Page semi-protected
Listen to this article

Furry fandom

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Some furry fans create and wear costumes of their characters...
...commonly known as "fursuits".

The furry fandom is a subculture interested in fictional anthropomorphic animal characters with human personalities and characteristics.[1] Examples of anthropomorphic attributes include exhibiting human intelligence and facial expressions, the ability to speak, walk on two legs, and wear clothes. Furry fandom is also used to refer to the community of people who gather on the Internet and at furry conventions.[2]


According to fandom historian Fred Patten, the concept of furry originated at a science fiction convention in 1980,[3] when a character drawing from Steve Gallacci’s Albedo Anthropomorphics started a discussion of anthropomorphic characters in science fiction novels. This led to the formation of a discussion group that met at science fiction conventions and comics conventions.

The specific term furry fandom was being used in fanzines as early as 1983, and had become the standard name for the genre by the mid-1990s, when it was defined as "the organized appreciation and dissemination of art and prose regarding 'Furries', or fictional mammalian anthropomorphic characters."[4] However, fans consider the origins of furry fandom to be much earlier, with fictional works such as Kimba, The White Lion released in 1965, Richard Adams' novel Watership Down, published in 1972 (and its 1978 film adaptation), as well as Disney's Robin Hood as oft-cited examples.[3] Internet newsgroup discussion in the 1990s created some separation between fans of "funny animal" characters and furry characters, meant to avoid the baggage that is associated with the term "furry".[5]

During the 1980s, furry fans began to publish fanzines, developing a diverse social group that eventually began to schedule social gatherings. By 1989, there was sufficient interest to stage the first furry convention.[6] Throughout the next decade, the Internet became accessible to the general population and became the most popular means for furry fans to socialize.[7] The newsgroup was created in November 1990, and virtual environments such as MUCKs also became popular places on the Internet for fans to meet and communicate.[8]

An anthropomorphic vixen (female fox), a typical furry character

The furry fandom is male-dominated, with surveys reporting around 80% male respondents.[9][10][11]


Allegorical novels, including works of both science fiction and fantasy, and cartoons featuring anthropomorphic animals are often cited as the earliest inspiration for the fandom.[3] A survey conducted in 2007 suggested that, when compared to a non-furry control group, a higher proportion of those self-identifying as furries liked cartoons "a great deal" as children and recalled watching them significantly more often, as well as being more likely to enjoy works of science fiction than those outside of the community.[12]


According to a survey from 2008, most furries believe that visual art, conventions, literature, and online communities are strongly important to the fandom.[10]


Fans with craft skills create their own plush toys, sometimes referred to as plushies, and also build elaborate costumes called fursuits,[13] which are worn for fun or to participate in parades, convention masquerades, dances, or fund-raising charity events (as entertainers).[14] Fursuits range from designs featuring simple construction and resembling sports mascots[12] to those with more sophisticated features that include moving jaw mechanisms, animatronic parts, prosthetic makeup, and other features. Fursuits range in price from $500, for mascot-like designs, to an upwards of $10,000 for models incorporating animatronics.[15] While about 80% of furries do not own a full fursuit,[9][10][12] often citing their expensive cost as the decisive factor,[12] a majority of them hold positive feelings towards fursuiters and the conventions in which they participate.[9][10] Some fans may also wear "partial" suits consisting simply of ears and a tail, or a head, paws, and a tail.[12]

Furry fans also pursue puppetry, recording videos and performing live shows such as Rapid T. Rabbit and Friends and the Funday PawPet Show, and create furry accessories, such as ears or tails.[16]


"Fursonas" redirects here. For the 2016 documentary film, see Fursonas (film).

Anthropomorphic animal characters created by furry fans, known as fursonas,[17] are used for role-playing in MUDs,[18] on internet forums, or on electronic mailing lists.[19] A variety of species are employed as the basis of these personas, although many furries (for example over 60% of those surveyed in 2007) choose to identify themselves with carnivorans.[20][21] The longest-running online furry role-playing environment is FurryMUCK, which was established in 1990.[22] According to many furry fans, their first exposure to the fandom came from FurryMUCK.[23] Another popular online furry social game is called Furcadia, created by Dragon's Eye Productions. There are also several furry-themed areas and communities in the virtual world Second Life.[24]

Role-playing also takes place offline, with petting, hugging and "scritching" (light scratching and grooming) common between friends at social gatherings.[7] Fursuits or furry accessories are sometimes used to enhance the experience.


