Akhara

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A ceremonial procession of akhara marching over a makeshift bridge over the Ganges river, during Kumbha Mela at Allahabad, 2001

Akhara or Akhada (Sanskrit and Hindi: अखाड़ा, shortened to khara Hindi: खाड़ा) is an Indian word for a place of practice with facilities for boarding, lodging and training, both in the context of Indian martial artists or a sampradaya monastery for religious renunciates in Guru–shishya tradition.[1] For example, in the context of the Dashanami Sampradaya sect, the word denotes both martial arts and religious monastic aspects of the trident wielding martial regiment of renunciate sadhus.[2]

Etymology[edit]

The Sanskrit origin term akhara, is a gender egalitarian term,[3] which means the circle or more precisely the spiritual core,[4] congregation or league,[5] it is similar to the Greek-origin word academy and the English word school, can be used to mean both a physical institution or a group of them which share a common lineage or are under a single leadership, such as the school of monastic thought or the school of martial arts. Unlike the gurukul in which students live and study at the home of a guru, members of an akhara although train under a guru but they do not live a domestic or homely life. Some strictly practice Brahmacharya (celibacy) and others may require complete renunciation of worldly life. For example, wrestlers are expected to live a pure life while living at akahara with other fellow wrestlers, refraining from sex and owning few material possessions.

In some languages such as Odia the word is officially transcribed as akhada, by way of rendering the flapped [ɽ] sound as a d. The Haryanvi and Khari Boli dialects shorten this to khada (खाड़ा).

History[edit]

The historic Jarasandha's Akhara at Rajgir, mentioned in the Mahabharata.

In its earliest usage, akhara referred to training halls for professional fighters. Govind Sadashiv Ghurye translates the term as "military regiment".[6] Ancient use of the word can be found in the Mahabharata (c. 400 BCE text describing 900 BCE era) epic which mentions Jarasandha's Akhara at Rajgir. Legendary figures like Parashurama and Agastya are credited as the founders of the early martial akhara in certain regions of India.[2]

Svinth (2002) traces press ups and squats used by South Asian wrestlers to the pre-classical era.[7] Many of the popular sports mentioned in the Vedas and the epics have their origins in military training, such as boxing (musti-yuddha), wrestling (maladwandwa), chariot-racing (rathachalan), horse-riding (aswa-rohana) and archery (dhanurvidya).[8]

When the 8th-century philosopher Adi Shankaracharya (788-820 CE) founded the Dashanami Sampradaya, he divided the ascetics into two categories: Shastradhari (Sanskrit: शास्त्रधारी, lit. scripture-bearers) intelligentsia and Astradhari (Sanskrit: अस्त्रधारी, lit. weapon-bearers) warriors. Shankaracharya established Naga sadhus as an astradhari armed order.[2] He also popularised the Char Dhams during the rein of Katyuri dynasty of Garhwal Kingdom.[9]

In 904 CE and 1146 CE, Niranjani Akhara and Juna Akhara were founded respectively.[10]

In 1398, Islamic fanatic Timur massacred thousands of Sadhus of various Akharas and Hindus at Haridwar mela after sacking Delhi to punish the Tughlaq Dynasty's Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud Shah Tughluq's perceived lack of brutality towards Hindus.[10]

In 1690 CE and 1760 CE, Akharas of Saivites and Vaishnava sects fought each other at Nashik mela (60,000 died) and Haridwar mela (1,800 died).[10]

In 1780, British company raj establish the sequence of order of procession for royal bathing by the akharas at Kumbh Mela to eliminate disputes.[10]

Today, akhara may be used for religious purposes or for the teaching of yoga and martial arts. Some of the noted Akhara organizations include, Akhil Bharatiya Akhara Parishad (All India Akhara Council), Nirmohi Akhara, Shri Dattatreya Akhara and Guru Hanuman Akhara.

Akharas within Guru–Shishya traditional Sampradaya-Paramparas[edit]

Sampradaya is a particular system of belief and within it a particular guru's lineage is called parampara. There are 3 distinct belief-system Sampradayas (Vaishnava, Shaivite and Dashanami sampradaya), each of which follows one of 3 types of Guru–shishya parampara lineage (Deva, Rishi and Manav parampara), each sampradaya-parampara may have several akharas of shastradhari (intellectuals) or astradhari (warriors), and larger akharas may have own one or more permanent mathas.

