State Railway of Thailand
|State Railway of Thailand (SRT)
|Dates of operation||1890–present|
|Track gauge||1,000 mm (3 ft 3 3⁄8 in) (Metre gauge)|
SRT was founded as the Royal State Railways of Siam (RSR) in 1890. Construction of the Bangkok-Ayutthaya railway (71 km or 44 mi), the first part of the Northern Line, was started in 1891 and completed on May 23, 1892. The Thonburi-Phetchaburi line (150 km or 93 mi), later the Southern Line, was opened on June 19, 1903.
The Northern Line was originally built as 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) standard gauge, but in September 1919 it was decided to standardize on 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 3⁄8 in) meter gauge and the Northern Line was regauged during the next ten years. On July 1, 1951, RSR changed its name to the present State Railway of Thailand.
In 2005 SRT had 4,070 km (2,530 mi) of track, all of it meter gauge. Nearly all is single-track, although some important sections around Bangkok are double or triple-tracked and there are plans to extend this.
The SRT has long been popularly perceived by the public as inefficient and resistant to change. Trains are usually late, and most of its equipment is old and poorly maintained. The worst financially performing state enterprise, the SRT consistently operates at a loss despite being endowed with large amounts of property and receiving large government budgets; it reported a preliminary loss of 7.58 billion baht in 2010. Recurring government attempts at restructuring and/or privatization throughout the 2000s have always been strongly opposed by the union and have not made any progress.
The SRT operates all of Thailand's national rail lines. Hua Lamphong or Krungthep Station is the main terminus of all routes and start in Bangkok; Phahonyothin and ICD Ladkrabang are the main freight terminals.
The Northern Line begins alongside the Northeastern Line up until Ban Phachi Junction. Here, it splits from the Northeastern Line and proceeds through Lopburi, Nakhon Sawan, Phichit, Phitsanulok, Denchai junction, Lampang, Lamphun, before finally reaching Chiang Mai 751 kilometers away from Bangkok. There is also a branch off the mainline from Ban Dara junction to Sawankhalok in Sukhothai Province.
- Bang Sue Junction - The largest freight yard in Thailand and hence the main freight terminal. It is also a locomotive depot.
- Ayutthaya Station - Northern Bangkok suburban station. High passenger revenue, second only to Bangkok station.
- Ban Phachi Junction - A major junction, where the Northern and Northeastern lines separate.
- Lop Buri Station - The end of northern Bangkok suburbab service; a military town.
- Nakhon Sawan Station - Nong Pling station until 1956.
- Phitsanulok Station - Provincial station
- Ban Dara Junction - Junction for Sawankhaloke line
- Sila At Station - Depot on the Northern Line. Refueling station and up trains will be cut at this station
- Denchai Station - the dropping point for Phrae with a proposal for a junction for Denchai - Chiang Rai route
- Nakhon Lampang Station - Depot on the Northern Line. Train will be cut further if going North to Chiang Mai.
- Chiang Mai Station - Terminus.
The Northeastern Line begins on the same route as the Northern Line, splitting at Ban Phachi Junction towards Nakhon Ratchasima. Then at Thanon Chira Junction, the line splits with one route passing Khon Kaen and Udon Thani before terminating at Nong Khai 624 kilometers from Bangkok. The other route passes through Buriram, Surin, Si Sa Ket to reach Ubon Ratchathani, 575 kilometers from Bangkok.
There is also another branch route originating from Kaeng Khoi Junction in Saraburi Province passing through Lamnarai in Lopburi Province, Chaturat in Chaiyaphum Province, before joining the mainline heading towards Nong Khai at Bua Yai Junction in Nakhon Ratchasima Province.
- Saraburi Station - Provincial station, Pak Priaw station until 1934.
- Kaeng Khoi Junction - The Bua Yai Line and Khlong Sip Kao line diverge from the mainline here. Main Depot with refueling facility. The point for dividing freight trains into two trains to pass difficult section of Dong Phraya Yen (Kaeng Khoi - Pak Chong) or combining divided freight trains back into one train
- Pak Chong Station - The gateway to Nakhon Ratchasima and the point for dividing freight trains into two to pass difficult section of Dong Phraya Yen (Kaeng Khoi - Pak Chong) or combining divided freight trains back into one train
- Nakhon Ratchasima Station - Main depot of the Northeastern Line with refueling facility and a branch line to 2nd Army Support Command.