Main article: Furry convention
Furry fans prepare for a race at Midwest FurFest 2006

Sufficient interest and membership has enabled the creation of many furry conventions in North America and Europe. A furry convention is for the fans get together to buy and sell artwork, participate in workshops, wear costumes, and socialize.[25] The world's largest[26] furry convention, Anthrocon with more than 5,861 participants, held annually in Pittsburgh in June,[27] was estimated to have generated approximately $3 million to Pittsburgh's economy in 2008.[28] Another convention, Further Confusion, held in San Jose each January, closely follows Anthrocon in scale and attendance. US$470,000 was raised in conventions for charity from 2000–9.[29] The first known furry convention, ConFurence,[3] is no longer held; Califur has replaced it, as both conventions were based in Southern California. A University of California, Davis survey suggested that about 40% of furries had attended at least one furry convention.[9]

Websites and online communities

The Internet contains a multitude of furry websites and online communities, such as art community websites Fur Affinity, Inkbunny, SoFurry and Weasyl; social networking sites Furry 4 Life and FurNation; and WikiFur, a collaborative furry wiki.[30] These, with the IRC networks FurNet and Anthrochat, form a key part of furry fandom. Usenet newsgroups such as and, popular from the mid-1990s to 2005, have been replaced by topic-specific forums, mailing lists and LiveJournal communities.

There are several webcomics featuring animal characters created by or for furry fans; as such, they may be referred to as furry comics. One such comic, T.H.E. Fox, was first published on CompuServe in 1986, predating the World Wide Web by several years,[31] while another, Kevin and Kell by Bill Holbrook, has been awarded both a Web Cartoonists' Choice Award and an Ursa Major Award.[32][33]

Furry lifestylers

The phrases furry lifestyle and furry lifestyler first appeared in July 1996 on the newsgroup during an ongoing dispute within that online community. The Usenet newsgroup was created to accommodate discussion beyond furry art and literature, and to resolve disputes concerning what should or should not be associated with the fandom; its members quickly adopted the term furry lifestylers, and still consider the fandom and the lifestyle to be separate social entities. They have defined and adopted an alternative meaning of the word furry specific to this group: "a person with an important emotional/spiritual connection with an animal or animals, real, fictional or symbolic."[34]

In their 2007 survey, Gerbasi et al. examined what it meant to be a furry, and proposed a taxonomy in which to categorise different "types" of furries. The largest group — 38% of those surveyed — described their interest in furry fandom predominantly as a "route to socializing with others who share common interests such as anthropomorphic art and costumes."[35] However they also identified furries who saw themselves as "other than human", and/or who desired to become more like the furry species which they identified with.[7][12]

Sexual aspects

"Yiff" redirects here. For the film festival also known as YIFF, see Yerevan International Film Festival.

Homosexuality and bisexuality are overrepresented in the furry fandom,[12] by about a factor of 10 compared to the United States average self-identified rates of 1.8% bisexuality and 1.7% homosexuality.[36] According to four different surveys, 14–25% of the fandom members report homosexuality, 37–52% bisexuality, 28–51% heterosexuality, and 3–8% other forms of alternative sexual relationships.[9][11][37][38] Approximately half of the respondents reported being in a relationship, of which 76% were in a relationship with another member of furry fandom.[9] Examples of sexual aspects within furry fandom include erotic art and furry-themed cybersex.[39][40] The term "yiff" is sometimes used to indicate sexual activity or sexual material within the fandom—this applies to sexual activity and interaction within the subculture whether in the form of cybersex or offline.[41][42]

