Galik alphabet

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Galik
Ali Gali
Das Buch der Schrift (Faulmann) 132.jpg
Script type
CreatorAyuush Güüsh
Time period
16th century
LanguagesMongolian, Tibetan, Sanskrit
Related scripts
Parent systems
Sister systems
Clear script
Vagindra script
 This article contains phonetic transcriptions in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA. For the distinction between [ ], / / and ⟨ ⟩, see IPA § Brackets and transcription delimiters.

The Galik script (Mongolian: Али-гали үсэг, Ali-Gali üseg) is an extension to the traditional Mongolian script. It was created in 1587 by the translator and scholar Ayuush Güüsh (Mongolian: Аюуш гүүш), inspired by the third Dalai Lama, Sonam Gyatso. He added extra characters for transcribing Tibetan and Sanskrit terms when translating religious texts, and later also from Chinese. Some of those characters are still in use today for writing foreign names.[1]

Some authors (particularly historic ones like Isaac Taylor in his The Alphabet: an account of the origin and development of letters, 1883) don't distinguish between the Galik and standard Mongolian alphabets.

To ensure that most text in the script displays correctly in your browser, the text sample below should resemble its image counterpart. Additional notes on the affected characters and their desired components are provided in the tables further down. For relevant terminology, see Mongolian script § Components.

Reference image Browser-rendered text Romanization
Mongolian script hā.svg ᠾᠠ᠋᠎ᠠ

Letters[edit]

Vowels[2][3]: 26–28 [4]: 233 [1]: 37 
Mongol­ian Roman­ization Deva­nagari Tibetan
ᠠ᠋ a
ᠠ᠋᠎ᠠ[note 1] ā / ཨཱ
i / ि ཨི
ᠢᠢ ī / ཨཱི
ᠦ᠋ u / ཨུ
ᠤᠦ ū / ཨཱུ
ᠷᠢ / རྀ
ᠷᠢᠢ / རཱྀ
ᠯᠢ / ལྀ
ᠯᠢᠢ / ལཱྀ
e / ཨེ
ᠧᠧ ai / ཨཻ
ᠣᠸᠠ o / ཨོ
ᠣᠸᠸᠠ[note 2] au / ཨཽ
ᢀ᠋ᠠ᠋ am / aṃ अं / ཨཾ
ᠠ᠋ᢁ aẖ / aḥ अः / ཨཿ
Consonants[2][3]: 26–28 [4]: 234–239 [1]: 37 
Mongol­ian[note 3] Roman­ization Deva­nagari Tibetan
ᢉᠠ ka
ᠻᠠ kha
ᠺᠠ ga
ᠺᠾᠠ᠋ gha གྷ
ᢊᢇ ṅa
ᢋᠠ᠋ ca /
ᠼᠠ᠋ cha /
ᢖᠠ᠋ / ᠽᠠ᠋ ja /
ᢖᠾᠠ᠋ / ᠽᠾᠠ᠋ jha ཇྷ / ཛྷ
ᡛᠠ᠋ ña
ᢌᠠ᠋ ṭa
ᢍᠠ᠋ ṭha
ᢎᠠ᠋ ḍa
ᢎᠾᠠ᠋ ḍha ཌྷ
ᢏᠠ᠋ ṇa
ᢐᠠ᠋ ta
ᠲᠠ᠋ / ᡐᠠ᠋ tha
ᢑᠠ᠋ / ᡑᠠ᠋ da
ᢑᠾᠠ᠋ / ᡑᠾᠠ᠋ dha དྷ
ᠨᠠ᠋ na
ᢒᠠ pa
ᠹᠠ pha
ᠪᠠ ba
ᠪᠾᠠ᠋ bha བྷ
ᠮᠠ᠋ ma
ᠶ᠋ᠠ᠋ ya
ᠷᠠ᠋ ra
ᠯᠠ᠋ la
ᠸᠠ᠋ va
ᢕᠠ᠋ zha [...]
ᠱᠠ᠋ śa
ᢔᠠ᠋ ṣa
ᠰᠠ᠋ sa
ᠾᠠ᠋ ha
ᢖᠠ᠋ za [...]
ᢗᠠ᠋ 'a [...]
ᢉᢔᠠ᠋ kṣa क्ष ཀྵ

Symbols & diacritics[edit]

Symbols & diacritics[2]: 63, 133, 135, 131 
Form(s) Name Examples
Mongolian Tibetan equivalent
Anusvara One ᢀᠠ᠋ ཨྃ
ᢀ᠋
Visarga One ᠠ᠋ᢁ ཨཿ
ᢁ᠋
Damaru ᢂᠻᠠ ྈྑ
Ubadama ᢃᠹᠠ ྌྥ
ᢄᠹᠠ ྉྥ
Baluda ᢉᢅᠣᠸᠸᠠ[note 4] ཀཽ྅
Three Baluda ᢉᢆᠣᠸᠸᠠ[note 5] ཀཽ྅྅྅

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ For correct rendering, this should appear as a short tooth (ᠡ‍) + one connected, and one separated left-pointing tail (both Mongolian letter A (final form-2).svg).
  2. ^ For correct rendering, this should appear as a short tooth (ᠡ‍) + loop (‍ᠤ‍) + two long teeth with downturns (‍ᠧ‍) + a final with right-pointing tail (‍ᠡ).
  3. ^ For correct rendering, all these final a's should appear as connected and left-pointing tails (Mongolian letter A (final form-2).svg). A's directly preceded by any of the bow-shaped letters k, kh, g, p, ph, and b should also include a tooth in between.
  4. ^ For correct rendering, this should appear as a right-side diacritic.
  5. ^ For correct rendering, this should appear as a right-side diacritic.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Otgonbayar Chuluunbaatar (2008). Einführung in die Mongolischen Schriften (in German). Buske. ISBN 978-3-87548-500-4.
  2. ^ a b c "BabelStone : Mongolian and Manchu Resources". babelstone.co.uk. Retrieved 2018-12-16.
  3. ^ a b Poppe, Nicholas (1974). Grammar of Written Mongolian. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 9783447006842.
  4. ^ a b Shagdarsürüng, Tseveliin (2001). "Study of Mongolian Scripts (Graphic Study or Grammatology). Enl". Bibliotheca Mongolica: Monograph 1.