40th Canadian Parliament

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40th Parliament of Canada
minority parliament
November 18, 2008 – March 26, 2011
Parliament leaders

Rt. Hon. Stephen Harper
(28th Canadian Ministry)
February 6, 2006 – November 4, 2015
Leader of the
Hon. Stéphane Dion
December 2, 2006 – December 10, 2008
Hon. Michael Ignatieff
December 10, 2008 – May 2, 2011
Party caucuses
GovernmentConservative Party
OppositionLiberal Party
Third partiesBloc Québécois
New Democratic Party
UnrecognizedProgressive Conservative*
* Only in the Senate.
House of Commons
40th Can House.svg
Seating arrangements of the House of Commons
Speaker of the
Hon. Peter Milliken
January 29, 2001 – June 2, 2011
House Leader
Hon. Jay Hill
October 3, 2008 – August 6, 2010
Hon. John Baird
August 6, 2010 – May 2, 2011
House Leader
Hon. Ralph Goodale
February 10, 2006 – September 10, 2010
David McGuinty
September 10, 2010 – May 26, 2011
Members308 seats MP seats
List of members
40th Can Senate.svg
Seating arrangements of the Senate
Speaker of the
Hon. Noël A. Kinsella
February 8, 2006 – November 26, 2014
Senate Leader
Hon. Marjory LeBreton
February 6, 2006 - July 14, 2013
Senate Leader
Hon. Jim Cowan
November 3, 2008 – present
Senators105 seats senator seats
List of senators
1st Session
November 18, 2008 – December 4, 2008
2nd Session
January 26, 2009 – December 30, 2009
3rd Session
March 3, 2010 – March 26, 2011
<39th 41st>

The 40th Canadian Parliament was in session from November 18, 2008 to March 26, 2011, and was the last Parliament of the longest-running minority government in Canadian history that began with the previous Parliament. The membership of its House of Commons was determined by the results of the 2008 federal election held on October 14, 2008. Its first session was then prorogued by the Governor General on December 4, 2008, at the request of Prime Minister Stephen Harper, who was facing a likely no-confidence motion and a coalition agreement between the Liberal party and the New Democratic Party with the support of the Bloc Québécois (see 2008–2009 Canadian parliamentary dispute). Of the 308 MPs elected at the October 14, 2008 general election, 64 were new to Parliament and three sat in Parliaments previous to the 39th: John Duncan, Jack Harris, and Roger Pomerleau.

There were three sessions of the 40th Parliament.

On March 25, 2011, the House of Commons passed a Liberal motion of non-confidence by a vote of 156 to 145, finding the Conservative Cabinet in contempt of parliament, an unprecedented finding in Canadian and Commonwealth parliamentary history.[1] On March 26, 2011, Prime Minister Stephen Harper subsequently asked Governor General David Johnston to dissolve parliament and issue a writ of election.[2]

Party standings[edit]

The party standings as of the election, and at dissolution, were as follows:

Standings in the 40th Canadian Parliament
Affiliation House Members Senate Members
2008 Election
At Dissolution On Election
Day 2008[4]
At Dissolution
Conservative 143 143 21 52
Liberal 77 77 58 46
Bloc Québécois 49 47 0 0
New Democratic 37 36 0 0
Independent 2[5] 1[6] 5[7] 2[8]
Senate Progressive Conservative Caucus 0 0 3[9] 2[10]
Independent Conservative 0 1[11] 0 0
Independent Liberal 0 0 1[12] 0
Independent New Democrat 0 0 1[13] 0
Total members 308 305 89 102
Vacant 0 3 16 3
Total seats 308 105

Resignations and by-elections[edit]

NDP MP Dawn Black resigned her seat of New Westminster—Coquitlam effective April 13, 2009, to run (successfully) in the provincial riding of New Westminster in the 2009 British Columbia general election.[14] The NDP's Fin Donnelly won the seat left vacant by Black in a by-election on November 9, 2009.[15]

Independent MP Bill Casey resigned his seat of Cumberland—Colchester—Musquodoboit Valley effective April 30, 2009, to accept a job as the Nova Scotia Department of Intergovernmental Affairs' senior representative in Ottawa. He was a former Conservative who voted against the 2007 budget, claiming that it broke the Atlantic Accord with his province and Newfoundland and Labrador, and was subsequently expelled from the Conservative caucus.[16] Scott Armstrong, the Conservative candidate, won the by-election for this seat on November 9, 2009.[15]