Sexual attraction to furry characters is a polarized issue within the fandom; in one survey with 4300 furry respondents, 37% answered that sexual attraction is important in their furry activities, 38% were ambivalent, and 24% answered that it has little or nothing to do with their furry activities.[38] In a different online survey, 33% of furry respondents answered that they have a "significant sexual interest in furry", another 46% stated they have a "minor sexual interest in furry", and the remaining 21% stated they have a "non-sexual interest in furry". The survey specifically avoided adult-oriented websites to prevent bias.[11] Another survey found that 96.3% of male furry respondents reported viewing furry pornography, compared to 78.3% of female; males estimated 50.9% of all furry art they view is pornographic, compared to 30.7% female. Furries have a slight preference for pornographic furry artwork over non-pornographic artwork. 17.1% of males reported that when they viewed pornography it is exclusively or near-exclusively furry pornography, and only about 5% reported that pornography was the top factor which got them into the fandom.[43]

A portion of the fandom is sexually interested in zoophilia, although a majority take a negative stance towards the former. In a survey conducted in 1997-1998, about 2% of furry respondents stated an interest in zoophilia, and less than 1% an interest in plushophilia; the survey was replicated in 2008, and it found 17% of respondents reported zoophilia. The older lower results, which are even lower than estimated in the general population, were due to the methodology of questioning respondents face-to-face which led to social desirability bias.[37][44]

Public perception and media coverage

Early portrayal of the furries in magazines such as Wired,[45] Loaded,[46] Vanity Fair,[47] and the syndicated sex column "Savage Love" focused mainly on the sexual aspect of furry fandom. Fictional portrayals of furry fandom have appeared on television shows such as ER,[48] CSI: Crime Scene Investigation,[49] The Drew Carey Show,[50] Sex2K on MTV,[51] Entourage,[52] 1000 Ways to Die,[53] Tosh.0,[54][55] and 30 Rock.[56] Most furry fans claim that these media portrayals are misconceptions,[57][58][59] while the recent coverage focuses on debunking myths and stereotypes that have come to be associated with the furry fandom.[60] A reporter attending Anthrocon 2006 noted that "despite their wild image from Vanity Fair, MTV and CSI, furry conventions aren't about kinky sex between weirdos gussied up in foxy costumes", that conference attendees were "not having sex more than the rest of us",[61] and that the furry convention was about "people talking and drawing animals and comic-book characters in sketchbooks."[41] In October 2007, a Hartford Advocate reporter attended FurFright 2007 undercover because of media restrictions. She learned that the restrictions were intended to prevent misinformation, and reported that the scandalous behavior she had expected was not evident.[62] Recent coverage of the furry fandom has been more balanced. According to Ian Wolf, a 2009 article from the BBC entitled "Who are the furries?" was the first piece of journalism to be nominated for an Ursa Major Award, the main awards given in the field of anthropomorphism.[7][63][64]

Milwaukee Brewers broadcaster Jim Powell was sharing a hotel with Anthrocon 2007 attendees a day before the convention and reported a negative opinion of the furries.[65] Several downtown Pittsburgh businesses welcome furries during the event, with local business owners creating special T-shirts and drawing paw prints in chalk outside their shops to attract attendees.[66] Dr. Samuel Conway, CEO of Anthrocon, said that "For the most part, people give us curious stares, but they're good-natured curious stares. We're here to have fun, people have fun having us here, everybody wins".[67]

According to Furry survey, about half of furries perceive public reaction to the fandom as negative; less than a fifth stated that the public responded to them more negatively than they did most furries.[10] Furry fans' belief that they will be portrayed as "mainly obsessed with sex" has led to mistrust of the media and social researchers.[7]

Social psychology studies

The International Anthropomorphic Research Project, a team of social scientists from various disciplines, has been collecting data on the furry fandom using numerous methodologies.[68][69] The continued research has provided a variety of results.[70] Furries belong to a multitude of fandoms: 21% of furries consider themselves to be a brony, 44% consider themselves to be anime fans, but only 11% consider themselves sport fans.[71] The average adult furry (minors are excluded in this research for ethical reasons) is between 23–27 years of age,[72] with more than 75% of adult furries reporting being 25 years of age or younger, and 88% of adult furries being under the age of 30.[73] On average, furries begin identifying themselves at the age of 16-17, and begin actively participating in the fandom at the age of 17-19.[72] 78-85% of furries self-identify as male,[72] and nearly 2% of furries identify as transgender.[71] 83-90% of furries self-identify as White, with a small minority of furries self-identifying as Asian (2-4%), Black (2-3%), and Hispanic (3%).[71][72] Furries, as a group, are more politically liberal and less religious than the average American or other comparable fan groups (e.g., anime fans).[72][74][75] 54% of furries self-identified as atheist or agnostic, 23% as Christian, 4% as Pagan, 2% as Wiccan, and the remainder identified with other religions.[75] Approximately 70% of adult furries have either completed, or are currently completing post-secondary education.[71][73]