- Thanon Chira Junction - Junction for Nong Khai line close to Fort Suranaree (2nd Army Region HQ)
- Buri Ram Station - provincial station with a branch line to a quarry at Khao Kradong
- Surin Station - provincial station
- Si Sa Ket Station - provincial station
- Ubon Ratchathani Station in town of Warin - Terminus of South Isaan Line (also known as Ubon Line) with Depot and refueling facility. Varindr station until 1942-1943.
- Bua Yai Junction - junction with refueling facility
- Khon Kaen Station - provincial station
- Udon Thani Station - provincial station with refueling facility.
- Nong Khai Station in town of Nong Khai - Terminus of North Isaan Line (also known as Nong Khai Line), provides a connection to Thanaleng Station in Vientiane, Laos
The Southern Line begins in Bangkok and heads west towards Nakhon Pathom before splitting into 3 different routes. One route heads west towards Kanchanaburi Province (km 210) while another heads north towards Suphan Buri (km 157). The Southern Line itself continues southbound through Ratchaburi, Phetchaburi, Hua Hin, Prachuap Khiri Khan Province, Chumphon, to Surat Thani 678 kilometers away. From Surat Thani, there is a westerly branch towards Khiri Ratnikhom while the main line continues south to Thung Song Junction in Nakhon Si Thammarat Province where another branch reaches Kantang in Trang Province. The main line from Nakhon Sri Thammarat continues through Phatthalung before reaching Hatyai Junction in Songkhla Province. From here, the line branches to connect with the Malaysian railway at Padang Besar and Sungai Golok passing through Yala Province in the process.
- Bang Sue Junction - Main junction and freight terminal with main Diesel Locomotive Depot and Refueling facility
- Thon Buri Station - Former terminus of Southern Line.
- Nakhon Pathom Station - main southern suburban station
- Nong Pladuk Junction - Junction for Namtok Branch Line and Suphanburi Branch Line
- Ban Pong Station - Interchange to Kanchanaburi for those who did not travel along Nam Tok branch line
- Rajburi Station - Terminal for southern suburban service, also Provincial station
- Phetburi Station - Provincial Station
- Hua Hin Station - station with beautiful architecture, crew changing station
- Chumphon Station - Provincial station, locomotive depot with refueling facility
- Ban Thung Pho Junction - Southern Container Yard and Khiri Ratthanikhom Branch.
- Surat Thani Station - crew changing station and provincial station
- Thung Song Junction - Locomotive Depot, refueling facility and junction for Kantang Branch.
- Trang Station - Provincial Station
- Kantang Station - Terminus of Kantang Branch.
- Khao Chumthong Junction - Junction for Nakhon Si Thammarat Branch.
- Nakhon Si Thammarat Station - Terminus of Nakhon Si Thammarat Branch.
- Patthalung Station - Provincial station, crew changing station
- Hat Yai Junction - Main junction in Southern Line, Locomotive Depot and refueling facility
- Padang Besar Station - International KTM station in Malaysia.
- Pattani Station - former Khok Pho station
- Yala Station - Provincial station, crew changingw station
- Tanyong Mas station - for Ra Nga district and Narathiwat
- Sungai Kolok Station - Terminus of Southern Line. Used to be an international station until the termination of cross border services.
- Thon Buri Station - Terminus of Western Line
- Taling Chan Junction - Junction for Bangsue - Taling Chan link (also known as Rama 6 Line), the connection between south and north SRT systems opened with the building of the only rail bridge across the Chao Phraya River in 1925.
- Salaya Station - Bangkok suburban station close to Mahidol University (Salaya Campus)
- Nakhon Pathom Station - Provincial station
- Nong Pla Duk Junction - Junction for Suphanburi and Kanchanaburi.
- Suphanburi Station - A 2-car DMU operates to Bangkok in the early morning and from Bangkok in the evening.
- Kanchanaburi Station - Provincial station
- Nam Tok Station - Terminus of Western Line.
