Galik alphabet

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Galik
Ali Gali
Das Buch der Schrift (Faulmann) 132.jpg
Type
LanguagesMongolian, Tibetan, Sanskrit
CreatorAyuush Güüsh
Time period
16th century
Parent systems
Sister systems
Clear script
Vagindra script

The Galik script (Mongolian: Али-гали үсэг, Ali-Gali üseg) is an extension to the traditional Mongolian script. It was created in 1587 by the translator and scholar Ayuush Güüsh (Mongolian: Аюуш гүүш), inspired by the third Dalai Lama, Sonam Gyatso. He added extra characters for transcribing Tibetan and Sanskrit terms when translating religious texts, and later also from Chinese. Some of those characters are still in use today for writing foreign names.[1]

Some authors (particularly historic ones like Isaac Taylor in his The Alphabet: an account of the origin and development of letters, 1883) don't distinguish between the Galik and standard Mongolian alphabets.

To ensure that text in the script displays correctly in your browser, the appearance of the text samples in the table below should match.

Reference text Browser-rendered text Romanization
Mongolian script hā.svg ᠾᠠ᠋᠎ᠠ

Letters[edit]

Vowels[2][3]:26-28[1]:37
Mongolian
Romanization
Devanagari
Tibetan
ᠠ᠋
a


i
/ि
ཨི
ᠦ᠋
u
/
ཨུ
ᠷᠢ

/
རྀ
ᠯᠢ

/
ལྀ

e
/
ཨེ
ᠣᠸᠠ
o
/
ཨོ
ᠠ᠋᠎ᠠ
ā
/
ཨཱ
ᠢᠢ
ī
/
ཨཱི
ᠤᠦ
ū
/
ཨཱུ
ᠷᠢᠢ

/
རཱྀ
ᠯᠢᠢ

/
ལཱྀ
ᠧᠧ
ai
/
ཨཻ
ᠣᠸᠸᠠ
au
/
ཨཽ
Consonants[2][3]:26-28[1]:37
Mongolian
Romanization
Devanagari
Tibetan
ᢉᠠ
ka

ᠻᠠ
kha

ᠺᠠ
ga

ᠺᠾᠠ᠋
gha

གྷ
ᢊᢇ
ṅa


ᢋᠠ᠋
ca

/
ᠼᠠ᠋
cha

/
ᢖᠠ᠋/ᠽᠠ᠋
ja

/
ᢖᠾᠠ᠋/ᠽᠾᠠ᠋
jha

ཇྷ/ཛྷ
ᡛᠠ᠋
ña

ᢌᠠ᠋
ṭa

ᢍᠠ᠋
ṭha

ᢎᠠ᠋
ḍa

ᢎᠾᠠ᠋
ḍha

ཌྷ
ᢏᠠ᠋
ṇa

ᢐᠠ᠋
ta

ᠲᠠ᠋/ᡐᠠ᠋
tha

ᢑᠠ᠋/ᡑᠠ᠋
da

ᢑᠾᠠ᠋/ᡑᠾᠠ᠋
dha

དྷ
ᠨᠠ᠋
na

ᢒᠠ
pa

ᠹᠠ
pha

ᠪᠠ
ba

ᠪᠾᠠ᠋
bha

བྷ
ᠮᠠ᠋
ma

ᠶ᠋ᠠ᠋
ya

ᠷᠠ᠋
ra

ᠯᠠ᠋
la

ᠸᠠ᠋
va

ᢕᠠ᠋
zha

ᠱᠠ᠋
śa

ᢔᠠ᠋
ṣa

ᠰᠠ᠋
sa

ᡙᠠ᠋
ha

ᢖᠠ᠋
za

Ligature kṣa: ᢉᢔᠠ᠋ / क्ष / ཀྵ

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Otgonbayar Chuluunbaatar (2008). Einführung in die Mongolischen Schriften (in German). Buske. ISBN 978-3-87548-500-4.
  2. ^ a b "BabelStone : Mongolian and Manchu Resources". babelstone.co.uk. Retrieved 2018-12-16.
  3. ^ a b Poppe, Nicholas (1974). Grammar of Written Mongolian. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 9783447006842.