Germanic Wars is a name given to a series of wars between the Romans and various Germanic tribes between 113 BC and 596 AD. The nature of these wars varied through time between Roman conquest, Germanic uprisings and later Germanic invasions in the Roman Empire that started in the late 2nd century. The series of conflicts, which began in the 5th century under the Western Roman Emperor Honorius, led (along with internal strife) to the ultimate downfall of the Western Roman Empire.
Chronology [ edit ]
3rd century BC [ edit ]
2nd century BC [ edit ]
113–101 BC, Germanic Collision with the Roman Republic, Cimbrian War, Begin of Germanic Wars.
Battle of Noreia, Suicide of Consul [1 ] Gnaeus Papirius Carbo. 107 BC,
Helvetii defeat the Romans in the Battle of Agen, Consul [2 ] Lucius Cassius Longinus dies in battle, General [2 ] Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus dies in battle. (Battle against Allies of the [2 ] Cimbri) 105 BC,
Battle of Arausio, Execution of Roman General Marcus Aurelius Scaurus, Proconsul Quintus Servilius Caepio and Consul Gnaeus Mallius Maximus exiled. 102 BC, Consul
Gaius Marius defeats the Scirii and Teutons in the Battle of Aquae Sextiae, Capture of King Teutobod, Extermination of the Teutons, Cimbri defeat Consul Quintus Lutatius Catulus in the Adige Valley. [4 ] 101 BC, Roman consuls
Gaius Marius and Manius Aquillius defeat the Cimbri in the Battle of Vercellae, King [3 ] Boiorix dies in battle, Extermination of the [3 ] Cimbri. [3 ]
1st century BC [ edit ]
Vercingetorix Throws Down His Arms at the Feet of Julius Caesar
Lionel Noel Royer
58–51 BC, Conquest of Celtic Gaul to the Rhine by Julius Caesar, Gallic Wars.
Caesar decisively defeats the Helvetii in the Battle of the Arar and the Battle of Bibracte, Caesar decisively defeats the Suevi, led by Ariovistus, in the Battle of Vosges. [6 ] [7 ] 57 BC,
Battle of the Sabis. 55 BC, Caesar's intervention against
Usipetes and Tencteri, Caesar defeats a Germanic army then massacres the women and children, totalling 430,000 people, somewhere near the Meuse and Rhine rivers, Caesar's first crossing of the Rhine against the Suevi, Caesar's invasions of Britain.
54 BCE, Destruction of the legion Legio XIV Gemina by the Eburones led by Cativolcus and Ambiorix, [8 ] [9 ] Lucius Aurunculeius Cotta dies in battle, Quintus Titurius Sabinus dies in battle. 53 BC,
Caesar's retaliation against the Eburones second crossing of the Rhine, Extermination of the Eburones. 52 BC,
Fall of Celtic Gaul, Gaul becomes a Roman province. 46 BC, Execution of
Vercingetorix the Celt. [10 ] 20 BC,
Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, Governor of Transalpine Gaul, Construction of military roads and especially the military road Lugdunum-- Divodurum-- Treverorum-- Agrippinensium (from Lyon to Cologne). 16 BC,
, clades Lolliana Destruction of the legion [11 ] Legio V Alaudae by Sicambri and their allies, Fall of the Kingdom of Noricum.
16–13 BC, Emperor Augustus on the Rhine, Reorganization of the Three Gauls (capital Trier), Decision to fortify the left bank of the Rhine and conquest of Germania to the Elbe, Rome pays tribute to the Frisii, Begin of invasions east of the Rhine by Rome, Construction of the modern city of Mainz begins.
12–9 BC, Invasions of Drusus I up the Elbe from the North Sea, the Lippe and Main, Battle of the Lupia River, Cherusci and Sicambri subdued, [12 ] Chatti, Tencteri and Usipetes are overrun, Establishment of new forts by Rome, Arminius and Flavus sent to Rome. 9 BC, Creation of
Magna Germania (capital Cologne), Pacification campaigns against the Germanic tribes by the Roman Empire, Deportation of 40,000 Sicambri west of the Rhine.