Sampradaya (Sanskrit : सम्प्रदाय IAST sampradāya) translated as ‘tradition’, 'spiritual lineage' or a ‘religious system’.[11][note 1] It relates to a succession of masters and disciples, which serves as a spiritual channel, and provides a delicate network of relationships that lends stability to a religious identity.[11] Sampradaya is a body of practice, views and attitudes, which are transmitted, redefined and reviewed by each successive generation of followers.[11] A particular guru lineage is called parampara. By receiving diksha (initiation) into the guru–shishya traditional parampara of a living guru, one belongs to its proper sampradaya.[11] One cannot become a member by birth, as is the case with gotra, a seminal, or hereditary, dynasty. In the traditional residential form of education, the shishya remains with his or her guru as a family member and gets the education as a true learner.[12] In some traditions there is never more than one active master at the same time in the same guruparamaparya (lineage).[13]

Sampradaya: three sampradayas are Vaishnava, Shavite and Advait


Paramparās: 3 types (Daiva, Rishi and Manav)
Daiva-paramparā
Ṛiṣhi-paramparā
Mānava-paramparā

Two types of Akhara: Shashtradhari and Astradhari[edit]

When the 8th-century philosopher Adi Shankaracharya founded the Dashanami Sampradaya, he divided the ascetics into two categories:[2]

  • Shastradhari (Sanskrit: शास्त्रधारी, lit. scripture-bearers) intelligentsia.
  • Astradhari (Sanskrit: अस्त्रधारी, lit. weapon-bearers) warriors. This refers to the Naga sadhus (a sub-set of Dashanami Sampradaya), an armed order created by Shankaracharya to act as a Hindu army. These highly militant sadhu used to serve as mercenaries and thus were divided into akhara or regiments.[2] Although they still carry weapons, the modern Naga sadhu rarely practice any form of fighting aside from wrestling.

Astra Martial Arts Akhara[edit]

Astra (HIndi: अस्त्र), the weapons or martial arts have a long tradition in India. The oldest recorded organized unarmed fighting art in South Asia is malla-yuddha or combat-wrestling, codified into four forms and pre-dating the Vedic Period.[24] Stories describing Krishna report that he sometimes engaged in wrestling matches where he used knee strikes to the chest, punches to the head, hair pulling, and strangleholds.[7] Based on such accounts, Svinth (2002) traces press ups and squats used by South Asian wrestlers to the pre-classical era.[7]

In modern usage, akhara most often denotes a wrestling ground[2] and is typically associated with kushti. For wrestlers, the akhara serves as a training school and an arena in which to compete against each other.[25] The akhara used by wrestlers still have dirt floors to which water, red ochre, buttermilk and oil are added. Aside from wrestling, other fighting systems are also taught and practiced in akhara, which are commonly named after their founder. Indian martial artists may still practice in regional versions of traditional akhara today, but these are often replaced with modern training studios outside India.

Dangal[edit]

While akhara is a place where practicing martial artists lodge and train under a martial art guru, akhara is also usually an arena for the dangal organised among the competing sports person.[26] While living at akhara, pehlwan practice celibacy, stay smoke free and alcohol free and they eat nutrition tradition diet usually rich in milk, ghee, dried nuts and roti.[26] Dangal is originally a Punjabi language word which means Sparring or competition in akhara.[27] Sparring is a form of training common to many combat sports which may vary in its precise form varies, but it is relatively 'free-form' fighting, with enough rules, customs, or agreements to make injuries unlikely.

Dangal (film) (English: Wrestling competition) is a 2016 Indian Hindi-language biographical sports drama film, directed by Nitesh Tiwari and produced by Aamir Khan, loosely based on the Phogat family, telling the story of Mahavir Singh Phogat, an amateur wrestler, who trains his daughters Geeta Phogat and Babita Kumari to become India's first world-class female wrestlers.[28]

Langot[edit]

Youth in langota harvesting lotus in pond, 850 CE.

Langot (लंगोट) or langota (लंगोटा), also Kaupinam (कौपिनम) or kaupina (कौपिन), is a traditional style of Indian loincloth for men, worn as underwear in dangal held in akharas. It is now mainly used by men when exercising and other intense physical games especially wrestling, to prevent hernias and hydrocele.[29]

Langota, mostly worn by wrestlers, is a sewn undergarment which covers the buttocks and groin. A kaupina, mostly worn by ascetics or by older men in poorer parts of India, is a similar but unsewn garment which does not covers the buttocks and instead it passes between the buttocks.

