Bismarck, North Dakota
Bismarck, North Dakota
|City of Bismarck|
Location within Burleigh County
|Founded||May 14, 1872|
|Named for||Otto von Bismarck|
|• Mayor||Steve Bakken|
|• State capital city||31.23 sq mi (80.89 km2)|
|• Land||30.85 sq mi (79.90 km2)|
|• Water||0.38 sq mi (0.98 km2)|
|Elevation||1,686 ft (514 m)|
|• State capital city||61,272|
| • Estimate |
|• Rank||US: 494th|
|• Density||2,000/sq mi (760/km2)|
|• Urban||81,955 (349th)|
|• Metro||132,678 (303rd)|
|Time zone||UTC-6 (CST)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC-5 (CDT)|
|GNIS feature ID||1035849|
|Highways||I-94, I-94 Bus., US 83, ND 95, ND 810, ND 1804|
Bismarck (//) is the capital of the U.S. state of North Dakota and the county seat of Burleigh County. It is the second-most populous city in North Dakota after Fargo. The city's population was estimated in 2018 at 73,112, while its metropolitan population was 132,678. In 2017, Forbes magazine ranked Bismarck as the seventh fastest-growing small city in the United States.
Bismarck was founded by European Americans in 1872 on the east bank of the Missouri River. It has been North Dakota's capital city since 1889, when the state was created from the Dakota Territory and admitted to the Union.
The North Dakota State Capitol, the tallest building in the state, is in central Bismarck. The state government employs more than 4,600 in the city. As a hub of retail and health care, Bismarck is the economic center of south-central North Dakota and north-central South Dakota.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Law and government
- 5 Economy
- 6 Education and libraries
- 7 Culture
- 8 Health care
- 9 Media
- 10 Transportation
- 11 Sports
- 12 Notable people
- 13 Notes
- 14 References
- 15 External links
For thousands of years, present-day central North Dakota was inhabited by indigenous peoples, who created successive cultures. The historic Mandan Native American tribe occupied the area long before Europeans arrived. The Hidatsa name for Bismarck is mirahacii arumaaguash ("Place of the tall willows"); the Arikara name is ituhtaáwe [itUhtaáwe].
In 1872 European Americans founded a settlement at what was then called Missouri Crossing, so named because the Lewis and Clark Expedition crossed the river there on their exploration of the Louisiana Purchase in 1804-1806. It had been an area of Mandan settlement. Later the new town was called Edwinton, after Edwin Ferry Johnson (1803–1872), engineer-in-chief for the Northern Pacific Railway. Its construction of railroads in the territory attracted workers and settlers.
In 1873, the Northern Pacific Railway renamed the city as Bismarck, in honor of German chancellor Otto von Bismarck. It is the only US state capital named for a foreign statesman. Railroad officials hoped to attract German immigrant settlers to the area and German investment in the railroad. The discovery of gold in the nearby Black Hills of South Dakota the following year was a greater impetus for growth. Thousands of miners came to the area, encroaching on what the Lakota considered sacred territory and leading to heightened tensions with the Native Americans. Bismarck became a freight-shipping center on the "Custer Route" from the Black Hills. In 1883 Bismarck was designated as the capital of the Dakota Territory, and in 1889 as the state capital of the new state of North Dakota.
Bismarck is located at (46.813343, −100.779004).
The city has developed around downtown Bismarck, the center of historic development. It is distinctive because the city's major shopping center, Kirkwood Mall, is in the center city rather than in the suburbs. Several other major retail stores are in the vicinity of Kirkwood Mall, which was developed near the Bismarck Civic Center. The two Bismarck hospitals, St. Alexius Medical Center and Sanford Health (previously Medcenter One Health Systems) are both downtown. The streets are lined with small stores and restaurants, providing numerous amenities.
Much recent commercial and residential growth has taken place in the city's northern section, largely because of expanding retail centers. Among the shopping centers in northern Bismarck are Gateway Fashion Mall, Northbrook Mall, Arrowhead Plaza, and the Pinehurst Square "power center" mall.
The North Dakota State Capitol complex is just north of downtown Bismarck. The 19-story Art Deco capitol is the tallest building in the city and the state, at a height of 241.75 feet (73.69 m). The capitol building towers over the city's center and is easily seen from 20 miles (32 km) away on a clear day. Completed during the Great Depression in 1934, it replaced a capitol building that burned to the ground in 1930. The capitol grounds house the North Dakota Heritage Center, the North Dakota State Library, the North Dakota Governor's Residence, the State Office Building, and the Liberty Memorial Building. The North Dakota State Penitentiary is in eastern Bismarck.