One of the most universal behaviors in the furry fandom is the creation of a fursona – an anthropomorphic animal representation or avatar. More than 95% of furries have a fursona – an anthropomorphic avatar or representation of themselves. Nearly half of furries report that they have only ever had one fursona to represent themselves; relatively few furries have had more than three or four fursonas; in part, this is due to the fact that, for many furries, their fursonas are a personally significant, meaningful representation of their ideal self.[76] The most popular fursona species include wolves, foxes, dogs, large felines, and dragons.[77] Data suggest that there are generally no associations between personality traits and different fursona species.[73] However, furries, along with sport fans, report different degrees of personality traits when thinking of themselves in their everyday identity compared to their fan identity.[78] While furries identify with an interest in anthropomorphic animals, far fewer say that they actually identify with non-human animals: 35% say they do not feel 100% human (compared to 7% of non-furries), and 39% say they would be 0% human if they could (compared to 10% of non-furries).[72][75]

Inclusion and belongingness are central themes in the furry fandom: compared to members of other fandoms (e.g., anime, fantasy sport), furries are significantly more likely to identify with other members of their fan community.[71] On average, half of a furry’s friends are also furry themselves.[71][76] Furries rate themselves higher (compared to a comparison community sample of non-furries) on degree of global awareness (knowledge of the world and felt connection to others in the world), global citizenship identification (psychological connection with global citizens), and environmental sustainability.[79]