Major Martial Arts Akharas[edit]

India wrestling akhara training

The major traditional Indian-origin martial arts akhara, mostly focused on wrestling and Pehlwani, by state include:

Shashtra Monastic Akhara[edit]

Front facade of Naya Udasin Akhara, Kankhal

Shastra (Sanskrit and Hindi: शास्त्र) means treatise, scriptures or the school of thoughts based on those. There has been a long monastic tradition of obtaining "Shashtra Vidhya" (knowledge of sashtras) in various Sampradaya schools of thoughts in Hinduism, where disciples could learn one or more of the following in a monastic setting: Hindu scriptures, Yoga Sashtra, Vastu shastra (architecture), Vaimānika Shāstra (ancient aerospace technology), Jyotiḥśāstra (astrology), Nadi sashtra (fortune telling), Rasa shastra (medicine), Shilpa Shastras (arts and craft), Natya Shastra (dance, drama and performing arts),[3] Tantra, Para Vidya (Higher scholar), Madhu-vidya (knolwedge of bliss), and so on.

Organization of Monastic Akhara[edit]

According to some texts, an akhara is governed by the sacred body of five Sri Pancha and divided into 8 dava (divisions) and 52 Matha (Sanskrit: मठ) or Marhi (Hindi: मढ़ी). The maths are permanent centres of monastic practice with physical structures, led by a mahant or spiritual leader. Though not all akharas follow this structure, mainly due to the insufficient size. For example, smaller akhara, some as small as having only one marhi, may be set up either as a subsidiary affiliate to a larger and more established older akhara group or occasionally an independent akhara due to the disagreements over succession. Akharas can march as subsidiary akhara under the current preferential order of sequence in the Shahi Snan during Kumbh Mela or they are given the last place if their claim for the independent akhara is approved by the authorities.[43]

Sri Pancha[edit]

According to the texts, the top administrative body of each of the akhara is the Sri Pancha (sacred body of five), representing Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva, Shakti and Ganesha. It is elected by consensus from among the Mahants of Matha or Marhi (Sanskrit: मठ and Hindi: मढ़ी ) that make up an akhara on every Kumbha Mela and the body holds its post for 4 years. It is a concept similar to centuries old Indian republican consensual elective system of Panchayat (at an individual village level) and Khap (grouping of the related villages within a union).

Among the five elected Sri Pancha of the akhara, they hold the following positions in the decreasing order of seniority, all of which can be considered guru in their own right:

Sampradaya-based Classification of Akharas[edit]

Nashipur Akhara Chandeliers
A young boy practising, Gatka, SIkh martial art of Udasi Akhara

At highest level, akhara are classified into one of the four different Sampradaya (philosophical denominations) based on their traditional systems:[44][45] Each sampradaya has several paramparas (lineages), each started by a guru based on the guru-shishya tradition. The subsidiary status is as per the traditional Shahi Snan preferential sequence of procession, though time to time several subsidiary akharas have unsuccessfully tried with authorities to have this sequence altered as the number of their followers grew.[43]

(Note: these are the types of akharas, not the names of akharas)

  • Sanyasi Akhara (Hindi: सन्यासी अखाड़ा) of the followers of Shiva. Examples of such akharas include the Niranjani Akhara and its subsidiary Ananda Akhara, Juna Akhara and its subsidiary Avahan Akhara and Agni Akhara.[45][43]
  • Vairagi Akhara, also Bairagi Akhara (Hindi: बैरागी अखाड़ा) of the followers of Vishnu. Examples of such akharas include the Mahanirvani Akhara (or simply Nirvani) and their subsidiary Atal Akhara, Nirmohi Akhara and Digambar Akhara, and Khalsa akharas.[45][43]
  • Udasi Akhara (Hindi: उदासी अखाड़ा) of the followers of Sikhism. Examples of such akharas include the Nirmal Akhara.[45][43]
  • Kalpwasis (Hindi: कल्पवासी अखाड़ा) of the followers of Brahma, generally ordinary people who are temporarily living the austere life during the Kumbh Mela to mimic Vanaprastha (Sanskrit: वनप्रस्थ) "retiring into a forest" stage of later life.[45][43]

Still-extant Ancient Akharas[edit]

The still-extant seven Shastradhari or monastic Hindu akhara founded by the 8th-century philosopher Adi Shankaracharya (also the founder of four Mathas) can be classified, in terms of affiliation and the number of followers, as three major akharas, three minor akharas under major akharas and one smaller akhara under the major akhara:[1]

