|City of Decatur|
|Nickname(s): Soy City; Soybean Capital of the World; Limitless Decatur|
Location of Decatur in Macon County, Illinois.
|• Total||46.96 sq mi (121.62 km2)|
|• Land||42.27 sq mi (109.48 km2)|
|• Water||4.68 sq mi (12.13 km2)|
|Elevation||677 ft (206 m)|
|• Estimate (2016)||72,706|
|• Density||1,720.00/sq mi (664.09/km2)|
|Time zone||CST (UTC-5)|
|• Summer (DST)||EDT (UTC)|
|ZIP code||62521, 62522, 62523, 62526|
Decatur // is the largest city and the county seat of Macon County in the U.S. state of Illinois. The city was founded in 1829 and is along the Sangamon River and Lake Decatur in Central Illinois. In 2016, the city's estimated population was 72,706.
The city is home of private Millikin University and public Richland Community College. Decatur has vast industrial and agricultural processing production, including the North American headquarters of agricultural conglomerate Archer Daniels Midland, international agribusiness Tate & Lyle's largest corn-processing plant, and the designing and manufacturing facilities for Caterpillar Inc.'s wheel-tractor scrapers, off-highway trucks, and large mining trucks.
- 1 Geography
- 2 Demographics
- 3 Civics
- 4 Culture
- 5 Economy
- 6 Education
- 7 Infrastructure
- 8 History
- 9 Notable people
- 10 In popular culture
- 11 References
- 12 External links
According to the 2010 census, Decatur has an area of 46.91 square miles (121.50 km2), of which 42.22 square miles (109.35 km2) (or 90%) is land and 4.69 square miles (12.15 km2) (or 10%) is water. Lakes include Lake Decatur, formed in 1923 by the damming of the Sangamon River.
The Decatur Metropolitan Statistical Area (population 109,900) includes surrounding towns of Argenta, Boody, Blue Mound, Elwin, Forsyth, Harristown, Long Creek, Macon, Maroa, Mount Zion, Niantic, Oakley, Oreana, and Warrensburg.
As of the census of 2000, there were 81,860 people, 34,086 households, and 21,099 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,969.7 people per square mile (760.5/km²). There were 37,239 housing units at an average density of 896.0 per square mile (346.0/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 77.59% White, 19.47% African American, 0.17% Native American, 0.66% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.43% from other races, and 1.65% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.19% of the population.
There were 34,086 households, out of which 27.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.1% were married couples living together, 14.1% had a female household with no husband present, and 38.1% were non-families. 32.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.30 and the average family size was 2.90.
In the city, the population was spread out with 24.0% under the age of 18, 11.1% from ages 18 to 24, 26.0% from ages 25 to 44, 22.5% from ages 45 to 64, and 16.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 87.9 males. For every 100 females aged 18 and over, there were 83.9 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $33,111, and the median income for a family was $42,379. Males had a median income of $36,920 versus $22,359 for females. The per capita income for the city was $19,009. About 12.1% of families and 16.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.1% of those under age 18 and 9.0% of those age 65 or over.
For much of the 20th century, the city's nickname was "The Soybean Capital of the World" owing to its being the location of the headquarters of A. E. Staley Manufacturing Company, a major grain processor in the 1920s, which popularized the use of soybeans to produce products for human consumption such as oil, meal and flour. At one time, over a third of all the soybeans grown in the world were processed in Decatur, Illinois. In 1955 a group of Decatur businessmen founded the Soy Capital Bank to trade on the nickname.
Another nickname for the city was "Playtown USA", because of Decatur's position as an early national leader in providing recreational space for its citizens. A motion picture short by that name was made in 1944 that featured the city's recreational efforts.
The city's symbol is the Transfer House, an 1896 octagonal structure originally located the older town square ("Lincoln Square") where the city's mass transit lines (streetcars and interurban trains) met. Designed by Chicago architect William W. Boyington, who also designed the famous Chicago Water Tower, the Transfer House was constructed to serve as a shelter for passengers transferring from one conveyance to another. It was regarded as one of the most beautiful structures of its kind in the United States, and a symbol of the city's high culture and modernity just decades after it was founded as a small collection of log cabins. The second story of the building consisted of an open-air gazebo used as a stage for public speeches and concerts by the Goodman Band. Sitting in the middle of the square as it was, increasing automobile traffic flowing through downtown Decatur on US 51 was forced to circle around the structure, and the Transfer House came to be seen by some as an impediment. The Illinois Department of Transportation who maintained the highway route requested it be removed, and in 1962, the structure was transported by truck to a nearby park, where it stands today. In that location is has served as a bus shelter, a visitor information center, and civic group offces.