Bloc Québécois MP Paul Crête resigned his seat of Montmagny—L'Islet—Kamouraska—Rivière-du-Loup on May 21, 2009, to run in a provincial by-election in Rivière-du-Loup. Conservative Bernard Généreux won the November 9, 2009 by-election for this seat.[15]

Bloc Québécois MP Réal Ménard resigned his seat of Hochelaga on September 16, 2009, to run in Montreal's municipal elections.[17] On November 9, 2009, Daniel Paillé won this seat for the Bloc in a by-election.[15]

New Democratic Party MP Judy Wasylycia-Leis (Winnipeg North) resigned from the House on April 30, 2010, to run (unsuccessfully) for the mayoralty of Winnipeg.[18] Liberal Kevin Lamoureux won the by-election to replace her on November 29, 2010.[19]

Liberal MP Maurizio Bevilacqua (Vaughan) resigned from the House effective August 25, 2010 to successfully run for mayor in Vaughan.[20] Conservative Julian Fantino won the November 29, 2010 by-election to replace him.[19]

Conservative MP Inky Mark (Dauphin—Swan River—Marquette) resigned from the House effective September 15, 2010 to run for mayor in Dauphin.[21] Robert Sopuck held the seat for the Conservatives in a by-election held on November 29, 2010.[19]

Bloc Québécois MP Jean-Yves Roy resigned from the House effective October 22, 2010,[22] followed by Conservative MP Jay Hill effective October 25, 2010.[23] Conservative MP Jim Prentice resigned from the House effective November 14, 2010 to take a position with CIBC.[24] By-elections in these three ridings were not scheduled prior to the issue of the writ for the 41st general election.

1st session and prorogation[edit]

The first session of the 40th parliament opened on November 18, 2008, after Prime Minister Stephen Harper and the Conservatives won a slightly stronger minority government in the 2008 election. With a new government in session, Finance Minister Jim Flaherty tabled a fiscal update nine days later. Among other things, the update cut government spending, suspended the ability of civil servants to strike, sold off some Crown assets, and eliminated existing political party subsidies. This fiscal update was rejected by the opposition, and became a catalyst for talks of a coalition government. Stéphane Dion of the Liberal Party and Jack Layton of the New Democratic Party, signed an accord stating that in the event that the government lost the confidence of the house, they would form a coalition with the support of Gilles Duceppe and the Bloc Québécois, if asked to do so by the Governor General of Canada Michaëlle Jean. However, Stephen Harper delayed the vote of non-confidence scheduled for December 1, and the Governor General prorogued parliament on Harper's advice on December 4, 2008, until January 26, 2009.

After prorogation, calls came from within the Liberal Party for Dion to resign immediately. Dion initially scheduled his resignation for the party's leadership convention in May 2009, but on December 8, 2008, he announced that he would step down upon the selection of an interim leader. After the withdrawal of Bob Rae and Dominic LeBlanc from the 2009 leadership race, Michael Ignatieff became the only leadership candidate, and therefore was appointed interim leader of the Liberals and the opposition on December 10, 2008.

2nd Session and prorogation[edit]

The Governor-in-Council recalled parliament on January 26, 2009. Its first business (after the Throne Speech) was to present the federal budget, which included a large deficit. After negotiations with new opposition leader Michael Ignatieff, the government promised to present regular updates on the stimulus budget, and the Liberals and Conservatives joined to pass the budget and keep the Conservative government in power. The Conservative government made crime a major focus of the session. The Conservatives reintroduced their former mandatory minimums bill, known as Bill C-15.[25]

Protest on Parliament Hill in Ottawa against the prorogation
March in Vancouver against the prorogation

On December 30, 2009, Prime Minister Stephen Harper announced that he would advise the Governor General to prorogue parliament during the 2010 Winter Olympics, until March 3, 2010. He telephoned Governor General Michaëlle Jean to ask her permission to end the parliamentary session and Jean signed the proclamation later that day.[26][27] According to Harper's spokesman, he sought his second prorogation to consult with Canadians about the economy.[26] In an interview with CBC News, Prince Edward Island Liberal member of parliament Wayne Easter accused the Prime Minister of "shutting democracy down".[28][29] The second prorogation in a year also received some international criticism as being not very democratic.[30]