The Eastern Line begins at Bangkok before heading through Chacheongsao, Prachinburi to terminate at Aranyaprathet station in Sa Kaew Province 255 kilometers later. There is an unused rail link to Cambodia from Aranyaprathet. A branch line also connects Khlong 19 to the Northeastern Line at Kaeng Khoi Junction. At Chacheongsao station, there is another branch to Sattahip from which there is also another branch to Sriracha Junction 139 kilometers from Bangkok. From Sriracha Junction, there is yet another branch towards Laem Chabang deep sea port and Mapthaphut.
- Makkasan Station - the main depot of SRT (Makkasan Works), and City Air Terminal Station for Suvarnabhumi Airport Express Train (closer to Asok Halt than to Makkasan station)
- Hua Mak Station - Bangkok suburban station
- Hua Ta Khe Station - Junction for ICD.
- Chachoengsao Junction - Junction for Laem Chabang (double track opened January 2012) and Aranyaprathet Line.
- Aranyaprathet Station - Terminus of North Eastern Line.
- Si Racha Junction - Junction for Laem Chabang Deep Sea Port.
- Map Taphut Station - Terminus of East Coast Line - freight trains only.
The Maeklong Railway, also operated by the SRT, is independent of the national rail network and is split into two sections. The line begins at Wongwian Yai in Bangkok before terminating at Mahachai where a ferry is used by passengers to cross the Tha Chin River. The line starts again across the river towards Mae Klong.
SRT operates intercity passenger services on the following lines:
- Bangkok-Ayutthaya-Saraburi-Nakhon Ratchasima-Khon Kaen-Udon Thani-Nong Khai
- Bangkok-Ayutthaya-Saraburi-Nakhon Ratchasima-Buriram-Surin-Sisaket-Ubon Ratchathani
- Bangkok-Chachoengsao-Prachinburi-Kabin Buri-Sa Kaeo-Aranyaprathet
- Bangkok-Chachoengsao-Chon Buri-Pattaya-Ban Phlu Ta Luang
- Bangkok-Nakhon Pathom-Hua Hin-Surat Thani-Hat Yai-Butterworth (Malaysia)(International Express)
- Bangkok-Nakhon Pathom-Hua Hin-Surat Thani-Hat Yai-Sungei Kolok
- Bangkok-Nakhon Pathom-Hua Hin-Surat Thani-Thung Song-Nakhon Si Thammarat
- Bangkok-Nakhon Pathom-Hua Hin-Surat Thani-Thung Song-Kantang
- Bangkok-Nakhon Pathom-Kanchanaburi-Nam Tok
In December 2010, following Chinese plans to extend their (standard gauge) network to Xishuangbanna on the China-Laos border and further into Laos, the Thai government agreed to start negotiations on building a standard-gauge network. This would initially involve two lines: from Bangkok to the Lao border, and a longer line from Bangkok along the peninsula to the Malay border.
- Malaysia - same 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 3⁄8 in) gauge
- Laos - 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 3⁄8 in) gauge across Mekong River on Thai-Lao Friendship Bridge
- Cambodia - disused (being rebuilt)
- Myanmar - defunct - (see Death Railway).But projected extension will rebuild the route.
- Proposed link from Kanchanaburi to Port Tavoy (2011)
The SRT operates commuter rail services from Bangkok along the Northern and Northeastern Lines up to Ayutthaya, Ban Phachi Junction, Lopburi and Kaeng Khoi Junction. Ten trains run along the route on a daily basis. A new service serving between Thonburi and Sala Ya was launched on 22 October 2010.
The Red Line project is a new commuter rail system also owned by the SRT. It is currently under construction and will replace portions of rail lines running through Bangkok, eliminating at-grade crossings.
SRT operates the Airport Link to Suvarnabhumi Airport which opened in 2010. It is medium speed (160 km/h) and links with BTS Skytrain at Phaya Thai Station and MRT at Phetchaburi Station,and a new transit center at Makkasan allows airline passengers to check-in.