The Cathedral District, named after the art deco Cathedral of the Holy Spirit, is an historic neighborhood near downtown Bismarck. Some homes in this neighborhood date to the 1880s, although many were built in the first decades of the 20th century. At times, the city has proposed widening the streets in the neighborhood to improve traffic flow. Many residents object because such a project would require the removal of many of the towering American elms which line the streets. These have escaped the elm disease that destroyed street canopies of trees in eastern cities.
After the completion of Garrison Dam in 1953 by the Army Corps of Engineers, which improved flood control, the floodplain of the Missouri River became a more practical place for development. Significant residential and commercial building has taken place in this area on the south side of the city. The Upper Missouri River is still subject to seasonal flooding.
Situated in the middle of the Great Plains, between the geographic centers of the United States and Canada, Bismarck displays a highly variable four-season humid continental climate (Köppen Dfb). Bismarck's climate is characterized by cold, somewhat snowy and windy winters, and hot humid summers. Thunderstorms occur in spring and summer, but much of the rest of the year is dry.
The warmest month in Bismarck is July, with a daily mean of 71.1 °F (21.7 °C), with typically wide variations between day and night. The coldest month is January, with a 24-hour average of 12.8 °F (−10.7 °C). Precipitation peaks from May to September and is rather sparse in the winter months. Winter snowfall is typically light to moderate, occurring with the passage of frontal systems; major storms are rare.
|Climate data for Bismarck Municipal Airport, North Dakota (1981–2010 normals,[a] extremes 1874–present[b])|
|Record high °F (°C)||63
|Mean maximum °F (°C)||46.8
|Average high °F (°C)||23.4
|Daily mean °F (°C)||12.8
|Average low °F (°C)||2.2
|Mean minimum °F (°C)||−22.8
|Record low °F (°C)||−45
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||0.43
|Average snowfall inches (cm)||8.9
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||7.5||7.0||7.9||7.4||10.1||11.2||9.7||8.2||7.5||6.6||7.0||7.6||97.7|
|Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)||9.7||8.1||6.4||2.5||0.4||0||0||0||0.1||1.4||6.6||10.0||45.2|
|Average relative humidity (%)||71.3||72.4||69.9||61.8||60.1||65.0||61.8||60.6||63.7||63.8||72.0||74.5||66.4|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||149.4||153.5||222.3||244.3||296.1||318.1||354.6||316.2||245.9||191.7||122.6||122.9||2,737.6|
|Percent possible sunshine||53||53||60||60||64||67||74||72||65||57||43||46||61|
|Source: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961–1990), The Weather Channel|
|U.S. Decennial Census|
As of the census of 2010, there were 61,272 people, 27,263 households, and 15,624 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,986.1 inhabitants per square mile (766.8/km2). There were 28,648 housing units at an average density of 928.6 per square mile (358.5/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 92.4% White, 0.7% African American, 4.5% Native American, 0.6% Asian, 0.3% from other races, and 1.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.3% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 56.1% were of German, 20.5% were of Norwegian, 7.2% were of Irish, 6.7% were of Russian, 3.7% were of American, 3.6% were of English descent.
There were 27,263 households of which 27% had children under the age of 18 living with them (the lowest percentage in North Dakota), 44.1% were married couples living together, 9.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.6% had a male householder with no wife present, and 42.7% were non-families. 34.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.18 and the average family size was 2.82.
The median age in the city was 38 years. 20.8% of residents were under the age of 18; 11% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 26.2% were from 25 to 44; 26.8% were from 45 to 64; and 15.4% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 48.6% male and 51.4% female.
At the time of the 2000 Census, there were 55,532 people, 23,185 households, and 14,444 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,065.2 per square mile (797.4/km²). There were 24,217 housing units at an average density of 900.6 per square mile (347.7/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 94.78% White, 3.39% Native American, 0.89% from two or more races, 0.75% Hispanic or Latino, 0.45% Asian, 0.28% Black or African American, 0.17% from other races and 0.03% Pacific Islander.
There were 23,185 households, of which 30.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.1% were married couples living together, 9.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 37.7% were non-families. 31.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.5% were someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.94.
In the city, the population was spread out with 23.5% under the age of 18, 11.1% from 18 to 24, 29.1% from 25 to 44, 22.4% from 45 to 64, and 13.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.8 males.