In response to the prorogation, demonstrations took place on January 23, 2010, in over 60 Canadian cities, and at least four cities in other countries. The protests attracted thousands of participants, many who had joined a group on Facebook.[31][32] Media related to Protests against the prorogation of the 40th Parliament of Canada at Wikimedia Commons

Senate appointments[edit]

The Senate of Canada has seen new members appointed in blocs of 18, 9, and 5; all were appointed to the Conservative caucus. The balance of power shifted for the first time on August 27, 2009, when the Liberal caucus was reduced to holding a plurality of 52 seats. On January 29, 2010, the balance shifted again as five vacancies were filled by appointed Conservatives, giving them a plurality of 51, with the Liberals holding the next-highest number of seats at 49. The Conservatives achieved an absolute majority when Don Meredith and Larry Smith were appointed on December 20, 2010. After dissolution, Smith and Fabian Manning resigned to run in the 2011 election. That reduced the Conservative caucus to 52, but they retained a majority of sitting senators as there were 50 senators of other parties and 3 vacancies.

Honorary Senators[edit]

The Senate of Canada posthumously awarded the title of Honorary Senator during the 40th Parliament to five pioneering women known as The Famous Five.[33]

Emily Murphy
Henrietta Muir Edwards
Nellie McClung
Irene Parlby
Louise McKinney


For full lists of members of the 40th Parliament of Canada, see List of House members of the 40th Parliament of Canada and List of senators in the 40th Parliament of Canada.




Joint Committees[edit]



Other Chair occupants[edit]


House of Commons


Floor leaders[edit]


House of Commons



House of Commons

Shadow cabinets[edit]


By-elections to the 40th Canadian Parliament were held to fill vacancies in the House of Commons of Canada between the 2008 federal election and the 2011 federal election. The Conservative Party of Canada led a minority government for the entirety of the 40th Canadian Parliament, with little change from by-elections.

Ten seats became vacant during the life of the Parliament. Seven of these vacancies were filled through by-elections, and three seats remained vacant when the 2011 federal election was called.


By-election Date Incumbent Party Winner Party Cause Retained
Calgary Centre-North 2011 (cancelled) Jim Prentice Conservative NA NA Resigned to enter private sector NA
Prince George—Peace River 2011 (cancelled) Jay Hill Conservative NA NA Resigned NA
Haute-Gaspésie—La Mitis—Matane—Matapédia 2011 (cancelled) Jean-Yves Roy Bloc Québécois NA NA Resigned NA
Vaughan November 29, 2010 Maurizio Bevilacqua Liberal Julian Fantino Conservative Resigned to run for Mayor of Vaughan No
Dauphin—Swan River—Marquette November 29, 2010 Inky Mark Conservative Robert Sopuck Conservative Resigned to run for Mayor of Dauphin Yes
Winnipeg North November 29, 2010 Judy Wasylycia-Leis NDP Kevin Lamoureux Liberal Resigned to run for Mayor of Winnipeg No
Cumberland—Colchester—Musquodoboit Valley November 9, 2009 Bill Casey Independent Scott Armstrong Conservative Resigned to accept appointment with Nova Scotia's Department of Intergovernmental Affairs No
Hochelaga November 9, 2009 Réal Ménard Bloc Québécois Daniel Paillé Bloc Québécois Resigned to run for Montreal City Council Yes
Montmagny—L'Islet—Kamouraska—Rivière-du-Loup November 9, 2009 Paul Crête Bloc Québécois Bernard Généreux Conservative Resigned to enter provincial politics No
New Westminster—Coquitlam November 9, 2009 Dawn Black NDP Fin Donnelly NDP Resigned to enter provincial politics Yes


Four by-elections to fill vacant seats in the House of Commons were held on November 9, 2009. Governor General Michaëlle Jean, acting on the advice of Prime Minister Stephen Harper, issued writs of election for the by-elections on October 4.[37] All four vacancies were caused by resignations.

New Westminster—Coquitlam[edit]

The riding of New Westminster—Coquitlam had been vacant since April 13, when Dawn Black resigned to run in the British Columbia provincial election.