6–2 BC, Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus' invasions to the Elbe.
1st century [ edit ]
, Destruction of the legions clades Variana XVII, XVIII and XIX by Arminius in the Battle of Teutoburg Forest, Suicide of Administrator Varus, Loss of military camps east of the Rhine., [16 ] [17 ] Roman Empire is forced to strategically withdraw from [18 ] Germania. 10–13, Military command of Tiberius in Germania and interventions in the valley of the Lippe, replaced by
Germanicus, Construction of begins. Limes Germanicus 14, Mutiny of the legions of Germania.
14–16, Roman retaliation against
Cherusci, Chatti, Bructeri and Marsi, Capture of Arminius' wife.
17, Cessation of military offensives east of the
Rhine by Tiberius, Civil war between Germanic tribes. [19 ] 19, Death of
Germanicus. 21, Assassination of
Arminius. 28, Revolt of the
Frisii, Tax collectors hanged, Romans defeated in the Battle of Baduhenna Wood. 41, Raid against the
Chauci under Emperor Claudius, Recovery of third legionary standard lost in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest. 50, Raid against the
Chatti under Emperor Claudius, Liberation of Roman prisoners. [20 ] 69–70,
Revolt of the Batavi, Destruction of 2 Roman legions by the Batavi. 82–83,
Raids against the Chatti under Emperor Domitian. 89,
Lucius Antonius Saturninus, Legio XIV Gemina and Legio XXI Rapax revolt against Rome with aid of the Chatti. [21 ]
2nd century [ edit ]
3rd century [ edit ]
Crisis of the Third Century.
Battle at the Harzhorn. 238, Gothic raid on
Istria, [22 ] 248–249, Raid in
Marcianopolis by Goths. [22 ] 250,
Siege of Philippopolis by Goths led by Cniva. [23 ] 251,
Battle of Abritus, Emperor Decius dies in battle, Co-Emperor Herennius Etruscus dies in battle. 259, 300,000
Alemanni die in the Battle of Mediolanum (Milan).
259–260, Evacuation of the agrarian area
Agri Decumates by the Roman Empire, Roman Empire retreats behind the Rhine. 260–274, Germanic usurper
Postumus declares himself Emperor of the Gallic Empire including Roman Gaul, Roman Britain, Roman Spain and Germania. c. 267–269,
Invasion of the Goths, Battle of Thermopylae, Gothic attacks on Marcianopolis and Chrysopolis, Sack of Byzantium. 268,
Siege of Mainz, Battle of Lake Benacus, assassination of Gallic Emperor Postumus. 269,
Siege of Augustodunum Haeduorum, Battle of Naissus, end of Gothic Invasion, assassination of Gallic Emperor [24 ] Marcus Aurelius Marius. 271,
Battle of Placentia, Battle of Fano, Battle of Pavia, Destruction of Alemannic army, Assassination of Gallic Emperor Victorinus, Emperor Aurelian repelled another Gothic invasion but abandoned the province of Dacia north of Danube forever, Construction of the [25 ] Aurelian Wall begins. 274,
Battle of Châlons, Surrender of the Gallic Empire. 298,
Battle of Lingones. 298,
Battle of Vindonissa.
