Serbs of Croatia

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Serbs of Croatia
Zaharije Orfelin.jpg
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Svetozar Pribićević.jpg
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Milutin Milanković.jpg
Patrijarh Pavle.jpg
Jovanka Broz.jpg
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Total population
186,633 (2011)[1]
Languages
Serbo-Croatian (Croatian and Serbian)
Religion
Serbian Orthodox Church

Serbs of Croatia (or Croatian Serbs) constitute the largest national minority in Croatia. There has been a substantial Serbian population in Croatia since the Middle Ages, although the population has been declining. From 1991 to 1995, during the War in Croatia, there existed a de facto independent state Republic of Serbian Krajina which included various territories in Croatia where Serbs were the majority population.

History[edit]

Middle Ages[edit]

According to the 10th-century Byzantine work De Administrando Imperio written by Constantine Porphyrogenitos the Serbs settled in parts of modern-day Croatia during the rule of Heraclius (610–626) and soon formed a Serbian state which stretched across parts of modern-day Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro and Serbia. The Županates/Župania,[2] of Pagania, Zachumlia and Travunia (which encompassed Dalmatia, roughly south of modern Split) were inhabited by Serbs.[3]

"From Ragusa begins the domain of the Zachlumi (Ζαχλοῦμοι) and stretches along as far as the river Orontius; and on the side of the coast it is neighbour to the Pagani, but on the side of the mountain country it is neighbour to the Croats on the north and to Serbia at the front. [...] The Zahumljani (Захумљани) that now live there are Serbs, originating from the time of the prince (archont) who fled to emperor Heraclius [...] The land of the Zahumljani comprise the following cities: Ston (το Σταγνον / to Stagnon), Mokriskik (το Μοκρισκικ), Josli (το Ιοσλε / to Iosle), Galumainik (το Γαλυμαενικ / to Galumaenik), Dobriskik (το Δοβρισκικ / to Dovriskik)"

Višeslav of Serbia, a contemporary of Charlemagne (fl. 768-814), ruled the Županias of Neretva, Tara, Piva, Lim, his ancestral lands.[5] According to the Royal Frankish Annals (821–822), Duke of Pannonia Ljudevit Posavski fled, during the Frankish invasion, from his seat in Sisak to the Serbs in western Bosnia, who controlled a great part of Dalmatia ("Sorabos, quae natio magnam Dalmatiae partem obtinere dicitur").[6][7] The event would have taken place during the rule of either Radoslav or his son, Prosigoj.[8] In the 880s, the Serb Prince Mutimir exiled his two brothers due to treachery, but kept his nephew Petar at the court. Petar later fled to the Croatian principality.[9] When Mutimir's son Pribislav had ruled for a year, Petar returned and defeated him, making him flee with his brothers Bran and Stefan to Croatia.[9] In 894 Bran returned but was defeated and blinded.[10] Pavle, the son of Bran, later returned and defeated Pavle with Bulgarian aid.[10]

King Mihailo I (1050–1081) built the St. Michael's Church in Ston, which has a fresco depicting him.[11]

Beloš Vukanović, a member of the Serb Vukanović dynasty, was given the title of Ban of Croatia by the Kingdom of Hungary and ruled 1142-1158 and briefly in 1163.[12]

In 1222, the King of Serbia Stefan Prvovenčani gifted Mljet, Babino Polje, the Saint Vid church on Korčula, Janin and Popova Luka and churches of St. Stephen and St. George, to a Benedictine monastery on Mljet.[13][14]

The first Serbian Orthodox monastery in Croatia, Krupa, was built in 1317 by Stephen Uroš II Milutin of Serbia, other medieval monuments include Krka (before 1345) and Dragović (late 14th century). Many monasteries and churches were damaged in the War in Croatia.[15] In 1333 the Republic of Ragusa bought the Pelješac peninsula and the coast land between Ston and Dubrovnik from Serbian King Stefan Dušan, the Ragusans promised freedom of religion to the Orthodox Serbs.[16]

Members of the Orlović Serb clan settled in Lika and Senj in 1432, they later joined the Uskoks.[17][better source needed] In 22 November 1447, the Hungarian King Ladislaus V wrote a letter which mentioned "Rascians, who live in our cities of Medvedgrad, Rakovac, both Kalinik and in Koprivnica".[18][better source needed]

Ottoman conquest and Habsburg Empire[edit]