The median income per household in the city was $39,422, and the median income per family was $51,477. Males had a median income of $33,804 versus $22,647 for females. The per capita income for the city was $20,789. About 5.7% of families and 8.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.5% of those under age 18 and 7.4% of those age 65 or over.
Law and government
Bismarck operates under the city commission style of municipal government. Citizens elect five at-large city commissioners, which means they must generally command a majority of the electorate. This decreases the opportunity for smaller interest groups or minorities to elect candidates of their choice, reducing representation of the electorate. The president of the city commission fills the office of mayor of the city. The current mayor of Bismarck is Steve Bakken. The city commission meets every second and fourth Tuesday of each month.
According to the City's 2011 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the largest employers in the city are the following:
|#||Employer||# of Employees|
|1||Sanford Health||25,000 (company wide, including multi-state area.)|
|2||State of North Dakota||4,400|
|3||St. Alexius Medical Center||2,264|
|4||Bismarck Public Schools||1,804|
|5||United States government||1,200|
|10||City of Bismarck||544|
|11||Mid Dakota Clinic||530|
|12||Missouri Slope Lutheran Care Center||530|
|13||University of Mary||503|
|14||Coventry Health Care||460|
|15||Basin Electric Power Cooperative||455|
Education and libraries
Elementary, middle and high schools
The Bismarck Public Schools system operates sixteen elementary schools, three middle schools (Simle, Wachter, Horizon), three public high schools (Century High, Legacy High School, and Bismarck High) and one alternative high school (South Central High School). The system educates 10,400 students and employs 1,500 people.
Three Bismarck Catholic parishes operate primary schools (kindergarten through eighth grade): St. Mary's Grade School, St. Anne's Grade School, and Cathedral Grade School. St. Mary's Grade School, founded in 1878, is the oldest continuously operating elementary school in North Dakota.
There are three colleges and a university in Bismarck. The University of Mary is a four-year university, operated by the Benedictine Sisters of Annunciation Monastery. Bismarck State College is a two-year public college, the largest degree-granting institution in the city, and a member of the North Dakota University System. United Tribes Technical College is a two-year tribal college. Sanford Health, formerly Medcenter One, operates a nursing school that offers a Bachelor of Science in Nursing. The campus is just north of the medical center in central Bismarck.
The Belle Mehus Auditorium, a 1914 historic building in downtown Bismarck, is a center for the arts in the area. Performances of Northern Plains Dance and the Bismarck-Mandan Symphony Orchestra are held there.
Theater companies in Bismarck include the Capitol Shakespeare Society, Sleepy Hollow Summer Theatre, the Shade Tree Players children's theater group, Dakota Stage Ltd, University of Mary, Bismarck State College, and various high school groups. The Gannon and Elsa Forde Art Galleries are at Bismarck State College. The Missouri Valley Chamber Orchestra, founded in 2000, is the community's newest orchestra and performs a variety of musical genres.
Bismarck has a large park system and an extensive network of exercise trails. The Bismarck Parks and Recreation District, established in 1927, operates many parks, swimming pools, and several golf courses within the city. The World War I Memorial Building, which is listed on the National Register of Historic Places and operated by the recreation district, serves as a community gymnasium and was recognized by a 100 Cities 100 Memorials grant in 2018.
The Parks and Recreation District operates roughly 2,300 acres (930 ha) of public parkland. Sertoma Park stretches more than 3 miles (4.8 km) along the banks of the Missouri River. Within the park are several miles of biking trails and the Dakota Zoo.
There are five golf courses in Bismarck: four 18-hole courses (Apple Creek Country Club, Hawktree Golf Club, Riverwood Golf Course, and Tom O'Leary Golf Course), and one 9-hole course (Pebble Creek Golf Course).
One of the main tourism attractions of the Bismarck area is Fort Abraham Lincoln State Park, 7 miles (11 km) south of neighboring Mandan, North Dakota. It contains the partial reconstruction of Fort Abraham Lincoln, the headquarters of the 7th Cavalry and last command of General George Armstrong Custer before the Battle of the Little Bighorn (also known as the Battle of the Greasy Grass). The park includes On-a-Slant Village, a partially rebuilt earth lodge village once occupied by people of the historic Mandan tribe. Guided tours of both sites are offered in the summertime. There are also a museum on park history, nature trails, and a campground.
