or 25.55%)
- Hrvatska Kostajnica (690 or 25.04%)
- Knin (3,551 or 23.05%)
- Skradin (679 or 17.75%)
- Ogulin (2,466 or 17.72%)
- Pakrac (1,340 or 15.84%)
- Lipik (860 or 13.94%)
- Benkovac (1,519 or 13.78%)
- Daruvar (1,429 or 12.28%)
- Petrinja (2,710 or 10.98%)
- Slunj (534 or 10.52%)
- Garešnica (1,062 or 10.14%)
Municipalities with significant Serbian minority (10% or more):
- Ervenik (1,074 or 97.19%)
- Negoslavci (1,417 or 96.86%)
- Markušica (2,302 or 90.10%)
- Trpinja (5,001 or 89.75%)
- Borovo (4,537 or 89.73%)
- Biskupija (1,452 or 85.46%)
- Šodolovci (1,365 or 82.58%)
- Donji Lapac (1,704 or 80.64%)
- Vrhovine (1,108 or 80.23%)
- Civljane (188 or 78.66%)
- Dvor (4,005 or 71.90%)
- Krnjak (1,362 or 68.61%)
- Vrginmost (1,976 or 66.53%)
- Jagodnjak (1,333 or 65.89%)
- Kistanje (2,166 or 62.22%)
- Erdut (3,987 or 54.56%)
- Udbina (958 or 51.12%)
- Plaški (952 or 45.55%)
- Gračac (2,118 or 45.16%)
- Vojnić (2,130 or 44.71%)
- Donji Kukuruzari (569 or 34.82%)
- Topusko (893 or 29.92%)
- Majur (323 or 27.26%)
- Plitvička Jezera (1,184 or 27.08%)
- Darda (1,603 or 23.20%)
- Sunja (1,280 or 22.27%)
- Stari Jankovci (952 or 21.61%)
- Saborsko (136 or 21.52%)
- Okučani (716 or 20.77%)
- Dragalić (243 or 17.85%)
- Kneževi Vinogradi (815 or 17.66%)
- Popovac (355 or 17.03%)
- Viljevo (340 or 16.46%)
- Rasinja (533 or 16.31%)
- Podgorač (466 or 16.20%)
- Lovinac (162 or 16.09%)
- Stara Gradiška (197 or 14.45%)
- Nova Bukovica (245 or 13.83%)
- Sirač (300 or 13.53%)
- Đulovac (427 or 13.16%)
- Velika Pisanica (231 or 12.97%)
- Sokolovac (440 or 12.88%)
- Levanjska Varoš (153 or 12.81%)
- Lišane Ostrovičke (87 or 12.46%)
- Barilovići (354 or 11.84%)
- Lasinja (192 or 11.82%)
- Dežanovac (318 or 11.71%)
- Suhopolje (763 or 11.42%)
- Nijemci (515 or 10.95%)
- Tompojevci (164 or 10.48%)
- Polača (153 or 10.42%)
- Magadenovac (195 or 10.07%)
Serbs in Croatia have cultural traditions ranging from kolo dances and singing, which are kept alive today by performances by various folklore groups.
Serbs of Croatia are Serbian Orthodox. There are many Orthodox monasteries across Croatia, built since the 14th century. Most notable and historically significant are the Krka monastery, Krupa monastery, Dragović monastery, Lepavina Monastery and Gomirje monastery. Many Orthodox churches were demolished during World War II and Yugoslav war, while some were rebuilt by the EU fundings, Croatian government and Serbian diaspora donations.
In the 1560s a Serbian Orthodox bishop was installed in the Metropolitanate of Požega, seated in the monastery of Remeta. In the 17th century, the Eparchy of Marča was founded at Marča, in the Croatian frontier. These were part of the Serbian Orthodox Patriarchate of Peć, which was reestablished in 1557, and lasted under Ottoman governance until 1766. Other bishoprics were founded, although their approval by the Habsburgs hinged on the belief that they would facilitate the union of these Orthodox Christians with the Catholic Church, and in fact, many, including some Orthodox bishops, did unify with Rome.