By-election on November 9, 2009

resignation of Dawn Black

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
New Democratic Fin Donnelly 12,129 49.6% +7.8%
Conservative Diana Dilworth 8,753 35.8% -3.0%
Liberal Ken Lee 2,514 10.3% -1.0%
Green Rebecca Helps 1,046 4.3% -2.9%
Total valid votes 24,442
Total rejected ballots
Turnout 24,442 29.9%
  New Democrat hold

Cumberland—Colchester—Musquodoboit Valley[edit]

The riding of Cumberland—Colchester—Musquodoboit Valley had been vacant since April 30, 2009, when Bill Casey resigned to accept a posting from the provincial government of Nova Scotia.[38]

Scott Armstrong was nominated unopposed by the Conservatives. Farmer Jim Burrows defeated 2008 Liberal candidate Tracy Parsons for the Liberal nomination on September 12, 2009.

By-election on November 9, 2009

Resignation of Bill Casey

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Scott Armstrong 11,167 45.84% +37.01%
New Democratic Mark Austin 6,267 25.73% +13.41%
Liberal Jim Burrows 5,193 21.32% +12.87%
Green Jason Blanch 803 3.30% +3.30%
Christian Heritage Jim Hnatiuk 776 3.19% +3.19%
Independent Kate Graves 149 0.61%
Total valid votes 24,359
Total rejected ballots
Turnout 24,359 35.7%
  Conservative gain from Independent


The riding of Montmagny—L'Islet—Kamouraska—Rivière-du-Loup had been vacant since May 21, when Paul Crête resigned to run as a Parti Québécois candidate in the provincial Rivière-du-Loup by-election.

According to the Regina Leader-Post, Bernard Généreux won the by-election.[39]

By-election on November 9, 2009

resignation of Paul Crête

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Bernard Généreux[40] 12,162 42.7% +12.07%
Bloc Québécois Nancy Gagnon[41] 10,737 37.7% -8.33%
Liberal Marcel Catellier[42][43] 3,768 13.2% -2.15%
New Democratic François Lapointe[44] 1,363 4.8% -0.65%
Green Charles Marois[45] 472 1.7% -0.49%
Total valid votes 28,502
Total rejected ballots
Turnout 28,502 36.6%
  Conservative gain from Bloc Québécois


On June 25, 2009, Réal Ménard announced that he would resign from the Hochelaga constituency effective September 16 to run as a Vision Montreal candidate for borough mayor of Mercier–Hochelaga-Maisonneuve in the fall 2009 municipal elections in Montreal.[46]

Daniel Paillé won the by-election according to CBC News.[47]

By-election on November 9, 2009

resignation of Réal Ménard

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Bloc Québécois Daniel Paillé[48] 8,972 51.2% +1.47%
New Democratic Jean-Claude Rocheleau[49] 3,421 19.5% +5.06%
Liberal Robert David[50] 2,510 14.3% -6.36%
Conservative Stéphanie Cloutier[51] 1,784 10.2% +1.01%
Green Christine Lebel[52] 571 3.3% -0.95%
neorhino.ca Gabrielle Anctil[53] 129 0.7% +0.2%
Marxist–Leninist Christine Dandenault[54] 79 0.5% +0.12%
Independent John Turmel[54] 71 0.4% ø
Total valid votes 17,526
Total rejected ballots
Turnout 17,526 22.3%
Bloc Québécois hold Swing {{{3}}}


Three by-elections were held on November 29, 2010, in order to fill vacancies in the House of Commons of Canada for two seats in Manitoba and one seat in Ontario. Until pre-empted by the issuance of writs for the 41st federal election, a further three by-elections were pending for one seat in Alberta, one seat in Quebec and one seat in British Columbia.[55]


The three seats were vacant due to the resignations of Inky Mark, Judy Wasylycia-Leis, and Maurizio Bevilacqua from the House of Commons. The incumbents had resigned their seats to run for the mayoralty of their hometowns in municipal elections. Bevilacqua was subsequently elected mayor of Vaughan, Ontario while Wasylycia-Leis and Mark were defeated in their attempts. A further three seats, Calgary Centre-North, Haute-Gaspésie—La Mitis—Matane—Matapédia and Prince George—Peace River also became vacant in late October or November, however these vacancies occurred too late to be included in the November 29 by-election call.


Under Canadian election law, a by-election must be formally announced no earlier than 11 days and no later than 180 days after a vacancy officially takes effect. Due to the timing of the respective resignations, this means that the date of the Winnipeg North by-election had to be announced by October 27, while the scheduling period for all of the other four by-elections extended into 2011.[56] Consequently, the Winnipeg North by-election had to be called at least a week before the window opened in which Prince George—Peace River and Haute-Gaspésie—La Mitis—Matane—Matapédia by-elections could be called.