Since 1966, Decatur has been a sister city with Tokorozawa, Saitama, Japan. In July 1972, the administrations of 19 independent smaller municipalities were merged to form Decatur's second sister city, Seevetal, Lower Saxony, Germany. The 19 towns and villages forming Seevetal were Beckedorf, Bullenhausen, Emmelndorf, Fleestedt, Glüsingen, Groß Moor, Helmstorf, Hittfeld, Holtorfsloh, Horst, Hörsten, Klein Moor, Lindhorst, Maschen, Meckelfeld, Metzendorf, Ohlendorf, Over and Ramelsloh. The Decatur Sister Cities Committee annually coordinates both inbound and outbound high school students, who serve as ambassadors between the three cities. Since mid-2012, the City of Decatur and City of Camajuaní in the Province of Villa Clara, Cuba have worked to develop sister city relations. As of March 2013, both governments have approved the relationship, but no formal agreements have been signed.
Between 1829 and 1836 the county commissioners court had jurisdiction as it was the seat of Macon County. By 1836 the population reached approximately 300, Richard Oglesby was elected president of the first board of trustees. Other members of the board of trustees included Dr. William Crissey, H.M. Gorin and Andrew Love as clerk.
In 1839 a town charter was granted to Decatur that gave power to the trustees "to establish and regulate a fire department, to dig wells and erect pumps in the streets, regulate police of the town, raise money for the purpose of commencing and prosecuting works of public improvement." Those who served as president of the town of Decatur were: Richard Oglesby (1836), Joseph Williams (1837), Henry Snyder (1838), Kirby Benedict (1839), Joseph King (1840), Thomas P. Rodgers (1841), David Crone (1846–47), J.H. Elliott (1848), Joseph Kauffman (1849), Joseph King (1850), William S. Crissey (1851), W.J. Stamper (1852), William Prather (1853–54), and Thomas H. Wingate (1854–55).
In the winter of 1855–56, a special city incorporation charter was obtained. This charter provided an aldermanic form of government and on January 7, 1856 an election was held for mayor, two aldermen for each of the four wards, and city marshal. This aldermanic form of government continued until January 18, 1911 when Decatur changed to city commissioner form of government. The new commissioner system provided a mayor elected at-large and four commissioners to serve as administrators of city services: accounts and finance, public health and safety, public property, and streets and public improvements. The mayor also served as Commissioner of Public Affairs.
The mayor and commissioner system prevailed until a special election on November 25, 1958 in which the present council-manager form of government was adopted. According to the city website, the "City of Decatur operates under the Council-Manager form of government, a system which combines the leadership of a representative, elected council with the professional background of an appointed manager." The mayor and all members of the council are elected at-large. Their duties include determining city policy, and representing the city in public ceremonies, for which they receive nominal annual salaries, . The appointed manager handles all city administration and is the council's employee and not an elected official. Since 1959, the following have served as City Managers: John E. Dever, W. Robert Semple, Leslie T. Allen, Jim Bacon, Jim Williams, Steve Garman, John A. Smith (acting), Ryan McCrady, Gregg Zientara (interim), and Timothy Gleason.
As of August 7, 2015, Julie Moore Wolfe serves as the current mayor of Decatur. Moore Wolfe was appointed unanimously by the Decatur City Council following the death of Mayor Mike McElroy. She is the first female to be mayor of Decatur. Moore Wolfe, who had been appointed mayor pro tem in May 2015, became acting mayor after McElroy died on July 17, 2015. McElroy had been mayor from 2009 and had recently been re-elected to a second term as mayor in April 2015. Timothy Gleason has served as city manager of Decatur since March 23, 2015.
Those who served as president of the town of Decatur were: Richard Oglesby (1836), Joseph Williams (1837), Henry Snyder (1838), Kirby Benedict (1839), Joseph King (1840), Thomas P. Rodgers (1841), David Crone (1846–47), J.H. Elliott (1848), Joseph Kauffman (1849), Joseph King (1850), William S. Crissey (1851), W.J. Stamper (1852), William Prather (1853–54), and Thomas H. Wingate (1854–55).