Serbs in the Croatian Military Frontier were out of the jurisdiction of the Serbian Patriarchate of Peć and in 1611, and after demands from the community, the Pope established the Eparchy of Marča (Vratanija) with seat at the Serbian-built Marča Monastery, with a Byzantine vicar instated as bishop sub-ordinate to the Roman Catholic bishop of Zagreb - working to bring Serbian Orthodox Christians into communion with Rome, which caused struggle of power between the Catholics and the Serbs over the region.
In 1695 Orthodox Eparchy of Lika-Krbava and Zrinopolje was established by metropolitan Atanasije Ljubojević and certified by Emperor Josef I in 1707. In 1735 the Serbian Orthodox protested in the Marča Monastery and became part of the Serbian Orthodox Church until 1753 when the Pope restored the Roman Catholic clergy. On June 17, 1777 the Eparchy of Križevci was permanently established by Pope Pius VI with its Episcopal see at Križevci, near Zagreb, thus forming the Croatian Greek Catholic Church which would after World War I include other people; the Rusyns and ethnic Ukrainians of Yugoslavia.
Serbian language is officially used in 23 cities and municipalities in Croatia.
The major Serb party in Croatia is the Independent Democratic Serb Party (SDSS). In the elections of 2007 and 2011, the SDSS has won all 3 Serbian seats in the parliament. In the Cabinet of Ivo Sanader II, the party was part of the ruling coalition led by the conservative Croatian Democratic Union, and SDSS member Slobodan Uzelac held the post of Deputy Prime Minister.
- Petar Bergamo (born 1930) - composer
- Arsen Dedić (born 1938) - singer-songwriter, musician, composer and a poet
- Vladan Desnica (1905–1967) - writer
- Vojin Jelić (1921–2004) - poet
- Simo Matavulj (1852–1908) - novelist
- Lukijan Mušicki (1777–1837) - notable Baroque poet, writer and polyglot
- Zaharije Orfelin (1726–1785) - 18th-century polymath
- Božidar Petranović (1809–1874) - author, scholar, and journalist
- Petar Preradović (1818–1872) - poet
- Josif Runjanin (1821–1878) - composer of the Croatian national anthem
- Rade Šerbedžija (born 1946) - film actor
- Slavko Štimac (born 1960) - film actor
- Konstantin Vojnović (1832–1903) politician, university professor and rector of the University of Zagreb
- Ivo Vojnović (1857–1929) - writer
- Toma Rosandić (1878–1958) - prominent sculptor
- Stana Katic (born 1978) - a Canadian film and television actress
- Nikodim Milaš (1845–1915) - bishop and perhaps the greatest Serbian expert on church law
- Nikola Tesla (1856–1943) - inventor, mechanical engineer, and electrical engineer
- Milutin Milanković (1879–1958) - geophysicist and civil engineer, best known for his theory of ice ages
- Jovan Karamata (1902–1967) - mathematician
- Mihailo Merćep (1864–1937) - notable cyclist and aviation pioneer
- Sima Ćirković (1929–2009) - historian
- Dejan Medaković (1922–2008) - historian and writer winner of the Herder Prize
- Sava Mrkalj (1783–1833) - linguist and poet
- Josif Pančić (1814–1888) - botanist who first described the Serbian Spruce
- Gajo Petrović (1927–1993) - philosopher
- Nikola Hajdin (1923) - construction engineer and President of SANU
- Siniša Mihajlović (born 1969) - Serbian football manager and former player
- Vladimir Beara (born 1928) - football player and manager
- Danijel Ljuboja - football player
- Predrag Stojaković (born 1977) - Serbian basketball player
- Ilija Petković (born 1945) - Serbian football manager, former Serbia national football team head coach and a former player
- Petar Trifunović - chess champion
- Kosta Perović - basketball player
- Zoran Erceg - basketball player
- Duško Savanović - basketball player
- Milan Mačvan - basketball player
- Božidar Maljković - basketball coach
- Jelena Dokić (born 1983) - Australian tennis player