Map of demographic distribution of main religious confessions in Croatia, Dalmatia, Bosnia, Serbia and Montenegro in 1901:       Catholic
      Muslim
      Orthodox
      Protestant
      Mixed Catholic and Orthodox
      Mixed Catholic and Protestant

As many former inhabitants of the Austrian-Ottoman borderland fled northwards or were captured by the Ottoman invaders, they left unpopulated areas.[19] The Austrian Empire encouraged people from the Ottoman Empire to settle as free peasant soldiers, establishing the Military Frontiers (Militärgrenze) in 1522 (hence they were known as Grenzers, Krajišnici).[20] They were mostly, not only of Orthodox faith, Serbs and Vlachs.[19] The militarized frontier would serve as a buffer against Ottoman incursions.[20] The Military frontiers had territory of modern Croatia, Serbia, Romania and Hungary. The colonists were granted small tracts of land, exempted from some obligations, and were to retain a share of all war booty.[20] The Grenzers elected their own captains (vojvode) and magistrates (knezovi). All Orthodox settlers were promised freedom of worship.[19][21] By 1538, the Croatian and Slavonian Military Frontier were established.[20] Serbs acted as the cordon sanitaire against Turkish incursions from the Ottoman Empire.[22] The Military frontiers are virtually identical to the present Serbian settlements (war-time Republic of Serbian Krajina).[23]

According to Croatian writer Branimir Anzulovic, native Vlachs of Croatia adopted the Croatian language prior to the Ottoman conquest, but still identified themselves as Vlachs,[24] and the places with Vlach majority enjoyed privileges under the Statuta Valachorum.[24][better source needed] Catholic Vlachs were assimilated into Croats, while the Orthodox, under the Serbian Orthodox Church, identified with Serbs.[24][25][26] Anzulovic claims that the serbianized Vlachs became the bulk of the Serbian population in Croatia.[24][better source needed] According to David Kideckeln, majority of the population of the Croatian Military Frontier were Orthodox Vlachs, originating from Southern and Central Balkans, who, under assimilation, spoke South Slavic language.[27]

In 1593, Provveditore Generale Cristoforo Valier, mentions three nations constituting the Uskoks; "natives of Senj, Croatians, and Morlachs from the Turkish parts".[28] Many of the Uskoks, who fought a guerrilla war with the Ottoman Empire were Serbs (Orthodox Christians), who fled from Ottoman Turkish rule and settled in White Carniola and Zumberak.[29][30][31][32] A letter of Emperor Ferdinand, sent on November 6, 1538, to Croatian ban Petar Keglević, in which he wrote "Captains and dukes of the Rasians, or the Serbs, or the Vlachs, who usually call themselves the Serbs".[33] Tihomir Đorđević points to the already known fact that the name 'Vlach' didn't only refer to genuine Vlachs or Serbs but also to cattle breeders in general.[33]

In the Venetian documents from late 16th and 17th century, was used name "Morlachs" (another term of Vlachs, first mentioned in 14th century) for immigrants from conquested territory previously of Croatian and Bosnian kingdoms by Ottoman Empire. They were of both Orthodox and Chatolic faith, settled in inland of the coastal cities of Dalmatia, and enterted the military service of both Venice and Ottoman Empire.[34]

The Military Border was returned in 1881 to the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia. In 1918, it became part of the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs, which immediately joined the Kingdom of Serbia to form the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.

World War II[edit]

Serb are expelled by Ustaše

Following the Invasion of Yugoslavia in April 1941 Axis powers occupied the entire territory of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. On the territory of the present-day Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia a puppet state called the Independent State of Croatia (NDH) was created, led by the Ustaše, a fascist Croatian movement.

The Ustaše government saw Serbs as "disrupting element" and immediately embarked on program of ethnic clensing and genocide. They went on to create concentration camps in which Serbs, Jews, Gypsies, anti-fascist Croats and homosexuals perished in large numbers, the most notorious of which was the Jasenovac concentration camp. According to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum between 320,000 and 340,000 Serbs were killed by the Ustaše or their allies during WWII.