- John P. Post (1856)
- William A. Barnes (1857)
- James Shoaff (1858)
- Alexander T. Hill (1859)
- Sheridan Wait (1860)
- Edward O. Smith (1861)
- Thomas O. Smith (1862)
- Jasper J. Peddecord (1863–1864)
- Franklin Priest (1865–66; 1870, 1874, 1878)
- John K. Warren (1867)
- Isaac C. Pugh (1868)
- William L. Hammer (1869)
- E.M. Misner (1871)
- D.S. Shellabarger (1872)
- Martin Forstmeyer (1873)
- R.H. Merriweather (1875)
- William B. Chambers (1876–1877; 1883–1884; 1891–1892)
- Lysander L. Haworth (1879)
- Henry W. Waggoner (1880–1882)
- Michael F. Kanan (1885–1890)
- David C. Moffitt (1893–1894)
- D.H. Conklin (1895–1896)
- B.Z. Taylor (1897–1898)
- George A. Stadler (1899–1900)
- Charles F. Shilling (1901–1904)
- George L. Lehman (1905–1906),
- E.S. McDonald (1907–1908)
- Charles M. Borchers (1909–1911; 1919–1923)
- Dan Dinneen (1911–1919)
- Elmer R. Elder (1923–1927)
- Orpheus W. Smith (1927–1935)
- Harry E. Barber (1935)
- Charles E. Lee (1936–1943)
- James A. Hedrick (1943–51)
- Robert E. Willis (1951–1955)
- Clarence A. Sablotny (1955–59)
- Jack W. Loftus, Acting Mayor, (1959)
- Robert A. Grohne (1959–1963)
- Ellis B. Arnold (May 1, 1963 to April 30, 1967)
- James H Rupp (1966–1977)
- Elmer W. Walton (1977–1983)
- Gary K. Anderson (1983–1992)
- Erik Brechnitz (1992–1995)
- Terry M. Howley (1995–2003)
- Paul Osborne (2003–2008) (resigned)
- Mike Carrigan (2008–2009) (appointed)
- Mike McElroy (2009–2015)
- Julie Moore Wolfe (2015–present) (appointed)
Decatur Municipal Band
The Muni band was organized September 19, 1857 making it one of the oldest nonmilitary bands in continuous service in the United States and Canada. It was originally known as the Decatur Brass Band, Decatur Comet Band and the Decatur Silver Band until 1871 when it was reorganized by Andrew Goodman and became the Goodman Band. In 1942 it was officially designated as the Decatur Municipal Band.
The Decatur Public Library was originally built with a grant from Andrew Carnegie. The original library was built in 1902 and opened to the public in 1903. The building served the community until 1970 when the library moved to North Street at the site of a former Sears, Roebuck & Co. store. In 1999 the library moved to its present location on Franklin Street, which is also an abandoned Sears building. The library is part of the Illinois Heartland Library System. Decatur is one of only a very few communities to have razed an original Carnegie Library. A bank now stands in its place.
Decatur was the original home of the Chicago Bears, from 1919 to 1920. The football team was then known as the Decatur Staleys and played at Staley Field, both named after the local food-products manufacturer.
The USTA/Ursula Beck Pro Tennis Classic has been held annually since 1999. Male players from over 20 countries compete for $15,000 in prize money as well as ATP world ranking points at the Fairview Park Tennis Complex. The tournament is held for ten consecutive days at Fairview Park concluding on the first weekend in August.
Starting in 2007, Decatur has hosted the Rodney T. Miller Lakeside Triathlon. This sprint-distance triathlon is presently scheduled on the first weekend each July.
The following Decatur men's fast pitch softball teams have won national championships:
- 1981 Amateur Softball Association (ASA) Champions
- 1984 International Softball Congress (ISC) Champions
- 1994 Amateur Softball Association (ASA) Champions
- 1999 Amateur Softball Association (ASA) Champions
- 1999 Amateur Softball Association (ASA) Champions
- 2000 International Softball Congress (ISC) Champions
- Herald & Review —Daily owned by Lee Enterprises
- Decatur Tribune —Weekly
- The Decaturian —Bi-weekly student newspaper published by Millikin University
- WBGL —88.1 FM —Christian radio
- WDCR (FM) —88.9 FM —Relevant Radio
- WJMU —89.5 FM —Millikin University —Alternative rock
- WYDS —93.1 FM —Top 40
- WDZQ —95.1 FM —Country music
- WXFM —99.3 —Light Hits
- WZUS —100.9 FM —Talk radio
- WSOY —102.9 FM —Top 40
- WEJT —105.1 FM —Adult hits
- WCZQ —105.5 FM —Hip Hop & R&B
- WZNX —106.7 FM —Classic rock
- WDKR —107.3 —Oldies
Caterpillar Inc. has one of its largest manufacturing plants in the U.S. This plant produces Caterpillar's off highway trucks, wheel-tractor scrapers, mining-class motorgraders, and their ultra-class mining trucks (including the Caterpillar 797). Archer Daniels Midland processes corn and soybeans, Mueller produces water distribution products and Tate & Lyle processes corn in Decatur. From 1917 to 1922 Decatur was the location of the Comet Automobile Co., and the Pan-American Motor Corp.