- Jasna Šekarić (born 1965) - sports shooter, five-time Olympic medalist
- Vladimir Vujasinović (born 1973) - Serbian water polo player
- Beloš Vukanović (1110–1198) - Serbian prince, Ban of Croatia between 1142 and 1163
- Gerasim Zelić (1752–1838)- Serbian Orthodox archimandrite, traveler, and writer
- Svetozar Boroević (1856–1920) - Austro-Hungarian Field Marshal
- Momčilo Đujić (1907–1999) - Commander in the WWII Chetnik movement
- Stevan Šupljikac (1786–1848) was a voivode (military commander) and the first Duke of the Serbian Vojvodina
- Stjepan Jovanović (1828–1885) - notable military commander of Austrian Empire
- Rade Končar (1911–1942) - communist leader and legendary WWII resistance fighter
- Boško Buha (1926–1943) - WWII resistance fighter
- Mile Mrkšić (born 1947) - army colonel of the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) involved in the 1991 Battle of Vukovar
- Patriarch Pavle of Serbia (1914–2009) (born Gojko Stojčević) - former Patriarch of Serbia
- Svetozar Pribićević (1875–1936) - early 20th-century politician in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia
- Jovan Rašković (1929–1992) - politician who first called for a Serbian autonomy within Croatia in the 1990s
- Slavko Ćuruvija (1949–1999) - a journalist and newspaper publisher
- Josif Rajačić (1785–1861) - metropolitan of Sremski Karlovci, Serbian patriarch, administrator of Serbian Vojvodina and baron
- Jovo Stanisavljević Čaruga (1897–1925) - legendary outlaw in early 20th-century Slavonia
- Zdravko Ponoš (born 1962) a former chief of the general staff of the military of Serbia
- Mirko Marjanović (1937–2006) - a former Prime Minister of Serbia and a high-ranking official in Slobodan Milošević's Socialist Party of Serbia (SPS)
- Nada Dimić (1923-1942) - a Yugoslav communist and People's Hero of Yugoslavia.
- Serb National Council, elected body acting as a form of self-government and institution of cultural autonomy
- Joint Council of Municipalities
- Independent Democratic Serb Party
- Republic of Serbian Krajina
- Prosvjeta, Croatian Serb Cultural Society
- Serbian Orthodox Secondary School in Zagreb
- Novosti (Croatia)
- Radio Borovo
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- (Croatian) Dunja Bonacci Skenderović i Mario Jareb: Hrvatski nacionalni simboli između stereotipa i istine, Časopis za suvremenu povijest, y. 36, br. 2, p. 731.-760., 2004
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- Barić, Nikica: Srpska pobuna u Hrvatskoj 1990.-1995., Golden marketing. Tehnička knjiga, Zagreb, 2005
- Drago Kovačević, "Kavez - Krajina u dogovorenom ratu", Beograd 2003., p. 93.-94
- Milisav Sekulić, "Knin je pao u Beogradu", Bad Vilbel 2001., p. 171.-246., p. 179 
- Marko Vrcelj, "Rat za Srpsku Krajinu 1991-95", Beograd 2002., p. 212.-222.
- 13 mei 2007. "RSK Evacuation Practise one month before Operation Storm". Nl.youtube.com. Retrieved 2010-02-07.
- (Croatian) Croatian Iuridic Portal Đakula prvi svjedočio protiv Martića
- "FACTBOX - Brief history of Croatia's rebel Serb Krajina region". Reuters. 11 March 2008.[dead link]
- "Croatia". Hrw.org. Retrieved 2012-11-17.
- ICTY (2004). "Judgement in the Case the Prosecutor v. Milan Babic". Archived from the original on 2007-07-17. Retrieved 2006-03-07.
- ICTY (6 November 2003). "Indictment". Retrieved 21 August 2012.
- "Sentencing judgement". 29 June 2004. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
- "Croatia: Operation "Storm" - still no justice ten years on". Amnesty International. 2005-08-04. Retrieved 2012-08-21.
- "Croatia: European Court of Human Rights to consider important case for refugee returns" (Press release). Amnesty International. 2005-09-14. Retrieved 2008-09-16.[dead link]
- "Amnesty International | Working to Protect Human Rights". Thereport.amnesty.org. 2011-08-11. Retrieved 2012-08-21.