The main paramilitary force Serbs of Croatia were involved with was the Chetniks. In March 1942 the Chetniks formed the Dinara Division, led by Orthodox priest Momčilo Đujić. This unit had a program to create Greater Serbia with a corridor between Herzegovina, northern Dalmatia and Bosnia, Lika to Slavonia.[35] During the war, this division was involved in ethnic cleansing of this area.[35] Chetniks in Croatia collaborated with fascist Italy to achieve their goals.[35]

Socialist Yugoslavia[edit]

Serbs in Croatia during the period of Socialist Yugoslavia were greatly overrepresented in government, economy and police.[36] Although making up 11.5% of total population, in 1984, Serbs made up 49.9% of Croatian police, with many of other ethnic Serbs declaring themselves as "Yugoslavs".[36]

War in Croatia[edit]

Territorial extent of Republic of Serbian Krajina, proclaimed unilaterally in 1991 and disestablished in 1995

Amid political changes during the breakup of Yugoslavia and following the Croatian Democratic Union's victory in the 1990 general election, the Croatian Parliament ratified a new constitution in December 1990 which changed the status of Serbs from a constitutional nation to a national minority, listed with other minorities.[37] A majority of Serb politicians have misread this as taking away some of the rights from the Serbs granted by the previous Socialist constitution,[38] because the Constitution of SR Croatia treated solely Croats as a constitutive nation. Croatia was the "national state" for Croats, "state" for Serbs and other minorities.[37]

The percentage of those declaring themselves as Serbs, according to the 1991 census, was 12.2% (78.1% of the population declared itself to be Croat). Today a majority of Serbs are able to return to Croatia legally. However, in reality a majority of Serbs who left during organized evacuation[39] (citing:[40][41][42] see section "Literature")[43] in 1995 choose to remain citizens of other countries in which they gained citizenship. Consequently, today Serbs constitute 4% of Croatian population, down from the prewar population of 12%.

Before the Croatian War of Independence, part of the Croatian Serbs rebelled ("balvan revolucija") and led a military campaign against the Croatian state, creating an unrecognized state called Republic of Serbian Krajina in hopes of achieving independence, international recognition, and complete self-governance from the government of Croatia. Rebellion was allegedly incited from Serbia. As the popularity of the unification of Serbian people into a Greater Serbia with Serbia proper increased, the rebellion against the Croatian rule also increased. Some Serb politicians from Croatia sought a peaceful solution. Some of them organized Serb parties in the Croatian government-controlled areas, like Milan Đukić; some of them (Veljko Džakula) unsuccessfully tried to organize the parties in the rebelled areas, but their work was prevented by Serb warmongers.[44]

The Republic of Krajina had de facto control over one third of Croatian territory during its existence between 1991 to 1995 but failed to gain international recognition.

The war ended with a military success of the Croatian government in 1995 and subsequent peaceful reintegration of the remaining renegade territory in eastern Slavonia in 1998 as a result of the signed Erdut Agreement from 1995. Local Serbs are, on the ground that Agreement, established the Serb National Council and gained the right to establish the Joint Council of Municipalities.

Destroyed Serbian house in Croatia. Most Serbians fled during Operation Storm in 1995.

The exodus of Serbs in 1995 was prompted by the advance of the Croatian troops, but was mostly self-organized rather than forced.[45][46] All Serbs were officially called upon to stay in Croatia shortly before the operation. Many Croat refugees moved to homes abandoned by Serbs during Operation Storm, ostensibly because their homes were destroyed by the Serbs.[46] At the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia at The Hague, Milan Babić was indicted, pleaded guilty and was convicted for "persecutions on political, racial and religious grounds, a crime against humanity".[47][48] Babić stated during his trial that "during the events, and in particular at the beginning of his political career, he was strongly influenced and misled by Serbian propaganda".[49]

A small minoriry of pre-war Serb population have returned to Croatia. Today, the majority of the pre-war Serb population from Croatia settled in Serbia and Republika Srpska.[50]

Modern Croatia[edit]

Flag of Serbs of Croatia, in official use since 2005

Tension and violence between Serbs and Croats has reduced since 2000 and has remained low to this day, however, significant problems remain.[51] The participation of the largest Serb party SDSS in the Croatian Government of Ivo Sanader has eased tensions to an extent, but the refugee situation is still politically sensitive.[citation needed] The main issue is high-level official and social discrimination against the Serbs.[52] At the height levels of the government, new laws are continuously being introduced in order to combat this discrimination, thus, demonstrating an effort on the part of government.[51] For example, lengthy and in some cases unfair proceedings,[51] particularly in lower level courts, remain a major problem for Serbian returnees pursuing their rights in court.[51] In addition, Serbs continue to be discriminated against in access to employment and in realizing other economic and social rights.[53] Also some cases of violence and harassment against Croatian Serbs continue to be reported.[51]