Hunting and fishing are popular in the area, with hunting seasons for deer, pheasant, and waterfowl. Fishing is a year-round sport on the Missouri River bordering Bismarck, and there are public docks on the river. From north to south, there is a dock at the Port of Bismarck, from which the Lewis and Clark passenger riverboat plies the Missouri; Fox Island Landing, about a half mile southwest of Riverwood Golf Course; and the Bismarck Dock at General Sibley Park, which has a boat ramp and picnic facilities.
Near Bismarck are several dammed lakes, including McDowell Dam Lake, 6 miles (9.7 km) east of the city; Harmon Lake, 8 miles (13 km) north of neighboring Mandan on the west side of the river; and two lakes several miles west of the city.
Bismarck is a regional center for health care. The city has two hospitals: St. Alexius Medical Center (285-bed) and Sanford Health (238-bed). When it was opened in 1885, St. Alexius was the first hospital in Dakota Territory and the Catholic facility is the oldest health care provider in the state of North Dakota. St. Alexius and Medcenter One have joined forces to form the Bismarck Cancer Center. Medcenter One was founded in 1908 as Bismarck Evangelical Hospital. In 1955 it was renamed as Bismarck Hospital, renamed again in 1984 to MedCenter One, and in 2012 became part of the Sanford Health system.
Bismarck is served by the Bismarck Tribune, the city's daily newspaper. Established in 1873, the paper is the oldest continuously operating business in the city. The Tribune is the official newspaper of the city of Bismarck, Burleigh County, and the state of North Dakota. The daily newspapers of other major cities in North Dakota are also available at area newsstands.
- KBME (ATSC RF channel 22) – virtual channels 3.1 PBS, 3.2 World, 3.3 Minnesota Channel, 3.4 Lifelong Learning
- KFYR (ATSC RF channel 31) – virtual channels 5.1 NBC, 5.2 Me-TV
- KXMB (ATSC RF channel 12) – virtual channels 12.1 CBS, 12.3 Weather
- KBMY (ATSC RF channel 17) – virtual channels 17.1 ABC
- KNDB (ATSC RF channel 26) – virtual channels 26.1 Fox
- K46DY analog NTSC channel 46 (TBN)
Bismarck supports some twenty-seven radio stations. Most of the commercial stations are owned by either Clear Channel Communications or Cumulus Media. Many of the lower frequency stations are broadcasters of national Christian radio networks. The local stations are:
- FM frequencies
- KBMK 88.3 FM (Contemporary Christian music) K-Love network affiliate
- K204FG 88.7 FM (Christian) BBN translator
- KLBF 89.1 FM (Christian) Faith Radio from the University of Northwestern - St Paul
- KNRI 89.7 FM (Christian rock) Air 1 affiliate
- KCND 90.5 FM (Public Radio) Prairie Public Radio
- KXRP 91.3 FM (Christian) Family Radio affiliate
- KPHA 91.7 FM (Catholic) Real Presence Radio
- KYYY 92.9 FM (Top 40/CHR) "Y93"
- KBEP-LP 93.7 FM (Christian) 3ABN affiliate
- KQDY 94.5 FM (Country) "KQ 94.5"
- K237FQ 95.3 FM translator simulcasting KJIT-LP
- KBYZ 96.5 FM (Classic rock) "The Fox"
- KKCT 97.5 FM (Top 40/CHR) "Hot 97-5"
- KACL 98.7 FM (Classic hits) "Cool 98.7"
- K259AF 99.7 FM translator simulcasting KFYR-AM
- KLBE-LP 100.7 FM (Christian rock) "Club Radio"
- KSSS 101.5 FM (Active Rock) "Rock 101"
- KUSB 103.3 FM (Country) "US 103.3"
- KNDR 104.7 FM (Contemporary Christian music)
- KKBO 105.9 FM (Country) "Big Rig 105.9"
- KJIT-LP 106.7 FM (Contemporary Christian music) Radio 74 affiliate
- KXRV 107.5 FM (Classic Hits) "Mojo 107.5"
- AM frequencies
- KFYR 550 AM (News/Talk/Sports/Oldies/Classic Hits/Top 40/CHR) "K-Fire"
- KXMR 710 AM (Sports) "ESPN 710"
- KBMR 1130 AM (Classic country) "Bismarck's original country station"
- KLXX 1270 AM (Talk)
- KDKT 1410 AM (Sports) "Fox Sports Radio 1410"
- WQDL503 1610 AM (Traveler's Information Station), North Dakota Department of Transportation
NOAA Weather Radio station WXL78 broadcasts from Bismarck on 162.475 MHz.