- "Croatia - Amnesty International Report 2008". amnesty.org. Amnesty International. 2008. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
- Negativna presuda evropskog suda u slučaju Kristine Blečić iz Zadra[dead link]
- "Microsoft Word - croatia_t5_iccpr_1510_2006" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-11-17.
- "ECSR decision in case no 52/2008" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-11-17.
- PROMENE UDELA STANOVNIŠTVA HRVATSKE I SRPSKE NACIONALNE PRIPADNOSTI U REPUBLICI HRVATSKOJ PO GRADOVIMA I OPŠTINAMA NA OSNOVU REZULTATA POPISA IZ 1991. I 2001. GODINE (in Serbian). 2008. Retrieved 2013-07-12.
- Karoly Kocsis, Eszter Kocsis-Hodosi: Ethnic Geography of the Hungarian Minorities in the Carpathian Basin, Simon Publications LLC, 2001, p. 171
- Stanovništvo po narodnosti po popisu od 15. marta 1948. godine, Beograd 1954., p. 3 (Serbian)
- Popis stanovništva 1953. godine, p. 35 (Serbian)
- Population, households and dwellings census in 1961, National structure of population in FNR Yugoslavia, data on localities and ocmmunes, Vol. III, p. 12 (Serbian)
- "Serbian Orthodox Church History - St Michael Serbian Orthodox Church". Stmichael-soc.org. Retrieved 2012-08-21.
- Miller 1998, p. 13
- "Europska povelja o regionalnim ili manjinskim jezicima" (in Croatian). Ministry of Justice (Croatia). 2011-04-12. Retrieved 2012-02-08.
- "Pravo pripadnika nacionalnih manjina u Republici Hrvatskoj na zastupljenost u Hrvatskom saboru". Zakon o izborima zastupnika u Hrvatski sabor (in Croatian). Croatian Parliament. Retrieved 2011-12-29.
- "Episkop Lukijan Musicki". Eparhija-gornjokarlovacka.hr. Retrieved 2012-08-21.
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- "Krka časopis br. 6". Eparhija-dalmatinska.hr. Retrieved 2012-08-21.
- History of family Preradović from Gornja Krajina (Grubišno Polje etc) and their relation to the russian branch (general Nikolay Depreradovich etc), may be seen in the book published in Zagreb, Croatia in 1903, Znameniti Srbi XIX veka, year 2, 2, editor Andra Gavrilović, Zagreb 1903, p. 13. Also, book published in Belgrade in 1888, Milan Đ. Milićević, Pomenik znamenitih ljudi u srpskog naroda novijeg doba, p. 572. For the list of Preradovićs (Serbs) murderd in Jasenovac concentration camp of Independent State of Croatia (NDH) during World War II, including Preradovićs from Grubišno Polje, where father of Petar Preradović was born see (official in Croatia) Jasenovac Memorial site list of victims, where one could see a few Jovan Preradović, as was the name of Petar Preradović`s father (http://www.jusp-jasenovac.hr Spomen Područje Jasenovac), or names of 100 Preradovićs on the list of victims on the list of victims of Jasenovac Research Institute, New York, (https://cp13.heritagewebdesign.com/~lituchy/victim_search.php?field=&searchtype=contains)
- "Josip Runjanin". Moljac.hr. Retrieved 2012-11-17.
- http://www.arhiva.glas-javnosti.rs/arhiva/2005/04/29/srpski/K05042801.shtml Prota Sava Nakićenović, O hercegnovskim Vojnovićima, Dubrovnik 1910, http://www.srpsko-nasledje.co.rs/sr-c/1998/02/article-13.html Dragomir Acović, Heraldika i Srbi, Beograd 2008, p. 335, http://www.rastko.org.yu/rastko-ukr/istorija/2003-ns/dmartinovic.pdf, http://www.scindeks-clanci.nb.rs/data/pdf/0350-0861/2005/0350-08610553121C.pdf
- "Seeds of Truth". Stana Katic. Retrieved 2012-08-21.
