Al-Masih ad-Dajjal

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Al-Masih ad-Dajjal (Arabic: المسيح الدجّال‎‎ Al-Masīḥ ad-Dajjāl, "the false messiah","liar" or "the deceiver") also referred to as "the anti-christ" is an evil figure in Islamic eschatology.[1] He is to appear, pretending to be al-Masih (i.e. the Messiah), before Yawm al-Qiyamah (the Day of Resurrection). He is to be an anti-messianic figure, comparable to the Antichrist in Christian eschatology and to Armilus in medieval Jewish eschatology.

Name[edit]

Dajjāl is an adjective of Syriac origin.[2] It is also a common Arabic word (دجال) whose root is dajl meaning "lie" or "deception". Al-Masīḥ ad-Dajjāl, with the definite article al- ("the"), refers to "the deceiving Messiah", a specific end-of times deceiver. The Dajjāl is an evil being who will seek to impersonate the true Messiah.

The name Dajjal also is rooted in an Arabic word dajel, which means "to gold plate" or "to coat in gold". It is derived from word meaning "to mix".

Hadith[edit]

According to hadith, Muhammad is said to have prophesied that the Masih ad-Dajjal would be the last of a series of thirty Dajjal or "deceivers".[3]

  • Muhammad is reported to have said:

Ad-Dajjal is blind in the right eye and his eye looks like a bulging out grape.[4]

Ali was reported to have said:

His right eye will be punctured, and his left eye would be raised to his forehead and will be sparkling like a star. Only the believers will be able to read the word "Kafir" [disbeliever], inscribed in bold letters, on his forehead. There will be big mountains of smoke at both front and backsides of his caravan. People will anticipate food within those mountains, during the severe famine. All rivers, falling in his way, will become dry and he will call upon people in a loud voice, "O my friends come to me! I am your lord who has made your limbs and given you sustenance."[5]

  • Muhammad is reported to have said:

If he comes forth while I am among you I shall be the one who will dispute with him on your behalf, but if he comes forth when I am not among you, a man must dispute on his own behalf, and Allah will take my place in looking after every Muslim. Those of you who live up to his time should recite over him the opening verses of Surat al–Kahf, for they are your protection from his trial. We asked: How long will he remain on the earth? He replied: Forty days, one like a year, one like a month, one like a week, and rest of his days like yours. We asked: Messenger of Allah, will one day's prayer suffice us in this day which will be like a year? He replied: No, you must make an estimate of its extent. Then Jesus son of Mary will descend at the white minaret to the east of Damascus. He will then catch him up at the gate of Ludd and kill him.[6]

  • Allah's Apostle Muhammad (peace be on him) is reported to have said:

The flourishing state of Jerusalem will be when Yathrib is in ruins, the ruined state of Yathrib will be when the great war comes, the outbreak of the great war will be at the conquest of Constantinople and the conquest of Constantinople when the Dajjal (Antichrist) comes forth. He (the Prophet) struck his thigh or his shoulder with his hand and said: This is as true as you are here or as you are sitting (meaning Mu'adh ibn Jabal).[7]

Signs of coming of Al-Masih ad-Dajjal[edit]

Hadith attributed to Muhammad give many signs of the appearance of the Dajjal, and exhorted his followers to recite the first and last ten verses of Sura Al-Kahf (chapter 18 in the Qur'an), as protection from the trials and mischief of the Dajjal.[5][8] The following signs are ascribed to Ali in the coming of Dajjal:[5]

  • People will stop offering the prayers
  • Dishonesty will be the way of life
  • Falsehood will become a virtue
  • People will mortgage their faith for worldly gain
  • Usury and bribery will become legitimate
  • There will be acute famine at the time
  • There will be no shame amongst people
  • Many people would worship Satan
  • There would be no respect for elderly people

Signs of emergence[edit]

The following signs will occur just before emergence and these signs are mandatory condition for Dajjal to appear.

  • Drying up of Sea of Galilee.
  • When date-palm trees of Baisan stop bearing fruit.[9]
  • Worship of Satan becomes common.
  • The sun will rise from the place it usually sets.[10]
  • The conquest of Constantinople (modern day Istanbul, Turkey) by the Islamic Caliphate.[7]

Signs post-emergence[edit]

  • 70,000 jews from Isfahan, Iran will pledge allegiance to Dajjal wearing persian blue-black traditional shawls.[11]
  • He will do miracles and yield resources (minerals, food) from land by his power.
  • He will lay siege of Medina while overlooking prophet's mosque.