The Capital Area Transit System (CAT) began operations in May 2004. This public bus system is operated by the Bis-Man Transit Board and has eleven routes throughout Bismarck and Mandan, Monday-Saturday. Bis-Man Transit also operates a para-transit service for senior citizens and people with disabilities.
Bismarck Municipal Airport is south of the city. It has the largest passenger volume in western North Dakota and the second highest within the state. The airport is served by United Express, Allegiant Air, Delta Air Lines, American Airlines, and Frontier Airlines. A new $15 million terminal opened in May 2005. The previous terminal was built in the mid-1960s and expanded in the mid-1970s. After a windstorm collapsed part of the roof connecting the expanded terminal to the original building, officials decided to demolish the entire complex and build the new terminal.
The BNSF Railway runs east–west through the city. The railway was originally integral to the growth of Bismarck and Mandan. Today it is used for freight. Due to restructuring in the railroad industry, there has not been passenger train service in Bismarck since Amtrak's North Coast Hiawatha service ended in 1979. The closest Amtrak station is in Minot, north of Bismarck, which is served by the Empire Builder.
Two federal highways pass through Bismarck. Interstate 94 runs east–west through the city. The north–south U.S. Route 83 merges in north Bismarck with Interstate 94 and runs east for roughly 25 miles (40 km) before turning south.
High school and college sports are the main feature of the local athletics landscape. The athletic teams at the three public Bismarck high schools, Bismarck High School, Century High School, and Legacy High School, are known as The Demons, The Patriots, and The Sabers, respectively. The athletic teams at St. Mary's Central High School, Bismarck's Catholic high school, are known as The Saints. The teams at Bismarck State College and United Tribes Technical College are known as The Mystics and Thunderbirds, and both compete in the National Junior College Athletic Association. The teams at the University of Mary are The Marauders and compete in the Northern Sun Intercollegiate Conference. Bismarck has an American Legion baseball team called the Governors.
In the fall, the accent is on high school and college football. There are spirited rivalries among the several high schools in the area. The University of Mary added the sport in 1988. Most University of Mary football games are played in the Community Bowl. Other popular sports during the winter months include ice hockey, wrestling and basketball.
In spring, baseball is one of the top amateur sports in the city with each high school, Bismarck State College, and The University of Mary providing teams. The University of Mary also has a softball team. High schools and colleges also feature track and field during the spring.
In the summer, Bismarck has American Legion baseball and auto racing. The Fourth of July holiday is the height of rodeo time, with rodeos in Mandan and Bismarck. Slow-pitch softball is played by teams in the city. Bismarck is the host city of the world's largest charity softball tournament, the Sam McQuade Sr. Softball Tournament, in which more than 400 teams from all over the United States and Canada compete.
The Bismarck Bobcats hockey team of the North American Hockey League is made up of junior players (age twenty and younger, sometimes age twenty-one if waived). The Bobcats won back-to-back Borne Cup championships as members of the America West Hockey League before merging into the NAHL in 2003. The Bobcats have made several trips to the NAHL's national tournament, claiming their first-ever Robertson Cup title in 2010.
The Dakota Wizards of the NBA Development League was formerly based in Bismarck. The Wizards' first season took place in 1995 in the International Basketball Association. The Wizards won one title during their International Basketball Association days (1995–2001) and two during their Continental Basketball Association days (2001–2006). They were the 2006–07 champions of the NBA D-League, their first season in the league. The team moved to Santa Cruz, California, in 2012, a year after being purchased by the Golden State Warriors of the National Basketball Association.
Starting with the 2017 season, Bismarck is home to the Bismarck Bucks, a professional indoor football team in Champions Indoor Football. Bismarck has been the home of two professional indoor football teams, the Bismarck Blaze and the Bismarck Roughriders, but both teams left the city soon after they were formed.
Bismarck once had a professional baseball team, the Dakota Rattlers, but the team moved to Minot after several seasons in Bismarck.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bismarck, North Dakota.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Bismarck.|
- City of Bismarck official website
- Bismarck, North Dakota at Curlie
- Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911. .
- The New Student's Reference Work. 1914. .
- Bismarck, capital of North Dakota (1916) from the Digital Horizons website
- Bismarck, capital of North Dakota (1923) from the Digital Horizons website