4th century [ edit ]
332, Roman invasion north of the Danube under Emperor
Constantine II, Capture of Gothic Prince Ariaricus. [26 ] [27 ] [28 ] [29 ] [30 ] c. 350, Infiltration of
Germania Inferior by Franks. 353–354, Raids against
Alamanni under Emperor Constantius II. 356, Recapture of
Colonia Agrippina (Cologne) by Julian the Apostate, Siege of Senonae by Alamanni, Siege of Autun by Alemanni, Battle of Reims, Battle of Brumath. 357, Invasion of Alemannic territory by Roman General
Barbatio and Julian the Apostate, Attack of Lugdunum (Lyon) by Laeti, End of coordinated operation against the Alemanni, Battle of Argentoratum, Capture of Alemannic King Chnodomarius. 358, Raid in the province of
Raetia by Alemannic Juthungi, Destruction of Castra Regina (Regensburg) by Alemanni. 359, Execution of Roman General
Barbatio, Recapture of Moguntiacum by Julian the Apostate. 365–366, Invasion of
Roman Gaul by Alemanni, Alemanni pushed out of Roman Gaul. 367, Sack of
Moguntiacum by Alemanni, Battle of Solicinium. 367–368,
Great Barbarian Conspiracy against Roman Britain and Roman Gaul by Saxons and Franks, Death of Nectaridus. 367–369, Attack on
Gothic Thervingi under Eastern Emperor Valens. [31 ] [32 ] 368, Invasion of Alemannic territory under Emperor
Valentinian the Great, Crossing of the Rhine by the Roman Empire. 369, Destruction of a
fortress near Heidelberg by Alemanni. 370, Invasion of
Roman Gaul by Saxons, Death of all invading Saxons, Invasion of Alemannic territory by Valentinian the Great, Rome captures thousands of Alemannic Bucinobantes, Deposition of Alemannic King Macrian, Hunnic raids on Gothic Greuthungi. [33 ] [34 ] [35 ] [36 ] [37 ] [38 ] 374, Assassination of Quadic King
Gabinius, Invasion of former Illyricum by Quadi and Sarmatians. 375, Pillaging of Quadi lands by the Roman Empire, Western Emperor
Valentinian the Great dies during peace negotiations.
Invasion of the Huns, Hunnic war against Visigoths and Ostrogoths, Suicide of Gothic King Ermanaric, Gothic King Vithimer dies in battle. [39 ] [40 ] 376–382, Hunnic raids on Gothic
Thervingi ( Visigoths), [33 ] [34 ] [35 ] [36 ] [37 ] [38 ] Gothic War, [33 ] [35 ] [36 ] [41 ] [42 ] [43 ] Plundering and destruction throughout the Balkans by Goths.
[44 ] 377–378, Invasion of
Thrace and Moesia by Gothic Greuthungi led by chieftain Alatheus. 378, Invasion of
Alsace by Alemanni, Battle of Argentovaria, Extermination of Alemannic Lentienses, Alemannic King Priarius dies in battle. 380,
Battle of Thessalonica, Death of Gothic chieftain Fritigern, Begin of naval raids by Saxons, Begin of the Migration of the Saxons. 382, Peace between Rome and the Goths, Large Gothic contingents of
Thervingi, Taifali and Victohali settle along the southern Danube frontier in the province of Thrace. 383, Failed raid in the province of
Raetia by Alemannic Juthungi. 387, Failed Invasion of
Thrace and Moesia by Gothic Greuthungi led by chieftain Alatheus, Greuthungi chieftain Alatheus dies in battle. 390,
Massacre of Thessalonica. 392, Emperor
Valentinian II is hanged, Frankish General Arbogast names Eugenius to be Western Emperor. 394, 20,000 Gothic mercenaries support Eastern Emperor
Theodosius the Great in the Battle of the Frigidus, Suicide of Frankish General Arbogast, Execution of puppet Western Emperor Eugenius. 395, Assassination of Consul
Rufinus by Gothic mercenaries.
5th century [ edit ]
For the timeline of events in Britannia after its abandonment by Emperor Valentinian III, see Timeline of conflict in Anglo-Saxon Britain.
401–402, Raid in
Raetia by Vandals. 401–403, Invasion of Italy by
Visigoths under Alaric I, Gothic War.
405–406, Siege of
Florentina, [49 ] Battle of Faesulae, Execution of Gothic King [50 ] Radagaisus, 12,000 Gothic higher-status fighters are drafted into the Roman army. [51 ] [49 ] [51 ] 406, War between
Franks and Vandals, Battle of Moguntiacum, Vandal King Godigisel dies in battle, Alans under King Respendial rescue the Vandals, Invasion of Gaul by Vandals, Suebi, Burgundians and Alans, Fall of Roman Gaul. 408, Failed invasion of
Moesia by Huns and Germanic mercenaries led by Uldin the Hun, Capture of thousands of Germanic mercenaries, Execution of Roman General Stilicho, Slaughter of wives and children of barbarian , foederati Siege of Rome by Visigoths, Attacks on Roman Britain by Saxons.