Eschatology[edit]

Sunni[edit]

Sunni Muslims believe that Isa will descend on Mount Afeeq, on the white Eastern Minaret of Damascus. He will descend from the heavens with his hands resting on the shoulders of two angels.[12] His cheeks will be flat and his hair straight. When he lowers his head it will seem as if water is flowing from his hair, when he raises his head, it will appear as though his hair is beaded with silvery pearls.[13] He will descend during Fajr (sunrise) and the leader of the Muslims will address him thus, "O' Prophet of God, lead the prayer." Isa will decline with the words, "The virtue of this nation that follows Islam is that they lead each other." Implying that he will pray behind the imam (the man that leads the prayings (Mahdi)) as the word of God was completed after revelation of Qur'an and Muhammad being the last prophet of God.[13]

After the prayer, Isa will prepare himself to do battle and shall take up a sword. An army shall return from a campaign launched before the arrival of Isa. Isa shall set out in pursuit of Dajjal. All those who embraced the evil of Dajjal shall perish even as the breath of Isa touches them. The breath of Isa shall precede him as far as the eye can see. Dajjal will be captured at the gate of Lod. Dajjal shall begin to melt, as salt dissolves in water. The spear of Isa shall plunge into Dajjal’s chest, ending his dreaded reign.[14][15] The followers of Dajjal will be rooted out, for even the trees and rocks will speak out against them. Isa will break the cross and kill the pig (the animal). Then all battles shall cease and the world will know an age of peace. The rule of Isa will be just and all shall flock to him to enter the folds of the one true religion, Islam.

Shi'a[edit]

Shias believe that Dajjal will be killed by Muhammad al-Mahdi.[16][17] However, their version of mahdi will eforce the law of prophet Solomon (the jewish law). And will also kill 3,000 Quraysh men in groups of 500. This according to many scholars refers to Dajjal fooling the Shi'ites in believing that he is Al-Mahdi.

Modern views[edit]

According to Ahmed Hulusi the Dajjal is not an external entity, rather he descripes a part of the human mind. The Day of Resurrection is not a global event, but something, that each person will experience for themselves. Therefore the Dajjal is the part of humans consciousness, which claims to be God. Then a human trust his inner Dajjal, he believes to be his physical body and an independend self, leading to bodily desires. Living in believing to be the physical form, is associated with the heaven of Dajjal, which is actually hell, as it was stated by Muhammed.[18]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Oxford Dictionary of World Religions, Al-Dajjāl, p. 43.
  2. ^ The Continuum History of Apocalypticism, edited by Bernard McGinn et al, The Continuum International publishing group Inc., 15 East 26th Street, New York, NY 10010, Published 2003, ISBN 0-8264-1520-2, 677 pages, page 387.
  3. ^ Hughes, Patrick T. (1996). A Dictionary of Islam. Laurier Books. p. 64. ISBN 9788120606722. Retrieved 2012-04-20. 
  4. ^ Sahih al-Bukhari, 3:30:105
  5. ^ a b c Bilgrami, Sayed Tahir (2005). "6". Essence of Life, A translation of Ain al-Hayat by Allama Mohammad Baqir Majlisi. Qum: Ansarian Publications. p. 104. 
  6. ^ Sunan Abi Dawud 4321, In-book reference: Book 39, Hadith 31, English translation: Book 38, Hadith 4307
  7. ^ a b Sunan Abi Dawud 4294, In-book reference: Book 39, Hadith 4, English translation: Book 38, Hadith 4281, Hasan
  8. ^ Collected by Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj Nishapuri Sahih Muslim Sahih Muslim, 41:7007
  9. ^ Sahih Muslim English reference: Book 41, Hadith 7028; Arabic reference: Book 55, Hadith 7573, http://www.hadithcollection.com/sahihmuslim/169-Sahih%20Muslim%20Book%2041.%20Turmoil%20And%20Portents%20Of%20The%20Last%20Hour/15268-sahih-muslim-book-041-hadith-number-7028.html
  10. ^ Abū al-Layth al-Samarqandī, Tanbih al-ghāfilīn, 58
  11. ^ "Anti-Christ". www.discoveringislam.org. Retrieved 2017-02-14. 
  12. ^ Elias, Mufti A.H. "Jesus (Isa) A.S. in Islam, and his Second Coming". Islam.tc. Retrieved 2012-04-20. 
  13. ^ a b "The descension of Sayyidena Eesa". Muslimaccess.com. Retrieved 2012-04-20. 
  14. ^ Sahih Muslim, 41:7023
  15. ^ Ali, Mohammed Ali Ibn Zubair. "Who is the evil Dajjal (the "anti-Christ")?". Islam.tc. Retrieved 2012-04-20. 
  16. ^ Bilgrami, Sayed Tahir (2005). "6". Essence of Life, A translation of Ain al-Hayat by Allama Mohammad Baqir Majlisi. Qum: Ansarian Publications. p. 105. 
  17. ^ al-Qarashi, Allama Baqir Sharif (2006). The Life of Imam al-Mahdi Peace Be Upon Him. Qum: Ansarian Publications. p. 343. 
  18. ^ Ahmed Hulusi The Observing One Softcover ISBN 978-0-615-63664-1 page 48

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