The property laws allegedly favor Bosnian Croats refugees who took residence in houses that were left unoccupied and unguarded by Serbs after Operation Storm.[51] Amnesty International's 2005 report considers one of the greatest obstacles to the return of thousands of Croatian Serbs has been the failure of the Croatian authorities to provide adequate housing solutions to Croatian Serbs who were stripped of their occupancy rights, including where possible by reinstating occupancy rights to those who had been affected by their discriminatory termination.[51]

The European Court of Human Rights decided against Croatian Serb Kristina Blečić, stripped her of occupancy rights after leaving her house in 1991 in Zadar.[54] In 2009, the UN Human Rights Committee found a wartime termination of occupancy rights of a Serbian family to violate ICCPR.[55] In 2010, the European Committee on Social Rights found the treatment of Serbs in Croatia in respect of housing to be discriminatory and too slow, thus in violation of Croatia's obligations under the European Social Charter.[56]

Demographics[edit]

According to the 2011 census there were 186,633 ethnic Serbs living in Croatia, 4.4% of the total population. Their number was reduced by more than two thirds in the aftermath of the 1991–95 War in Croatia as the 1991 pre-war census had reported 581,663 Serbs living in Croatia, 12.2% of the total population.

Serbs in Croatia, 1991[57]
Serbs in Croatia, 2011
Municipalities in Croatia where Serbian language is in official use
Year Serbs  %
1931[58] 636,518 16.81%
1948[59] 543,795 14.47%
1953[60] 588,411 15.01%
1961[61] 624,956 15.02%
1971 626,789 14.16%
1981 531,502 11.55%
1991 581,663 12.16%
2001 201,631 4.54%
2011 186,633 4.36%

Counties[edit]

Counties with significant Serb minority (10% or more):[62]

County Serbs  %
Vukovar-Syrmia County 27,824 15.50%
Lika-Senj County 6,949 13.65%
Sisak-Moslavina County 21,002 12.18%
Šibenik-Knin County 11,518 10.53%
Karlovac County 13,408 10.40%

Cities[edit]

Cities with significant Serb minority (10% or more):

Municipalities[edit]

Municipalities with significant Serb population (10% or more):

Culture[edit]

See also: Serbian culture

Serbs in Croatia have cultural traditions ranging from kolo dances and singing, which are kept alive today by performances by various folklore groups. Notable traditions include gusle, Ojkanje singing, Čuvari Hristovog groba.

Religion[edit]

Serbs of Croatia are Serbian Orthodox. There are many Orthodox monasteries across Croatia, built since the 14th century. Most notable and historically significant are the Krka monastery, Krupa monastery, Dragović monastery, Lepavina Monastery and Gomirje monastery. Many Orthodox churches were demolished during World War II and Yugoslav war, while some were rebuilt by the EU funding, Croatian government and Serbian diaspora donations.[63]

Language[edit]

Serbian language is officially used in 23 cities and municipalities in Croatia.[64]

Catholicization of Serbs[edit]

In the 1560s a Serbian Orthodox bishop was installed in the Metropolitanate of Požega, seated in the monastery of Remeta.[65] In the 17th century, the Eparchy of Marča was founded at Marča, in the Croatian frontier.[65] These were part of the Serbian Orthodox Patriarchate of Peć, which was reestablished in 1557, and lasted under Ottoman governance until 1766.[65] Other bishoprics were founded, although their approval by the Habsburgs hinged on the belief that they would facilitate the union of these Orthodox Christians with the Catholic Church, and in fact, many, including some Orthodox bishops, did unify with Rome.[65]

Serbs in the Croatian Military Frontier were out of the jurisdiction of the Serbian Patriarchate of Peć and in 1611, and after demands from the community, the Pope established the Eparchy of Marča (Vratanija) with seat at the Serbian-built Marča Monastery, with a Byzantine vicar instated as bishop sub-ordinate to the Roman Catholic bishop of Zagreb - working to bring Serbian Orthodox Christians into communion with Rome, which caused struggle of power between the Catholics and the Serbs over the region.[31][32]

In 1695 Orthodox Eparchy of Lika-Krbava and Zrinopolje was established by metropolitan Atanasije Ljubojević and certified by Emperor Josef I in 1707. In 1735 the Serbian Orthodox protested in the Marča Monastery and became part of the Serbian Orthodox Church until 1753 when the Pope restored the Roman Catholic clergy. On June 17, 1777 the Eparchy of Križevci was permanently established by Pope Pius VI with its Episcopal see at Križevci, near Zagreb, thus forming the Croatian Greek Catholic Church which would after World War I include other people; the Rusyns and ethnic Ukrainians of Yugoslavia.[31][32]