When multiple vacancies exist, it is customary, though not mandatory, for by-elections to be held on the same date.

Dauphin—Swan River—Marquette[edit]

A by-election was held in the Manitoba federal riding of Dauphin—Swan River—Marquette as incumbent MP Inky Mark resigned effective September 15, 2010 as the Conservative Party of Canada Member of Parliament in order to run unsuccessfully for mayor of Dauphin, Manitoba.[57]

By-election on November 29, 2010

resignation of Inky Mark on September 15, 2010

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Robert Sopuck 8,176 56.7% -4.66%
New Democratic Denise Harder 3,785 26.3% +9.67%
Liberal Christopher Scott Sarna 1,481 10.3% -3.67%
Green Kate Storey 809 5.6% -0.91%
Christian Heritage Jerome Dondo 160 1.1% -0.10%
Total valid votes 14,411
Total rejected ballots
Turnout 26.9
  Conservative hold


A by-election was held in the Ontario federal riding of Vaughan as Liberal Maurizio Bevilacqua resigned to run successfully for mayor of Vaughan, Ontario.[58]

By-election on November 29, 2010

resignation of Maurizio Bevilacqua on September 2, 2010

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Julian Fantino 19,260 49.1 +14.8
Liberal Tony Genco 18,263 46.6 -2.6
New Democratic Kevin Bordian 673 1.7 -7.9
Green Claudia Rodriguez-Larrain 477 1.2 -5.7
Libertarian Paolo Fabrizio 246 0.6
Progressive Canadian Dorian Baxter 112 0.3
Independent Leslie Bory 110 0.3
United Brian Jedan 55 0.1
Total valid votes 39,196
Total rejected ballots
Turnout 32.4
  Conservative gain from Liberal

Winnipeg North[edit]

A by-election was held in the Manitoba federal riding of Winnipeg North after New Democratic Party MP Judy Wasylycia-Leis resigned to run unsuccessfully for Mayor of Winnipeg. The seat had been vacant for almost seven months by the time of the vote.

With the addition of the Pirate Party candidate Jeff Coleman, the by-election in Winnipeg North marked the first election or by-election to run a member of the Pirate Party outside of Europe.[59]

By-election on November 29, 2010

resignation of Judy Wasylycia-Leis on April 30, 2010

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal Kevin Lamoureux 7,303 46.3 +37.08
New Democratic Kevin Chief 6,508 41.2 −21.41
Conservative Julie Javier 1,645 10.4 −11.95
Green John Harvie 114 0.7 −4.05
Pirate Jeff Coleman 94 0.6 N/A
Communist Frank Komarniski 71 0.4 −0.27
Christian Heritage Eric Truijen 45 0.3 N/A
Total valid votes 15,780
Total rejected ballots
Turnout 30.8
  Liberal gain from New Democrat


Cancelled by-elections[edit]

Until pre-empted by the issuance of writs for the 41st federal election, three federal by-elections were pending in 2011 to fill vacant seats in the House of Commons.

Calgary Centre-North[edit]

A by-election call was pending in the Alberta federal riding of Calgary Centre-North, where Conservative MP Jim Prentice announced on November 4, 2010 he was resigning as Environment Minister effective immediately and that he would be resigning as Member of Parliament for Calgary Centre-North by the end of the year to take a job as vice-chairman of the Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce.[60] Prentice resigned as the Conservative Member of Parliament for Calgary Centre-North on November 14, 2010.[61] The Prime Minister theoretically had until May 2, 2011 to call a by-election.

Soon after the announcement of Prentice's impending resignation, both Ric McIver and Barb Higgins – the second and third place mayoralty finishers in the 2010 municipal election in Calgary – expressed interest in running for the Conservative Party nomination in Calgary Centre-North.[62] Current Calgary-Foothills MLA Len Webber and recent aldermanic candidate Sean Chu were also rumored to be testing the waters. Ultimately, university administrator and Calgary—Nose Hill riding president Michelle Rempel was acclaimed as the Conservative candidate on December 17, 2010.[63]

Former Ontario Liberal MP Robert Nault and former mayor of Calgary Dave Bronconnier were rumored to be seeking the Liberal nomination. However, Liberal leader Michael Ignatieff appointed Stephen Randall – a University of Calgary professor and the former dean of the Faculty of Social Sciences – as the party's candidate on January 6, 2011.[64]

Heather MacIntosh was nominated to replace Dr. Eric Donovan as the Green Party candidate after winning a three way nomination contest on October 26, 2010.