See also



  1. ^ Staeger, Rob (July 26, 2001). "Invasion of the Furries". The Wayne Suburban. Retrieved 2009-05-20. 
  2. ^ Kurutz, Daveen Rae (June 17, 2006). "It's a furry weekend". Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. Retrieved 2006-06-30. 
  3. ^ a b c d Patten, Fred (2012-07-15). "Retrospective: An Illustrated Chronology of Furry Fandom, 1966–1996". Flayrah. Retrieved 2012-07-15. 
  4. ^ Patten, Fred. "The Yarf! reviews". ANTHRO. Retrieved 2007-09-24. 
  5. ^ Sandler, Kevin S. (1998). Reading the Rabbit: Explorations in Warner Bros. Animation. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press. p. 202. OCLC 37890394. ISBN 0-8135-2537-3, ISBN 0-8135-2538-1. [The distinction between "furry" and "funny animal"] is largely because of the baggage the term 'furry' carries with it, as a number of people see 'furries' [to be] obsessed with the sexuality of their fictitious characters. 
  6. ^ "ConFurence 0". WikiFur. Retrieved 2014-09-21. 
  7. ^ a b c d e Winterman, Denise (November 13, 2009). "Who are the furries?". BBC News Magazine. Retrieved 2009-11-29. 
  8. ^ Stamper, Chris (March 29, 1996). "Furry Muckity-Muck". The Netly News. Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2007-04-13. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f University of California, Davis Department of Psychology (May 5, 2007). "Furry Survey Results". Retrieved 2007-05-05. 
  10. ^ a b c d e Alex "Klisoura" Osaki. "Furry Survey". Retrieved 2008-08-08. 
  11. ^ a b c Kyle Evans (2008). "The Furry Sociological Survey" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-09-01. 
  12. ^ a b c d e f g Gerbasi, Kathleen; Paolone, Nicholas; Higner, Justin; Scaletta, Laura; Bernstein, Penny; Conway, Samuel; Privitera, Adam (2008). "Furries From A to Z (Anthropomorphism to Zoomorphism)" (PDF). Society & Animals 3 (3): 197–222. doi:10.1163/156853008X323376. 
  13. ^ Riggs, Adam (2004). Critter Costuming: Making Mascots and Fabricating Fursuits. Ibexa Press. 
  14. ^ Larson, Alina (January 23, 2003). "Animal Instincts: Fans of Furry Critters Convene to Help Mankind". Tri-Valley Herald (ANG Newspapers). Retrieved 2009-05-20. 
  15. ^ "Furries Descend On Pittsburgh". KDKA-TV. June 16, 2006. Archived from the original on 2008-02-01. Retrieved 2006-06-30. 
  16. ^ Irwin, Charles; Watterson, Summer (April 24, 2002). "A 'furry' tale for a foxy college student". The Olympian. Retrieved 2008-09-03. 
  17. ^ Gaudio, Greg (August 23, 2008). "Lions and foxes and cat-dragons walk on two legs in Beach". The Virginian-Pilot. Retrieved 2008-09-07. 
  18. ^ Mitchell, Don (March 23, 1995). "From MUDs To Virtual Worlds". Social Computing Group, Microsoft. Retrieved 2009-11-06. 
  19. ^ Howells, Shelley (October 1, 2002). "Secret lives of strange and furry". The New Zealand Herald. 
  20. ^ Gerbasi, Kathleen; Paolone, Nicholas; Higner, Justin; Scaletta, Laura; Bernstein, Penny; Conway, Samuel; Privitera, Adam (2008). "Furries From A to Z (Anthropomorphism to Zoomorphism)". Society & Animals 3: 205. 
  21. ^ Werner, Christian. "Och, sind die süüüüß!". Zeit Online Zuender (in German). Zeit Online. Retrieved 2008-09-06. 
  22. ^ Mulligan, Jessica; Patrovsky, Bridgette (2003). Developing Online Games: An Insider's Guide. New Riders. p. 452. ISBN 1-59273-000-0. 1990 [...] FurryMUCK opens. It features avatars who are anthropomorphic animals. 
  23. ^ Baldwin, Denis (August 2006). "Walk With the Animals: Local furries explain it's not about perversion, furpiles and plush". Ann Arbor Paper 2 (1). Archived from the original on 2007-02-04. Retrieved 2007-02-02. 
  24. ^ Peralta, Eyder (May 28, 2006). "In Second Life, the World is Yours". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved 2007-08-13. 
  25. ^ KarlXydexx, Jorgensen. "What is a furry convention like?". Furry Fandom Infocenter. 
  26. ^ Editor in chief, Craig Glenday (August 7, 2007). Guinness World Records 2008. Guinness. p. 123. ISBN 1-904994-19-9. 
  27. ^ "Anthrocon website official". Anthrocon. Retrieved 2014-09-21. 
