Buddha (title)

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"The Seven Buddhas", at Sanchi (1st century BCE/CE). Six Buddhas of the past are represented, together with the current Buddha, Gautama Buddha, with his Bodhi Tree at the extreme right. In the central section are three stupas alternating with four trees with thrones in front of them, adored by figures both human and divine. These represent six Buddhas of the past (namely: Vipassī Buddha, Sikhī Buddha, Vessabhū Buddha, Kakusandha Buddha, Koṇāgamana Buddha and Kassapa Buddha) with the current Buddha, Gautama Buddha. Three are symbolized by their stupas, and four by the trees under which each respectively attained enlightenment. The tree on the extreme right is the pipal tree of Gautama Buddha and the one next to it is the banyan tree of Kassapa Buddha. The identification of the others is less certain.[1]

In Buddhism, Buddha (/ˈbdə, ˈbʊdə/; Sanskrit: बुद्ध) is a title for someone who has achieved enlightenment, nirvana and Buddhahood, and has fully comprehended the Four Noble Truths.[2] The title is most commonly used for Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism, who is often simply known as "the Buddha". However, the title can also be used for others who have achieved enlightenment, such as the other human Buddhas who achieved enlightment before Gautama, the five celestial Buddhas worshipped primarily by Vajrayana followers, and the bodhisattva named Maitreya, who will achieve enlightment in the future and succeed Gautama Buddha as the supreme Buddha of the world.

Etymology[edit]

The word Buddha means "the awakened one" or "the enlightened one". According to the Chinese Buddhist tradition, the title is literally translated as "the knowing one".[3] "Buddha" is also used as a title for the first awakened being in a Yuga era. In most Buddhist traditions, Siddhartha Gautama is regarded as the supreme Buddha (Pali sammāsambuddha, Sanskrit samyaksaṃbuddha) of the present age.

Hypothetical root budh "perceive" 1. Pali buddha – "understood, enlightened", masculine "the Buddha"; Aśokan (the language of the Inscriptions of Aśoka) Budhe nominative singular; Prakrit buddha – ‘ known, awakened ’; Waigalī būdāī, "truth"; Bashkarīk budh "he heard"; Shina Gilgitī dialect budo, "awake"; Kashmiri bọ̆du, "quick of understanding (especially of a child)"; Sinhalese buj (j written for d), budu, bud, but, "the Buddha".[4] The term is mirrored in various Indo-European languages with a common root/stem: *bheud- and meanings: to be awakened.

Buddhavamsa named 25 Buddhas including Gautama in section three until twenty seven, while the twenty eight section lists three Buddhas who lived before the time of Dipankara Buddha.[5]

List of the named Buddhas[edit]

Buddha's statue located near Belum Caves, Andhra Pradesh, India

The seven most recent Buddhas to attain enlightment are the following:[1]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b John Marshall (1918), A Guide to Sanchi, pp. 46ff (Public Domain text)
  2. ^ "The Meaning of the Word Buddha". Parami. Retrieved 8 December 2015.
  3. ^ Fayun, 翻譯名義集,Song dynasty
  4. ^ Turner, Sir Ralph Lilley. "buddha 9276; 1962–1985". A comparative dictionary of the Indo-Aryan languages. Digital Dictionaries of South Asia, University of Chicago. London: Oxford University Press. p. 525. Retrieved 22 February 2010.
  5. ^ "History of the Buddhas". Buddha Dharma Education Association. Retrieved 8 December 2015.