# Akhara Subsidiary Akhara Sub-subsidiary Akhara
1 Niranjani Akhara
Founded in 904 CE[10]
Ananda Akhara, attached to Niranjani Akhara -
2 Juna Akhara
Founded in 1146 CE[10]
Avahan Akhara, attached to Juna Akhara Agni Akhara, attached to Juna Akhara
3 Mahanirvani Akhara Atal Akhara, attached to Mahanirvani Akhara -

The akhara with the most sadhu is Juna Akhara, followed by Niranjani Akhara and Mahanirvani Akhara. Among these, today, three are considered major akhara (Juna, Niranjani and Mahanirvani) and three minor akhara (Avahan affiliated with Juna, Ananda affiliated with Niranjani and Atal affiliated with Mahanirvani). The 7th, small Brahmachari (celibate) akhara named Agni is also affiliated with Juna Akhara.

Akharas Today[edit]

There are numerous other still-extant akharas, founded by the disciples of the existing akharas, that are usually loosely or directly aligned under one of the existing akhara lineage. The Akhil Bharatiya Akhara Parishad (ABAP) (Hindi: अखिल भारतीय अखाड़ा परिषद, transliterated as All India Akhara Council), founded in 1954,[46] is the apex organisation of 13 akharas of Hindu Sants (saints) and Sadhus (ascetics) representing the largest followership in India.[47][48] These are entitled to the special privilege of the Shahi Snan at Kumbh Mela and Ujjain Simhastha mela in a pre-determined sequence.[45]

Akharas Sequence At Kumbh Mela's Shahi Snan[edit]

The monastic akhara and their Sri Pancha of various sects meet during the Kumbha Mela. The Naga sadhu and the various akhara traditionally lead and initiate the bathing rituals before the general population steps in.[49][50]

The order of procession is 1. Mahanirvani akhara with Atal akhara, 2. Niranjani akhara with Anand akhara, 3. Juna akhara with Ahvahan and Agni akhara, 4. Nirvani akhara, 5. Digambar akhara, 6. Normohi akhara, 7. Naya Udasin akhara, 8. Bada Udasin akhara and 9. Nirmal akhara.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The word commands much more respect and power in the Indian context than its translations in English does.
  2. ^ the famous redactor of the vedas, he is also traditionally identified with Bādarāyaṇa, the composer of the Brahmasūtras

Further reading[edit]