Politics[edit]

Serbs are officially recognized as an autochthonous national minority, and as such, they elect three representatives to the Croatian Parliament.[66]

The major Serb party in Croatia is the Independent Democratic Serb Party (SDSS). In the elections of 2007 and 2011, the SDSS has won all 3 Serbian seats in the parliament. In the Cabinet of Ivo Sanader II, the party was part of the ruling coalition led by the conservative Croatian Democratic Union, and SDSS member Slobodan Uzelac held the post of Deputy Prime Minister.

There are also ethnic Serb politicians who are members of mainstream political parties, such as the centre-left Social Democratic Party's MPs and Milanović cabinet members Željko Jovanović, Branko Grčić and Milanka Opačić.

Notable people[edit]

Artists
Scientists
Athletes
Other

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "3. Stanovništvo prema narodnosti, popisi 1971. – 2011.". Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2011. Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics. December 2012. Retrieved 2013-02-11. 
  2. ^ A Short History of Russia and the Balkan States, p. 169
  3. ^ Fine (1994), 53
  4. ^ De Administrando Imperio
  5. ^ Count Cedomilj Mijatovic, Servia and the Servians, p. 3; John Anthony Cuddon, The companion guide to Jugoslavia, p. 454
  6. ^ Serbian studies, Volumes 2-3, p. 29
  7. ^ Eginhartus de vita et gestis Caroli Magni, p. 192: footnote J10
  8. ^ The Serbs, p. 14
  9. ^ a b The early medieval Balkans, p. 141
  10. ^ a b The early medieval Balkans, p. 150
  11. ^ Pavle Ivić, The history of Serbian culture, p. 101, Porthill Publishers, 1995. Google Books link
  12. ^ Dr. M. Wertner, "Ungarns Palatine und Bane im Zeit-alter der Arpaden" (Ungarische Revue, 14, 1894, 129—177)
  13. ^ Diplomatički zbornik kraljevine Hrvatske, Dalmacije i Slavonije, Volume 3, p. 480: "Stephanus rex Serviae monasterio St. Mariae in insula Mljet donat pagos quosdam [...]" . Google Books link
  14. ^ "1222, kralj srpski Stefan Prvovjenčani dava benediktinskome manastiru na Mljetu cio Mljet i Babino Polje, i na Korčuli crkvu sv. Vida, pa Janinu s Popovom Lukom i crkve sv. Stjepana i sv. Gjurgja, a u Stonu crkvu sv. [...]"
  15. ^ Velikonja, p. 261
  16. ^ Fine (1994), p. 286
  17. ^ Јован Ердељановић (1930). О Пореклу Буњеваца.
  18. ^ "Rascianos in castris nostris Medwe, Rakonok, utriusque Kemlek et Caproncza constitutis"
  19. ^ a b c Tomasevich, Jozo (2001). War and revolution in Yugoslavia, 1941-1945: occupation and collaboration. Board of Trustees of Leland Stanford Junior University. p. 390. ISBN 0-8047-3615-4. 
  20. ^ a b c d Ramet, p. 82
  21. ^ Sabrina P. Ramet, "Whose democracy?: nationalism, religion, and the doctrine of collective rights in post-1989 Eastern Europe", Rowman & Littlefield, 1997, ISBN 0-8476-8324-9, p. 83
  22. ^ William Safran, The secular and the sacred: nation, religion, and politics, p. 169
  23. ^ Nicholas J. Miller, 1998, Between Nation and State: Serbian Politics in Croatia Before the First World War, p. 10
  24. ^ a b c d Anzulovic, Branimir (1999). Heavenly Serbia: from myth to genocide. C. Hurst & Co. p. 43. ISBN 1-85065-342-9. 
  25. ^ Banac, Ivo (1984). The national question in Yugoslavia: origins, history, politics. Cornell University Press. p. 43. ISBN 0-8014-1675-2. 
  26. ^ Bues, Almut (2005). Zones of fracture in modern Europe: the Baltic countries, the Balkans, and Notrhen Italy. Harassowitz Verlag. p. 101. ISBN 3-447-05119-1. 
