The bouffant was a mainstream hairstyle in the mid-to-late 18th century in western Europe. It was thought to be created for Marie Antoinette, as she had relatively thin hair and wanted to create the illusion of having very full hair. The modern bouffant is considered to have been invented by Raymond Bessone.
bouffante from present participle of bouffer: "to puff, puff out."
Hair on the top of the head was raised, using a comb being dragged back and forward to create the raised effect which used knots in the hair caused by the comb. The hairstyle was lightly combed over the top to give a neat look.