Decatur has been ranked third in the nation as an Emerging Logistics and Distribution Center by Business Facilities: The Location Advisor and also a Top 25 Trade City by Global Trade Magazine. In 2013 the Economic Development Corporation of Decatur & Macon County established the Midwest Inland Port, a multi-modal transportation hub with market proximity to 95 million customers in a 500-mile radius. The Midwest Inland Port includes the Archer Daniels Midland Intermodal container ramp, the three class I railroads that service the ramp and the city (the Canadian National Railway, CSX, and the Norfolk Southern Railway), five major roadways and the Decatur Airport. The Midwest Inland Port also has a foreign trade zone, customs clearing and the area is both an enterprise zone and tax increment financing district.
According to the Economic Development Corporation of Decatur & Macon County, the top employers in the Decatur metropolitan area are as follows:
|#||Employer||# of Employees|
|1||Archer Daniels Midland||4,199|
|2||Decatur Memorial Hospital||2,200|
|3||Decatur Public School District||1,812|
|5||St. Mary's Hospital||987|
|6||Tate & Lyle||975|
|12||The Kelly Group||500|
|13||City of Decatur||481|
- Millikin University (enrollment 2,400), a four-year institution of higher education, has a 75-acre (300,000 m2) campus founded by James Millikin and was originally affiliated with the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.).
- Richland Community College (enrollment 3,500) is a comprehensive community college. It also hosts the biannual Farm Progress Show.
- Walther Theological Seminary is a Confessional Lutheran seminary affiliated with Pilgrim Lutheran Church.
K–12 public education in the Decatur area is provided by the Decatur Public School District #61. High school athletics were in the Big Twelve Conference up to 2013–14. The last two schools in Decatur joined the Central State Eight in the 2014–15 season.
- Decatur Christian Schools
- Lutheran School Association of Decatur
- St. Teresa High School
- Our Lady of Lourdes School
- Holy Family Catholic School
- St. Patrick's School
Local Macon County park resources include Lake Decatur, Lincoln Trail Homestead State Memorial, Rock Springs Conservation Area, Fort Daniel Conservation Area, Sand Creek Recreation Area, Griswold Conservation Area, Friends Creek Regional Park, and Spitler Woods State Natural Area. The Decatur Park District resources include 2,000 acres (810 ha) of park land, an indoor sports center, Decatur Airport, three golf courses, softball, soccer and tennis complexes, athletic fields, a community aquatic center, an AZA-accredited zoo, and a banquet, food and beverage business. Decatur, at one time, was dubbed "Park City U.S.A." because it had more parks per person than any other city in the country.
For more than 100 years, Decatur has been a major railroad junction and was once served by seven railroads. After mergers and consolidations, Decatur is now served by three Class I Railroads: the Norfolk Southern Railway, CSX and the Canadian National Railway. Decatur is also served by Decatur Junction Railway.
The Decatur Public Transit System (DPTS) provides fixed-route bus service as well as complementary door-to-door paratransit service for people with disabilities, who are unable to use the bus system, throughout the City of Decatur. Under an agreement with the Village of Forsyth, service is also provided to the Hickory Point Mall area in Forsyth.
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Decatur has become an affiliate of the U.S. Main Street program, in conjunction with the National Trust for Historic Preservation.
The Potawatomi Trail of Death passed through here in 1833.
Post No. 1 of the Grand Army of the Republic was founded by Civil War veterans in Decatur on April 6, 1866.
The Edward P. Irving House, designed by Frank Lloyd Wright and built in 1911, is located at #2 Millikin Place, Decatur. In addition, the Robert Mueller Residence, 1 Millikin Place, and the Adolph Mueller Residence, 4 Millikin Place, have been attributed to Wright's assistants Hermann V. von Holst and Marion Mahony.