By-election on superseded by federal election

resignation of Jim Prentice on November 14, 2010

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Michelle Rempel 28,443 56.45% -0.08%
New Democratic Paul Vargis 8,030 15.94% +0.62%
Liberal Stephen Randall 7,114 14.12% +2.35%
Green Heather MacIntosh 6,558 13.02% -2.09%
Marxist–Leninist Peggy Askin 209 0.41% +0.03%
Total valid votes 50,384 100.00%
Total rejected ballots
Turnout 50,384 60.1%

Haute-Gaspésie—La Mitis—Matane—Matapédia[edit]

A by-election was pending in the Quebec federal riding of Haute-Gaspésie—La Mitis—Matane—Matapédia, where Bloc Québécois MP Jean-Yves Roy resigned on October 22, 2010 as a result of chronic health problems.[65] The Prime Minister theoretically had until April 20, 2011 to drop the writ for a by-election in that riding.

By-election on superseded by general election

resignation of Jean-Yves Roy on October 22, 2010

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Bloc Québécois Jean-François Fortin 12,633 36.05 -1.48
Liberal Nancy Charest 8,964 25.58 -10.02
New Democratic Joanie Boulet 7,484 21.36 +16.67
Conservative Allen Cormier 5,253 14.99 -3.08
Green Louis Drainville 707 2.02 -1.55
Total valid votes 35,041 100.00
Total rejected ballots 393 1.11 +0.07
Turnout 35,434 59.81 +5.43
Eligible voters 59,242

Prince George—Peace River[edit]

A by-election was pending in the British Columbia federal riding of Prince George—Peace River due to the resignation of Conservative MP Jay Hill on October 25, 2010. Prime Minister Harper had until April 22, 2011 to call a by-election.[66]

Notably, in his resignation announcement Hill appeared to suggest that he expected the 41st federal election to be called before a by-election could take place in this riding. He was correct; the Harper government lost a confidence motion on March 25, 2011, triggering an election.[67]

Persons seeking the Conservative Party nomination were former Prince George mayor Colin Kinsley,[66] Tumbler Ridge councilor Jerrilyn Schembri, Prince George city councilor Cameron Stolz, Fort St. John councillors Don Irwin and Dan Davies and Conservative riding association CEO Bob Zimmer.[68] Bob Zimmer was declared the Conservative candidate following a March 11, 2011 nomination meeting in Prince George.[69]

Hilary Crowley was announced as the Green Party candidate on November 12, 2010.[70] Former Deputy Premier and Prince George area MLA, Lois Boone as acclaimed as the NDP candidate on November 27, 2010.[71]

On March 28, 2011, lawyer Ben Levine was nominated as the Liberal candidate.[72]

By-election on superseded by general election

resignation of Jay Hill on October 25, 2010

Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Bob Zimmer 23,946 62.12 -1.47
New Democratic Lois Boone 9,876 25.62 +8.04
Green Hilary Crowley 2,301 5.97 -4.44
Liberal Ben Levine 2,008 5.21 -3.20
Pirate Jeremy Cote 415 1.08
Total valid votes 38,546 100.00
Total rejected ballots