  27. ^ Halpern, Joel M.; Kideckel, David A. (2000). Neighbors at War. Pennsylvania State University. p. 127. ISBN 0-271-01978-6. 
  28. ^ Fine (2006), p. 218
  29. ^ Europe:A History by Norman Davies (1996), p. 561.
  30. ^ Goffman (2002), p. 190.
  31. ^ a b c http://books.google.com/books?id=ovCVDLYN_JgC[page needed]
  32. ^ a b c http://books.google.com/books?id=0pmkrY29qkIC[page needed]
  33. ^ a b Gavrilović, Danijela, "Elements of Ethnic Identification of the Serbs" from FACTA UNIVERSITATIS - Series Philosophy, Sociology, Psychology and History (10/2003), pp. 717-730
  34. ^ Croatian Encyclopaedia (2011). "Morlaci" (in Croatian). 
  35. ^ a b c Tomasevich 1975, p. 171.
  36. ^ a b Aleksandar Štulhofer: TESTIRAJUĆI TEORIJE ETNIČKOG SUKOBA: OCCAMOVA OŠTRICA I POČETAK RATA U HRVATSKOJ, Društvena istraživanja, Vol.2 No.2-3 (4-5) Ožujak 1993.
  37. ^ a b (Croatian) Dunja Bonacci Skenderović i Mario Jareb: Hrvatski nacionalni simboli između stereotipa i istine, Časopis za suvremenu povijest, y. 36, br. 2, p. 731.-760., 2004
  38. ^ "urn:nbn:se:vxu:diva-1917: National Minority Rights : A Caste Study of Croatia and the National Minority Croatian Serbs". Lnu.diva-portal.org. Retrieved 2012-08-21. 
  39. ^ Barić, Nikica: Srpska pobuna u Hrvatskoj 1990.-1995., Golden marketing. Tehnička knjiga, Zagreb, 2005
  40. ^ Drago Kovačević, "Kavez - Krajina u dogovorenom ratu", Beograd 2003., p. 93.-94
  41. ^ Milisav Sekulić, "Knin je pao u Beogradu", Bad Vilbel 2001., p. 171.-246., p. 179 [1]
  42. ^ Marko Vrcelj, "Rat za Srpsku Krajinu 1991-95", Beograd 2002., p. 212.-222.
  43. ^ 13 mei 2007. "RSK Evacuation Practise one month before Operation Storm". Nl.youtube.com. Retrieved 2010-02-07. 
  44. ^ (Croatian) Croatian Iuridic Portal Đakula prvi svjedočio protiv Martića
  45. ^ "FACTBOX - Brief history of Croatia's rebel Serb Krajina region". Reuters. 11 March 2008. [dead link]
  46. ^ a b "Croatia". Hrw.org. Retrieved 2012-11-17. 
  47. ^ ICTY (2004). "Judgement in the Case the Prosecutor v. Milan Babic". Archived from the original on 2007-07-17. Retrieved 2006-03-07. 
  48. ^ ICTY (6 November 2003). "Indictment". Retrieved 21 August 2012. 
  49. ^ "Sentencing judgement". 29 June 2004. Retrieved 21 August 2012. 
  50. ^ "Croatia: Operation "Storm" - still no justice ten years on". Amnesty International. 2005-08-04. Retrieved 2012-08-21. 
  51. ^ a b c d e f g "Croatia: European Court of Human Rights to consider important case for refugee returns" (Press release). Amnesty International. 2005-09-14. Retrieved 2008-09-16. [dead link]
  52. ^ "Amnesty International | Working to Protect Human Rights". Thereport.amnesty.org. 2011-08-11. Retrieved 2012-08-21. 
  53. ^ "Croatia - Amnesty International Report 2008". amnesty.org. Amnesty International. 2008. Retrieved 21 August 2012. 
  54. ^ Negativna presuda evropskog suda u slučaju Kristine Blečić iz Zadra[dead link]
  55. ^ "Microsoft Word - croatia_t5_iccpr_1510_2006" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-11-17. 
  56. ^ "ECSR decision in case no 52/2008" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-11-17. 
  57. ^ "PROMENE UDELA STANOVNIŠTVA HRVATSKE I SRPSKE NACIONALNE PRIPADNOSTI U REPUBLICI HRVATSKOJ PO GRADOVIMA I OPŠTINAMA NA OSNOVU REZULTATA POPISA IZ 1991. I 2001. GODINE" (in Serbian). 2008. Retrieved 2013-07-12. 
  58. ^ Karoly Kocsis, Eszter Kocsis-Hodosi: Ethnic Geography of the Hungarian Minorities in the Carpathian Basin, Simon Publications LLC, 2001, p. 171