  28. ^ Brandolph, Adam (June 28, 2008). "Furry convention a $3 million cash cow for city businesses". Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. Retrieved 2008-07-04. 
  29. ^ Parry, Laurence (January 17, 2010). "2009 charity donations down; $470,000 raised this decade". Flayrah. Retrieved 2010-02-02. 
  30. ^ Melissa Meinzer (2006-06-29). "Animal Passions". Pittsburgh City Paper. Retrieved 2012-04-08. 
  31. ^ The Commodore 64/128 RoundTable (1994). "Interview with Joe Ekaitis". Retrieved 2007-01-12. 
  32. ^ "2001 Winners and Nominees". Web Cartoonist's Choice Awards. 2001-02-19. Retrieved 2007-12-04. 
  33. ^ "Award Winners 2003". Ursa Major Awards. Retrieved 2007-11-09. 
  34. ^ " - Frequently Asked Questions". May 8, 2001. Retrieved 2006-08-26. 
  35. ^ Gerbasi, Kathleen; Paolone, Nicholas; Higner, Justin; Scaletta, Laura; Bernstein, Penny; Conway, Samuel; Privitera, Adam (2008). "Furries From A to Z (Anthropomorphism to Zoomorphism)". Society & Animals 3: 220. 
  36. ^ Gary J. Gates (2011). "How many people are lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender?" (PDF). Retrieved April 23, 2015. 
  37. ^ a b Alex Osaki (June 27, 2008). "State of the Fandom" (PDF). Furry Research Center. Retrieved March 22, 2015. 
  38. ^ a b Gerbasi; et al. (2011). "International Online Furry Survey: Winter 2011". Retrieved 2012-09-01. 
  39. ^ Bardzell, Jeffery, and Shaowen Bardzell. Sex-Interface-Aesthetics: The Docile Avatars and Embodied Pixels of Second Life BDSM. Indiana University, 2005.
  40. ^ Stuttaford, Thomas; Godson, Suzi (December 8, 2007). "I like dressing up as a bear during sex". The Times (London). Retrieved 2007-12-11.  (further details)
  41. ^ a b Meinzer, Melissa (June 29, 2006). "Animal Passions: The furries come to town — and our correspondent tails along". Pittsburgh City Paper. Retrieved 2007-05-25. 
  42. ^ Padva, Gilad. Dreamboys, Meatmen and Werewolves: Visualizing Erotic Identities in All-Male Comic Strips. Sexualities 8:5 (2005). 587–99
  43. ^ Plante, C. N., Reysen, S., Roberts, S. E., & Gerbasi, K. C. (2013). International Anthropomorphic Research Project: Furry Fiesta 2013 Summary
  44. ^ Dr. Mark Griffiths (2012-04-05). "Animal magnetism: Inside the world of the furries". Retrieved 2012-09-01. 
  45. ^ Josh Quittner (March 1994), "Johnny Manhattan Meets the Furry Muckers", Wired, People describe themselves as furry cuddly animals; more times than not, they have furry cuddly animal sex. FurryMuckers like to write long, loving, animal-sexy descriptions of themselves 
  46. ^ "Heavy Petting". Loaded magazine. March 1998. 
  47. ^ Gurley, George (March 2001). "Pleasures of the fur". Vanity Fair. 
  48. ^ "Fear of Commitment". ER. Season 7. Episode 20. 2001-03-05. NBC. 
  49. ^ "Fur and Loathing". CSI: Crime Scene Investigation. Season 4. Episode 5. 2003-10-30. CBS. 
  50. ^ "Mama Told Me I Should Come". The Drew Carey Show. Season 8. Episode 6. 2002-10-21. ABC.  See The Drew Carey Show on WikiFur for more information.
  51. ^ MTV. "Sex2K Fursuit Video". Retrieved 2006-08-26. 
  52. ^ "The Day Fuckers". Entourage. Season 4. Episode 7. July 28, 2007. HBO. 
  53. ^ "Death Over Easy". 1000 Ways to Die. Season 1. Episode 4. February 8, 2009. Spike. 
  54. ^ Jordan (2011-08-10). "Tosh.O Web Redemption: The Larper". larping. Retrieved 2010-11-11. 
  55. ^ Markos (2013-09-05). "Kusa the Arctic Fox gets Web Redemption on Comedy Central’s Tosh.0". Furry News Network. 
  56. ^ "Emanuelle Goes to Dinosaur Land". 30 Rock. Season 4. Episode 21. 2010-05-13. NBC. 
  57. ^ Baldwin, Denis (August 2006). "Walk With the Animals: Local furries explain it's not about perversion, furpiles and plush". Ann Arbor Paper. Archived from the original on 2007-02-04. Retrieved 2007-02-02. 
  58. ^ Belser, Ann (June 18, 2006). "All about 'furry fandom' at confab". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved 2006-06-30. 
  59. ^ "We're at it like rabbits". The Sun. 3 April 2007. Retrieved 2007-04-11. 
  60. ^ Togneri, Chris (July 6, 2007). "Furries purr over Pittsburgh reception". Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. Retrieved 2007-07-14. 
  61. ^ Meinzer, Melissa (February 2, 2006). "Fur Ball In The Works". Pittsburgh City Paper. Retrieved 2007-05-25. 