- "Peja Stojakovic Biography". JockBio. 1977-06-09. Retrieved 2012-08-21.
- "de beste bron van informatie over jasnasekaric". jasnasekaric.com. Retrieved 2012-08-21.[dead link]
- "Biography of His Holiness Patriarch Pavle". Serbianorthodoxchurch.com. Retrieved 2012-08-21.
- "Svetozar Pribicevic (Yugoslavian politician) - Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2012-08-21.
- "Josif Rajacic". Ohiou.edu. 2004-10-25. Retrieved 2012-08-21.
- Bideleux, Robert; Jeffries, Ian (2006). The Balkans: A Post-Communist History. The Lord Byron Foundation for Balkan Studies. ISBN 9780415229623.
- Ilić, J. 2006, "The Serbs in Croatia before and after the break-up of Yugoslavia", Zbornik Matice srpske za društvene nauke, no. 120, pp. 253-270.
- Ivanović-Barišić, M.M. 2004, "Serbs in Croatia: Ethnological reflections", Teme, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 779-788.
- Stojanović, M. 2003-2004, "Serbs in Eastern Croatia", Glasnik Etnografskog muzeja u Beogradu, no. 67-68, pp. 387-390.
- Lajić, I.& Bara, M. 2010, "Effects of the war in Croatia 1991-1995 on changes in the share of ethnic Serbs in the ethnic composition of Slavonia", Stanovništvo, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 49-73.
- Berber, M., Grbić, B.& Pavkov, S. 2008, "Changes in the share of ethnic Croats and Serbs in Croatia by town and municipality based on the results of censuses from 1991 and 2001", Stanovništvo, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 23-62.
- Karl Freiherr von Czoernig: "Ethnographie der österreichischen Monarchie", Vol. II, III, Wien, 1857
- Development of Astronomy among Serbs II, Publications of the Astronomical Observatory of Belgrade, Belgrade: M. S. Dimitrijević, 2002.
- Vladimir Ćorović. Illustrated History of Serbs, Books 1 - 6. Belgrade: Politika and Narodna Knjiga, 2005
- Nicholas J. Miller. Between Nation and State: Serbian Politics in Croatia before the First World War, Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1997.
- OSCE Report on Croatian treatment of Serbs[dead link]
On medieval history:
- De Administrando Imperio by Constantine Porphyrogenitus, edited by Gy. Moravcsik and translated by R. J. H. Jenkins, Dumbarton Oaks Center for Byzantine Studies, Washington D. C., 1993
- Fine, John Van Antwerp (1991). The Early Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century. Michigan: The University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-08149-7.
- John V.A. Fine. (1994). The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest. The University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-08260-4
- Fine, John Van Antwerp (2006), When Ethnicity did not matter in the Balkans. A study of Identity in pre-Nationalist Croatia, Dalmatia and Slavonia in the Medieval and Early-Modern Periods, University of Michigan Press, ISBN 0-472-11414-X
- Ćorović, Vladimir, Istorija srpskog naroda, Book I, (In Serbian) Electric Book, Rastko Electronic Book, Antikvarneknjige (Cyrillic)
- Drugi Period, IV: Pokrštavanje Južnih Slovena
- Istorija Srpskog Naroda, Srbi između Vizantije, Hrvatske i Bugarske
- The Serbs, ISBN 0-631-20471-7, ISBN 978-0-631-20471-8. Wiley-Blackwell, 2004, Google Books.
- Manfred Beller, Joseph Theodoor Leerssen, Imagology: the cultural construction and literary representation of national characters: a critical survey, Vol. 13, Studia imagologica, Rodopi, 2007. ISBN 90-420-2317-1, ISBN 978-90-420-2317-8.
- Mitja Velikonja, Religious separation and political intolerance in Bosnia-Herzegovina, ISBN 1-58544-226-7, ISBN 978-1-58544-226-3
- UNHCR document, The Status of the Croatian Serb Population in Bosnia and Herzegovina
- Tomasevich, Jozo (1975). War and Revolution in Yugoslavia, 1941-1945: The Chetniks 1. San Francisco: Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-0857-6.
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