  59. ^ Stanovništvo po narodnosti po popisu od 15. marta 1948. godine, Beograd 1954., p. 3 (Serbian)
  60. ^ Popis stanovništva 1953. godine, p. 35 (Serbian)
  61. ^ Population, households and dwellings census in 1961, National structure of population in FNR Yugoslavia, data on localities and ocmmunes, Vol. III, p. 12 (Serbian)
  62. ^ http://www.dzs.hr/Hrv/censuses/census2011/results/htm/H01_01_04/h01_01_04_RH.html
  63. ^ "Serbian Orthodox Church History - St Michael Serbian Orthodox Church". Stmichael-soc.org. Retrieved 2012-08-21. 
  64. ^ "Europska povelja o regionalnim ili manjinskim jezicima" (in Croatian). Ministry of Justice (Croatia). 2011-04-12. Retrieved 2012-02-08. 
  65. ^ a b c d Miller 1998, p. 13
  66. ^ "Pravo pripadnika nacionalnih manjina u Republici Hrvatskoj na zastupljenost u Hrvatskom saboru". Zakon o izborima zastupnika u Hrvatski sabor (in Croatian). Croatian Parliament. Retrieved 2011-12-29. 
  67. ^ "Episkop Lukijan Musicki". Eparhija-gornjokarlovacka.hr. Retrieved 2012-08-21. 
  68. ^ [2][dead link]
  69. ^ "Krka časopis br. 6". Eparhija-dalmatinska.hr. Retrieved 2012-08-21. 
  70. ^ History of family Preradović from Gornja Krajina (Grubišno Polje etc) and their relation to the Russian branch (general Nikolay Depreradovich etc), may be seen in the book published in Zagreb, Croatia in 1903, Znameniti Srbi XIX veka, year 2, 2, editor Andra Gavrilović, Zagreb 1903, p. 13. Also, book published in Belgrade in 1888, Milan Đ. Milićević, Pomenik znamenitih ljudi u srpskog naroda novijeg doba, p. 572. For the list of Preradovićs (Serbs) murderd in Jasenovac concentration camp of Independent State of Croatia (NDH) during World War II, including Preradovićs from Grubišno Polje, where father of Petar Preradović was born see (official in Croatia) Jasenovac Memorial site list of victims, where one could see a few Jovan Preradović, as was the name of Petar Preradović's father (http://www.jusp-jasenovac.hr Spomen Područje Jasenovac), or names of 100 Preradovićs on the list of victims on the list of victims of Jasenovac Research Institute, New York, (https://cp13.heritagewebdesign.com/~lituchy/victim_search.php?field=&searchtype=contains)
  71. ^ "Josip Runjanin". Moljac.hr. Retrieved 2012-11-17. 
  72. ^ http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0784884/
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  74. ^ "Seeds of Truth". Stana Katic. Retrieved 2012-08-21. 
  75. ^ "Peja Stojakovic Biography". JockBio. 1977-06-09. Retrieved 2012-08-21. 
  76. ^ "de beste bron van informatie over jasnasekaric". jasnasekaric.com. Retrieved 2012-08-21. [dead link]
  77. ^ http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:VfKA_WG_LVwJ:www.rastko.org.rs/cms/files/books/46c3633ba55db.pdf+%D1%80%D0%B0%D1%81%D1%82%D0%BA%D0%BE+%D0%B1%D1%83%D0%B4%D0%B8%D0%BC%D0%BF%D0%B5%D1%88%D1%82%D0%B0+%D0%91%D0%B5%D0%BB%D1%83%D1%88&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=1&client=firefox-a
  78. ^ "Biography of His Holiness Patriarch Pavle". Serbianorthodoxchurch.com. Retrieved 2012-08-21. 
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  80. ^ "Josif Rajacic". Ohiou.edu. 2004-10-25. Retrieved 2012-08-21. 

Sources[edit]

  • Bideleux, Robert; Jeffries, Ian (2006). The Balkans: A Post-Communist History. The Lord Byron Foundation for Balkan Studies. ISBN 9780415229623. 
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http://www.snaga.rs/Ilustrovana_istorija_srba/tekst/engleski/01/01-uvod.html[dead link]

On medieval history:

External links[edit]