Active Locomotives & Multiple Units
Diesel Electric Locomotives
|Type||Manufacturer||Numbers||Year(s) built||Quantity built||Power (horsepower)||Max Speed (km/h)||Image||Note|
|UM12C (GE)||General Electric||4001-4050||1964 (4001-4040)
(2 × 660)
|90||Will be refurbished around 2010-2011.|
|AD24C (ALS)||Alstom||4101-4154||1974–1975||54||2400||90||First batch of AD24C locomotives.|
|AD24C (AHK)||Alstom, Henschel and Krupp||4201-4230||1980||30||2400||100||Second batch of AD24C, built under licence by Henschel and Krupp.|
|AD24C (ALD)||Alstom||4301-4309||1983||9||2400||100||Third batch of AD24C.|
|AD24C (ADD)||Alstom||4401-4420||1985||20||2400||100||Fourth and last batch of AD24C.|
(2 × 1430)
|100||First batch of Main Line Locomotive Programme, used MAN B&W Diesel engine in short term, then replaced by Cummins KTTA-50L engine, later modified to KTA-50L.|
|CM22-7i (GEA)||General Electric||4523-4560||1995–1996||38||2860
(2 × 1430)
|100||Second batch of Main Line Locomotive Programme, use Cummins KTA-50L engine.|
Diesel hydraulic locomotives
|Type||Manufacturer||Numbers||Year built||Quantity built||Power (horsepower)||Max Speed (km/h)||Image||Note|
|DH1200BB||Henschel||3001-3027||1964||27||1200||90||All locomotives except #3015 are withdrawn. #3026 preserved. Some of them were sold to Italian-Thai construction and rebuilt by Vossloh, rest were scrapped.|
|M1500BB||Krupp and Krauss-Maffei||3101-3130||1969||30||1500||90|
Diesel Multiple Units
|Type||Manufacturer||Numbers||Year built||Quantity built||Power (horsepower)||Max Speed (km/h)||Image||Note|
|RHN||Hitachi||1011-1048 (power cars)
|1971||8+4||220||70||Ex-Mahachai railways, to be refurbished. Similar bodyshell of THN and NKF but with different formation (power car-2 trailer cars).|
|THN||Tokyu, Hitachi and Nippon Sharyo||1101–1140||1983||40||235||105||Similar to NKF.|
|NKF||Nippon Sharyo, Hitachi, Fuji Heavy Industries,Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Niigata Tekkousho, and Kinki Sharyo||1201–1264, (center) 2101-2112||1985||64+12||235||105||Similar to THN, but with plastic chairs.|
|ASR||BREL, Derby Works||2501–2512, (center) 2113-2120||1991||12+8||285||120||Metre gauge version of British Rail Class 158, with different gangways and couplers. 3-car set. Will be refurbished with new seats, vinyl floor, on-board entertainment and new livery, and converted to 4-car sets in 2011 for intercity services.|
|APD .20||Daewoo Heavy Industries||2513-2524 (center) 2121-2128||1995||10+8||298||120||First batch, narrow body.|
|APD .60||Daewoo Heavy Industries||2525-2544 (center) 1101-1140||1996||20+40||298||120||Second batch, wide body.|
- Chantanusornsiri, Wichit (23 January 2012). "State railway to finally account for assets and liabilities". Bangkok Post.
- Mahitthirook, Amornrat; Marukatat, Saritdet (22 December 2010). "Getting on track needs strong political will". Bangkok Post.
- Bowring, Philip (23 October 2009). "Thailand's Railways: Wrong Track". Asia Sentinel. Asia Sentinel. Retrieved 22 August 2012.
- New Eastern rail line gets on track, The Bangkok Post, 13/01/2012
- "Inaugural train begins Laos royal visit". Railway Gazette International. 2009-03-05.
- "NEW CHINA-LAOS LINK". Retrieved 2010-11-09. Text " Railways Africa" ignored (help)
- "STANDARD GAUGE FOR THAILAND". Retrieved 2010-12-19. Text " Railways Africa" ignored (help)
- "Railway Gazette: Two standard gauge main lines recommended". Retrieved 2011-02-27.
- "Neighbours to the west get closer | Bangkok Post: news". Bangkok Post. 2012-02-28. Retrieved 2012-08-13.
- "Commuter line timetable". SRT website. State Railway of Thailand. Retrieved 20 January 2012.
- ศูนย์ประชาสัมพันธ์และบริการท่องเที่ยว (22 October 2010). "การรถไฟแห่งประเทศไทยพัฒนารถไฟสายศิริราช-ศาลายานำร่อง เตรียมสร้างโครงข่าย". press release (in Thai). Retrieved 20 January 2012.
- "Bangkok Suvarnabhumi airport rail link opens". Railway Gazette International. 2010-08-24.
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