Martial arts akhara

Monastic akhara

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Akharas and Kumbh Mela What Is Hinduism?: Modern Adventures Into a Profound Global Faith, by Editors of Hinduism Today, Hinduism Today Magazine Editors. Published by Himalayan Academy Publications, 2007. ISBN 1-934145-00-9. 243-244.
  2. ^ a b c d e f James G. Lochtefeld (2002). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: A-M. The Rosen Publishing Group. pp. 23–4. ISBN 978-0-8239-3179-8. 
  3. ^ a b Art and Culture: Painting and Perspective, Volume 2, Ahsan Jan Qaisar, Som Prakash Verma.2002
  4. ^ Carnival of the Soul At India’s Maha Kumbh Mela, News Week, Tahir Shah, 3 May 2013
  5. ^ [Three Essays: Cannibalism, The Kumbh Mela, The Legacy of Arab Science, Tahir Shah, pp.42]
  6. ^ "The Wrestler's Body". Publishing.cdlib.org. Retrieved 2012-03-29. 
  7. ^ a b c Kim Taylor. "Kronos: A Chronological History of the Martial Arts and Combative Sports". Ejmas.com. Retrieved 2015-09-27. 
  8. ^ The Timechart History of India. Robert Frederick Ltd. 2005. ISBN 0-7554-5162-7. 
  9. ^ Handa, O.C(Omacanda) (2002). History of Uttaranchal. New Delhi: Indus Publishing. ISBN 9788173871344. , p.26
  10. ^ a b c d e f Kumbh Mela was originally known as Magh Mela, Outlook India
  11. ^ a b c d Gupta 2002.
  12. ^ A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada Srimad Bhagavatam 7.12.1, The Bhaktivedanta Book Trust, 1976, ISBN 0-912776-87-0
  13. ^ Padoux, André. "The Tantric Guru" in David Gordon White (ed.) 2000. Tantra in Practice, p. 44. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press OCLC 43441625
  14. ^ a b c Hawaii Saiva siddhanta Church article
  15. ^ Mathew Chandrankunnel (2008) "Philosophy of Quantum Mechanics" P. 720 ISBN 8182202582
  16. ^ Nisargathatta maharaj
  17. ^ International Nath Order
  18. ^ P. N. K. Bamzai (1994) "Culture and Political History of Kashmir"
  19. ^ V. N. Drabu (1990) "Śaivāgamas: A Study in the Socio-economic Ideas and Institutions of Kashmir (200 B.C. to A.D. 700) Indus Publishing ISBN 9788185182384
  20. ^ Lakshmanjo Academy
  21. ^ Journal of the Oriental Institute (pp 301), by Oriental Institute (Vadodara, India)
  22. ^ Indian Sadhus by Govind Sadashiv Ghurye
  23. ^ Advaitic Concept of Jīvanmukti by Lalit Kishore Lal Srivastava
  24. ^ "Kalarippayattu, The divine martial art of Kerala". 16 May 2009. Archived from the original on 16 May 2009. 
  25. ^ Chakravertty, Shreya (26 August 2008). "Life in Satpal's akhada: Early mornings and lots of ghee". Indian Express. Retrieved 10 June 2013. 
  26. ^ a b Rudraneil Sengupta, 2016, Enter the Dangal: Travels through India's Wrestling Landscape, chapter 1 and 2.
  27. ^ meaning of Dangal, HindiMeaningInd.in.
  28. ^ "Baahubali 2 vs Dangal box office collection: Aamir's film trailing Rajamouli's by a few crores". India Today. 24 May 2017. Retrieved 24 May 2017. 
  29. ^ Raman Das Mahatyagi (2007). Yatan Yoga: A Natural Guide to Health and Harmony. YATAN Ayurvedics. pp. 33–. ISBN 978-0-9803761-0-4. 
  30. ^ a b c Adopt a akhara scheme
  31. ^ Phogat to launch Hisar wrestling nursery on Feb 15, India Timea, 15 Feb 2017
  32. ^ About Hindu Public School
  33. ^ a b Gurgaon akharas.
  34. ^ a b c d e f g h Top 10 Indian akhara training centres, ScoopWhoop
  35. ^ http://kushtiwrestling.blogspot.sg/2013/09/guru-leelu-akhada-in-ladpur-haryana.html Guru Leelu Akhara]
  36. ^ Dangal effect? Mahavir Singh Phogat’s akhara finally gets wrestling mat, Economic Times, Aman Sharma, 02 Jan 2017
  37. ^ Akhara praised by Gandhi lies unsung on its centenary in Amravati, DNA News, 1-May-2012
  38. ^ Chandgi Ram Akhara promoting women wrestling since 40 years, DNA News, Bhanvi Arora, 20-February-2015
  39. ^ Guru hanuman akhara
  40. ^ a b Ranjit Akhara
  41. ^ Hindu origin of Sikh religion and martial arts, www.shastarvidiya.org
  42. ^ Fight clubs of varanasi, The Hindu Business Line, 7 Nov 2014
  43. ^ a b c d e f [South Asian Religions on Display: Religious Processions in South Asia and in the Diaspora, Knut A. Jacobsen, ISBN hardback 978-0-415-4373-3, ISBN ebook ISBN hardback 978-0-203-93059-5]
  44. ^ "Akhada". www.firstfoundation.in. Retrieved 2013-02-28. 
  45. ^ a b c d e f Akharas At Simhastha Kumbha Mela Ujjain, 17-Jan-201
  46. ^ Tussle between Akhara members, WebDuniya
  47. ^ "Akhara Parishad welcomes verdict on Ayodhya". The Hindustan Times. 2010-09-30. Archived from the original on 4 October 2010. Retrieved 2010-10-02. 
  48. ^ "Akhara Parishad do not see eye-to-eye with VHP". The Hindu. 2005-06-14. Retrieved 2010-10-01. 
  49. ^ Kumbha Mela Students' Britannica India, by Dale Hoiberg, Indu Ramchandani. Published by Popular Prakashan, 2000. ISBN 0-85229-760-2.Page 259-260.
  50. ^ Maha Kumbh Mahakumbh: The Greatest Show on Earth, by J.S. Mishra. Published by Har-Anand Publications, 2007. ISBN 81-241-0993-1. Page 21.

Indian martial arts