  62. ^ Abel, Jennifer (November 1, 2007). "Hell Hath No Furries". Hartford Advocate (Advocate Weekly Newspapers). Retrieved 2010-06-19. 
  63. ^ "Award Winners 2009". Ursa Major Awards. May 3, 2010. Retrieved June 25, 2010. 
  64. ^ TheChainedWolf (2010-03-14). "Ursa Major Awards 2009: predictions and forlorn hopes". Retrieved 2010-11-11. 
  65. ^ "The Brewers Meet the Furries". Deadspin. July 6, 2007. Retrieved 2007-06-07. 
  66. ^ Parry, Laurence (July 17, 2007). "Anthrocon 2007 draws thousands to Pittsburgh for furry weekend". Wikinews. Retrieved 2009-11-06. 
  67. ^ "Furry Convention Creates Wild Scene In Pittsburgh". WPXI News. June 26, 2008. Retrieved 2008-07-04. 
  68. ^ Plante, Courtney; Roberts, Sharon; Reysen, Stephen; Gerbasi, Kathleen (2015). "“By the numbers”: Comparing furries and related fandoms". In Howl, Thurston. Furries among us: Essays on furries by the most prominent members of the fandom. Nashville, TN: Thurston Howl Publications. pp. 106–126. ISBN 0990890260. 
  69. ^ Gerbasi, Kathleen; Plante, Courtney; Reysen, Stephen; Roberts, Sharon (2015). "The origins of the international anthropomorphic research project". In Howl, Thurston. Furries among us: Essays on furries by the most prominent members of the fandom. Nashville, TN: Thurston Howl Publications. pp. 102–105. ISBN 0990890260. 
  70. ^ Reysen, Stephen; Plante, Courtney; Roberts, Sharon; Gerbasi, Kathleen (2015). "Social identity perspective of the furry fandom". In Howl, Thurston. Furries among us: Essays on furries by the most prominent members of the fandom. Nashville, TN: Thurston Howl Publications. pp. 127–151. ISBN 0990890260. 
  71. ^ a b c d e f Plante, Courtney; Roberts, Sharon; Reysen, Stephen; Gerbasi, Kathleen (2014). "International Anthropomorphic Research Project: 3-Fandom Project (Furries, Anime Fans, & Fantasy Sport Fans)". 
  72. ^ a b c d e f Plante, Courtney; Roberts, Sharon; Reysen, Stephen; Gerbasi, Kathleen (2012). "International Anthropomorphic Research Project: Anthrocon 2012 and 2-Year Summary". 
  73. ^ a b c Plante, Courtney; Mock, Steven; Reysen, Stephen; Gerbasi, Kathleen (2011). "International Anthropomorphic Research Project: Winter 2011 Online Survey Summary". 
  74. ^ Plante, Courtney; Reysen, Stephen; Roberts, Sharon; Gerbasi, Kathleen (2014). "International Anthropomorphic Research Project: Furry Fiesta 2014 & Longitudinal Study Wave 2 Summaries". 
  75. ^ a b c Plante, Courtney; Reysen, Stephen; Roberts, Sharon; Gerbasi, Kathleen (2012). "International Anthropomorphic Research Project: Furry Fiesta 2012". 
  76. ^ a b Plante, Courtney; Roberts, Sharon; Reysen, Stephen; Gerbasi, Kathleen (2013). "International Anthropomorphic Research Project: 2013 Fursona Survey Summary". 
  77. ^ Reysen, Stephen; Plante, Courtney; Roberts, Sharon; Gerbasi, Kathleen (2015). "Ingroup bias and ingroup projection in the furry fandom". International Journal of Psychological Studies 7 (4): 49–58. doi:10.5539/ijps.v7n4p. 
  78. ^ Reysen, Stephen; Plante, Courtney; Roberts, Sharon; Gerbasi, Kathleen (2015). "A social identity perspective of personality differences between fan and non-fan identities". World Journal of Social Science Research 2 (1): 91–103. 
  79. ^ Plante, Courtney; Roberts, Sharon; Reysen, Stephen; Gerbasi, Kathleen (2014). ""One of us": Engagement with fandoms and global citizenship identification". Psychology of Popular Media Culture 3 (1): 49–64. doi:10.1037/ppm0000008. 

Further reading

  • Ferreday, Debra. "Becoming deer: Nonhuman drag and online utopias." Feminist Theory 12.2 (2011): 219-225.
  • Hilton, Craig. "Furry Fandom — An Insider's View from the Outside", parts 1 & 2. South Fur Lands #2 & #3, 1995, 1996.
  • Martin, Watts. Mange: the need for criticism in furrydom 1994, 1998 ( mirror)
  • Morgan, Matt. Creature Comfort: Anthropomorphism, Sexuality and Revitalization in the Furry Fandom. Diss. Mississippi State University, 2008.
  • Probyn-Rapsey, Fiona. "Furries and the Limits of Species Identity Disorder: A Response to Gerbasi et al." Society and Animals 19.3 (2011): 294-301.

External links