Decatur was the first home in Illinois of Abraham Lincoln, who settled just west of Decatur with his family in 1830. At the age of 21, Lincoln gave his first political speech in Decatur about the importance of Sangamon River navigation that caught the attention of Illinois political leaders. As a lawyer on the 8th Judicial Circuit, Lincoln made frequent stops in Decatur, and argued five cases in the log courthouse that stood on the corner of Main & Main Streets. The original courthouse is now on the grounds of the Macon County Historical Museum on North Fork Road. John Hanks, first cousin of Abe Lincoln, lived in Decatur.
On May 9 and 10, 1860, the Illinois Republican State Convention was held in Decatur. At this convention Lincoln received his first endorsement for President of the United States as "The Railsplitter Candidate." In commemoration of Lincoln's bicentennial the Illinois Republican State Convention was held in Decatur at the Decatur Conference Center and Hotel on June 6 & 7, 2008.
ADM scandals and corporate exit
In early November 1992, the high-ranking Archer Daniels Midland Co. (ADM) executive Mark Whitacre confessed to a Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) agent that ADM executives, including Whitacre himself, had routinely met with competitors to fix the price of lysine, a food additive.
The lysine conspirators, including ADM, ultimately settled federal charges for more than $100 million. ADM also paid hundreds of millions of dollars ($400 million alone on the high fructose corn syrup class action case) to plaintiffs and customers that it stole from during the price-fixing schemes. Furthermore, several Asian and European lysine and citric acid producers, that conspired to fix prices with ADM, paid criminal fines in the tens of millions of dollars to the U.S. government. Several executives, including the vice chairman of ADM, served federal prison time.
The investigation and prosecution of ADM and some of its executives has been reported to be one of the "best documented corporate crimes in American history". The events were the basis of a book named The Informant as well as a film named The Informant!
In 2013, ADM reported that some employees had violated the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, and ADM was fined 14 million U.S. dollars, but avoided criminal charges by self-reporting the foreign bribes.
In 2014, ADM moved its upper corporate management out of Decatur and established the new ADM World Headquarters in downtown Chicago.
On April 18 and 19, 1996, the city was hit by tornadoes. On April 18, an F1 tornado hit the city's southeast side, followed by an F3 tornado the following evening on the northwest side. The two storms totaled approximately $10.5 million in property damage.
On July 19, 1974, a tanker car containing isobutane collided with a boxcar in the Norfolk & Western railroad yard in the East End of Decatur. The resulting explosion killed seven people, injured 349, and caused $18 million in property damage.
Jesse Jackson protest
In November 1999, Decatur was brought into the national news when Jesse Jackson and the Rainbow/PUSH Coalition protested the expulsion and treatment of several African American students who had been involved in a serious fight at an Eisenhower High School football game.
In popular culture
- Decatur is mentioned in Abraham Lincoln, Vampire Hunter by Seth Grahame-Smith. It is mentioned he lives west of Decatur, as well as hunting the streets of Decatur for a vampire.
- Decatur was studied by sociologists Paul Lazarsfeld and Elihu Katz for mass media studies, in "Personal Influence: the Part Played by People in the Flow of Mass Communications", 1955.
- "Decatur, Or, Round of Applause For Your Step Mother!" is a song by Sufjan Stevens on his album Illinois. The song refers to several locations and events associated with Decatur, including the Caterpillar factory, Greenwood cemetery, the chicken mobile from Krekel's, strong historical ties to Abraham Lincoln, and the Sangamon River.
- Steve Hunter included two guitar instrumental pieces on his 1977 album Swept Away: "Eldorado Street" and "Jasper St. Viaduct Gitar Rag".
- Canadian folk singer Willie P. Bennett wrote a song titled "Hearts in Decatur" which he performed live but never recorded.
- There is a song titled "Decatur" by the indie rock band Seam.
- The alternative metal, pop punk, electronic rock band Icon For Hire formed there in 2007.
- The alternative metal band V Shape Mind formed there in 1999.
- The 1948 Jimmy Stewart film Call Northside 777 mentions a character in the film going down to Decatur.
- In the 1971 film Shaft, Lt. Androzzi informs Shaft that one of the mob bigwigs coming to the city is from Decatur.
- In the 1984 film Bachelor Party, Tom Hanks croons that he is from Decatur, Illinois.
- In the 1986 film Ferris Bueller's Day Off, Cameron mentions his mother is in Decatur to buy antiques.
- In the 1992 adaptation of Noises Off it is mentioned that one of the play's performances takes place in Decatur.
