|Systematic (IUPAC) name|
|Biological half-life||36 hours|
|Synonyms||2-Amino- 4,6-dimethyl- 3-oxo- 3H-phenoxazine- 1,9-dicarboxylic acid bis- [(5,12-diisopropyl- 9,13,16-trimethyl- 4,7,11,14,17-pentaoxo- hexadecahydro- 10-oxa- 3a,6,13,16-tetraaza- cyclopentacyclohexadecen- 8-yl)- amide]|
|Molecular mass||1255.42 g/mol|
|(what is this?)|
Dactinomycin (INN, BAN, AAN and USAN also known generically as actinomycin D), is the most significant member of actinomycines, which are a class of polypeptide antitumor antibiotics isolated from soil bacteria of the genus Streptomyces. It is one of the older anticancer drugs, and has been used for many years.
Actinomycin D was the first antibiotic shown to have anti-cancer activity. It was first isolated by Selman Waksman and his co-worker H. B. Woodruff in 1940. It was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on December 10, 1964 and launched by Merck Sharp and Dohme under the trade name Cosmegen.
In cell biology, Actinomycin D is shown to have the ability to inhibit transcription. Actinomycin D does this by binding DNA at the transcription initiation complex and preventing elongation of RNA chain by RNA polymerase.
Actinomycin is a clear, yellow liquid administered intravenously and most commonly used in treatment of a variety of cancers, including:
- Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia
- Wilms' tumor
- Ewing's sarcoma
- Malignant hydatidiform mole
It is also used as a radiosensitizer in adjunct to radiotherapies, since it can increase the radiosensitivity of tumor cells by inhibiting repair of sublethal radiation damage and delay the onset of the compensatory hyperplasia that occurs following irradiation.
Because Actinomycin can bind DNA duplexes, it can also interfere with DNA replication, although other chemicals such as hydroxyurea are better suited for use in the laboratory as inhibitors of DNA synthesis.
Actinomycin D and its fluorescent derivative, 7-aminoactinomycin D (7-AAD), are used as stains in microscopy and flow cytometry applications. The affinity of these stains/compounds for GC-rich regions of DNA strands makes them excellent markers for DNA. 7-AAD binds to single stranded DNA; therefore it is a useful tool in determining apoptosis and distinguishing between dead cells and live ones.
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- Jaffe, N.; Paed, D.; Traggis, D.; Salian, S.; Cassady, J. R. (1976). "Improved outlook for Ewing's sarcoma with combination chemotherapy (vincristine, actinomycin D and cyclophosphamide) and radiation therapy". Cancer 38 (5): 1925–1930. doi:10.1002/1097-0142(197611)38:5<1925::AID-CNCR2820380510>3.0.CO;2-J. PMID 991106.
- Uberti, E. M. H.; Fajardo, M. D. C.; Ferreira, S. V. V. R.; Pereira, M. C. V.; Seger, R. C.; Moreira, M. A. L. R.; Torres, M. D.; De Nápoli, G.; Schmid, H. (2009). "Reproductive outcome after discharge of patients with high-risk hydatidiform mole with or without use of one bolus dose of actinomycin D, as prophylactic chemotherapy, during the uterine evacuation of molar pregnancy". Gynecologic Oncology 115 (3): 476–481. doi:10.1016/j.ygyno.2009.09.012. PMID 19818481.
- Hagemann, R. F.; Concannon, J. P. (1973). "Mechanism of intestinal radiosensitization by actinomycin D". British Journal of Radiology 46 (544): 302–308. doi:10.1259/0007-1285-46-544-302. PMID 4720744.
- Toba, K.; Koike, T.; Watanabe, K.; Fuse, I.; Takahashi, M.; Hashimoto, S.; Takahashi, H.; Abe, T.; Yano, T.; Shibazaki, Y.; Itoh, H.; Aizawa, Y. (2000). "Cell kinetic study of normal humanbone marrow hematopoiesis andacute leukemia using 7AAD/PY". European Journal of Haematology 64 (1): 10–21. doi:10.1034/j.1600-0609.2000.09005.x. PMID 10680701.