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Bruce Cheadle (March 25, 2011). "Harper government topples on contempt motion, triggering May election". The Canadian Press; CTV news. Retrieved March 26, 2011.
  2. ^ CBC News (March 25, 2011). "MPs gather for historic vote". CBC. Archived from the original on March 28, 2011. Retrieved March 25, 2011.
  3. ^ "Canada Votes 2008 - Overall Results". CBC News.
  4. ^ Members of the Canadian Senate are appointed by the Governor General on the advice of the Prime Minister and remain as Senators until the age of 75, even if the House of Commons has been dissolved or an election has been called.
  5. ^ André Arthur and Bill Casey.
  6. ^ André Arthur
  7. ^ Anne Cools, Michael Pitfield, Marcel Prud'homme, Jean-Claude Rivest, Mira Spivak.
  8. ^ Anne Cools, Jean-Claude Rivest.
  9. ^ Elaine McCoy, Lowell Murray, Norman Atkins
  10. ^ Elaine McCoy, Lowell Murray
  11. ^ Helena GuergisCBC News (April 9, 2010). "Guergis to sit outside Tory caucus". CBC. Archived from the original on April 11, 2010. Retrieved April 9, 2010.
  12. ^ Raymond Lavigne sat as a Liberal, but was not officially part of the Liberal caucus.
  13. ^ Lillian Dyck.
  14. ^ "NDP MP to seek provincial seat in B.C.". cbc.ca, March 7, 2009.
  15. ^ a b c d "Conservatives win 2 byelections, 1 at Bloc's expense". cbc.ca, November 10, 2009.
  16. ^ Tory MP ejected from caucus after budget vote, CBC.ca, June 5, 2007.
  17. ^ "Bloc MP runs for municipal politics". CTV News, June 25, 2009.
  18. ^ "NDP’s Judy Wasylycia-Leis calls it quits". The Globe and Mail, April 27, 2010.
  19. ^ a b c "Fantino wins Vaughan for Tories; Liberals take Manitoba by-election". The Globe and Mail, November 30, 2010.
  20. ^ Maurizio Bevilacqua moves closer to Vaughan mayor’s seat. The National Post, August 25, 2010.
  21. ^ "Inky hopes to make a Mark as mayor again". Winnipeg Free Press, August 17, 2010.
  22. ^ "Jean-Yves Roy quitte la politique". Radio-Canada, October 22, 2010.
  23. ^ "Hill set to resign on Oct. 25: CP". Prince George Citizen, October 4, 2010.
  24. ^ "Prentice resigns seat; earliest byelection Jan. 3. Calgary Herald, November 17, 2010. p. A4
  25. ^ "House Government Bill - C-15, First Reading (40-2)". Retrieved December 25, 2016.
  26. ^ a b CBC News (December 31, 2009). "PM shuts down Parliament until March". CBC. Retrieved December 31, 2009.
  27. ^ Richard J. Brennan (January 2, 2010). "Critics say anger is growing over PM's 'imperial' style". Toronto Star. Archived from the original on January 5, 2010. Retrieved January 2, 2010.
  28. ^ POV, CBC News (December 30, 2009). "Parliament prorogued: Necessary move or undemocratic?". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on January 2, 2010. Retrieved July 5, 2012.
  29. ^ "PM 'shutting democracy down', says Easter". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. December 31, 2009. Archived from the original on January 3, 2010. Retrieved January 1, 2010.
  30. ^ "Harper goes prorogue". January 7, 2010. Retrieved December 25, 2016 – via The Economist.
  31. ^ "Thousands protest Parliament's suspension". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. January 23, 2010. Archived from the original on January 26, 2010. Retrieved January 24, 2010.
  32. ^ Delacourt, Susan; Richard J. Brennan (January 5, 2010). "Grassroots fury greets shuttered Parliament". Toronto Star. Archived from the original on January 8, 2010. Retrieved January 20, 2010.
  33. ^ "'Famous 5' named honorary senators". CBC News. October 10, 2009.
  34. ^ "House of Commons Committees - PROC - ARCHIVE (40-1)". Parliament of Canada. Retrieved March 27, 2012.
  35. ^ "House of Commons Committees - PROC (40-1)". Parliament of Canada. Retrieved March 27, 2012.
  36. ^ "Senate Committees Homepage". Retrieved December 25, 2016.
  37. ^ "Elections Canada". Elections.ca. Retrieved June 13, 2012.
  38. ^ "Bill Casey leaving politics for government job", Truro Daily News, April 27, 2009.
  39. ^ [1][dead link]
  40. ^ http://www.radio-canada.ca/regions/est-quebec/2009/09/23/002-investiture_genereux.shtml Radio-Canada.ca (in French)
  41. ^ http://lepeuplecotesud.canoe.ca/webapp/sitepages/content.asp?contentid=110744&id=841&classif=Nouvelles Archived 2012-07-12 at Archive.today (in French)
  42. ^ "Le Parti libéral du Canada (Québec) annonce la candidature de Marcel Catellier à l'élection partielle dans Montmagny - L'Islet - Kamouraska - Rivière-du-Loup". Cnw.ca. Retrieved June 13, 2012.
  43. ^ http://www.infodimanche.com/index.asp?s=detail_actualite&ID=132701 (in French)
  44. ^ http://punditsguide.ca/ Pundit's Guide
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