- In the 1993 film So I Married an Axe Murderer, a map of Illinois with Decatur featured prominently is displayed in the background behind Harriet (played by Nancy Travis) in the film's closing scenes.
- In the 2008 film Leatherheads starring George Clooney, there is a scene where a man and woman are sitting in the stands at a football game. The woman asks "how owning a football team will help sell corn starch?", then the camera pans the scoreboard and reveals that one of the teams is Decatur.
- The Informant! is a 2009 film about the Archer Daniels Midland lysine scandal. It is directed by Steven Soderbergh and stars Matt Damon as the informant Mark Whitacre.
- In the 1960s TV series The Fugitive, the season two, episode nine entitled "Escape into Black", and airing November 17, 1964, takes place in Decatur.
- On Comedy Central's television show The Colbert Report, Stephen Colbert mentions Decatur and its slogan "We like it here" during his segment "Better Know a District", episode 47, Season 3, Phil Hare.
- The Lincoln Square Theater located on Main Street in Decatur was featured on Travel Channel's Most Terrifying Places in America.
- True Life: "I'm Addicted To Caffeine" was filmed in Decatur.
- In the 1980s TV sitcom ALF; in one episode ALF asks Harry where he is from; he replies "Decatur, Illinois."
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- "Greetings from DECATUR Illinois, Soy Bean Capital of the World". idaillinois.org. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved October 7, 2015.
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- Irwin, Dayle Cochran. Decatur: Serving Others, pg. 9
- Banton, Oliver Terrill. History of Macon County (1976), pg. 275
- Banton, Oliver Terrill. History of Macon County (1976), pg. 276
- Irwin, Dayle Cochran. Decatur: Serving Others, pg. 10
- "Decatur Mayor and City Council". Retrieved 18 May 2011.
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- "Michael F. Kanan ( - 1909) - Find A Grave Memorial". Findagrave.com. Retrieved 2014-03-05.
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- "History". decaturlibrary.org. Retrieved October 7, 2015.
- "Home | Symetra Professional Golfers | Tour Schedule, Leaderboard & News | Symetra Tour". Lpgafuturestour.com. Archived from the original on October 17, 2012. Retrieved 2014-03-05.
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- Economic Development Corporation of Decatur & Macon County - Home
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- "Decatur Public Schools / Overview". dps61.org. Retrieved October 7, 2015.
- "St. Mary's Hospital, Decatur, Illinois - Exceptional Health Care". stmarysdecatur.com. Retrieved October 7, 2015.
- "Kelly Group, Decatur, Illinois". thekelly-group.com. Retrieved December 15, 2015.
- "Conferences Affiliated Schools". ihsa.org. Retrieved 2014-10-28.
- Richey, Scott (March 13, 2013). "Central State 8 eagerly adds Decatur schools".
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- Callary, Edward (29 September 2008). Place Names of Illinois. University of Illinois Press. p. 89. ISBN 978-0-252-09070-7.
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- Greenwald, John (October 28, 1996). The fix was in at ADM. Time Magazine.
- Wilson, J.K. (December 21, 2000). Price-Fixer to the World. Bankrate.com.
- KaplanFox (July 19, 2004). Archer Daniels Settles Suit Accusing it of Price Fixing. KaplanFox Law Firm Press Release. Archived September 29, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
- Eichenwald, Kurt (2000). The Informant. Broadway Books, Inc. ISBN 978-0-7679-0327-1.
- Krebs, A.V. (August 16, 2000). Review of Rats in the Grain. The AgriBusiness Examiner (Issue #85). Archived from the original on November 20, 2008.
- "National Weather Service, Lincoln IL - Macon County Tornadoes Since 1950". Crh.noaa.gov. Retrieved 2014-03-05.
- "Decatur, IL Tank Cars Explode, July 1974". gendisasters.com. Retrieved October 7, 2015.
- "7 Students Charged in a Brawl That Divides Decatur, Ill". November 10, 1999. Retrieved October 7, 2015.
- Two-step flow of communication
- "Sufjan Stevens - Decatur Lyrics - MetroLyrics". metrolyrics.com. Retrieved October 7, 2015.
- Wille P. Bennett - Hearts In Decatur. YouTube. April 25, 2013. Retrieved October 7, 2015.
- Ned Raggett. "Headsparks". AllMusic. Retrieved October 7, 2015.
- ""True Life" I'm Addicted to Caffeine (TV Episode 2012)". IMDb. Retrieved October 7, 2015.
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