Siege of Rome by Visigoths, Invasion of Roman Spain by Vandals, Suebi ( Marcomanni, Quadi, Buri) and Alans. 410,
Sack of Rome by Visigoths, Begin of attacks on Vandals by Visigoths, Begin of Barbarian raids by Picts, Scoti and Irish Celts, End of Roman rule in Britain, . Suevi establish a Kingdom in Galicia 411,
Jovinus declares himself Western Roman Emperor with aid of the Burgundians, Franks and Alans, Burgundians establish a Kingdom left of the Rhine under King Gundahar. 413, Capture of
Narbonne and Toulouse by Visigoths led by King Ataulf, Usurper Jovinus is executed, Sack of Trier by Franks. 421, Sack of
Trier by Franks. 422, Capture and Execution of Frankish King
Theudemeres by Romans, Attack on Vandals by Romans. 426–436, Campaigns against the
Visigoths in southern Gaul under Western Emperor Valentinian III, Battle of Narbonne, Capture of Visigothic chieftain Anaolsus. 428, Invasion of Northern Gaul by
Salian Franks led by King Chlodio. 428–431, Failed Roman campaigns against
Salian Franks, Alemannic Juthungi on the Rhine and Danube.
429–439, Invasion of
Africa by Vandals led by Vandal King Genseric, Siege of Hippo Regius, Capture of Carthage by Vandals, Capture of Roman navy by Vandals, Pillaging of Sicily, Begin of pirate raids by Vandals. 431, Invasion to the
Somme River by Salian Franks. 436–437, Invasion of
Burgundian Rhineland by Hun mercenaries controlled by Rome, Burgundian King Gundahar dies in battle. c. 443, Britain plunges into civil war,
Groans of the Britons, Britain is abandoned by Western Emperor Valentinian III. 448, Defeat of the
Salian Franks in the Battle of Vicus Helena by Roman General Aëtius, Frankish King Chlodio dies in battle. 451, Invasion of
Gaul by the Huns with Frankish, Gothic and Burgundian mercenaries led by Attila the Hun, Sack of Trier, Attack on Metz, Siege of Orléans, Coalition of Romans, Franks and Visigoths led by General Aëtius stop the Huns in the Battle of Châlons, Visigothic King Theodoric I dies in battle. 452, Invasion of northern Italy under
Attila the Hun: Sack of Aquileia, Vicetia, Verona, Brixia, Bergamum and Milan. 453, Hunnic and Germanic attacks on
Constantinople, Attila the Hun dies during heavy drinking. 454, Assassination of Roman General
Aëtius, Gepids establish a kingdom in Pannonia. 455,
Sack of Rome by Vandals, Capture of Empress Licinia Eudoxia by Vandals. 456,
Visigoths defeat the Suebic Kingdom of Galicia in the Battle of Órbigo. 458, Defeat of the
Visigoths in southern Gaul in the Battle of Arelate.
Europe in the late 5th century (476-486).
459, Seizure of
Trier by Franks. 461, Seventeen Vandal ships destroy forty Roman ships in
a surprise attack. 463,
Battle of Orleans. 465,
Ostrogothic King Valamir dies in battle. 468, Invasion of the
Vandal Kingdom by the Byzantine Empire, Defeat of the Byzantine Empire by the Vandals in the Battle of Cape Bon. 469,
Ostrogoths decisively defeat an alliance of Germanic and Roman forces in the Battle of Bolia, Fall of the [52 ] Hunnic Empire, Visigoths thwarted an attack by an alliance of Bretons and Romans in the Battle of Déols. 472, Revolt in
Thrace by Ostrogoths led by chieftain Theodoric Strabo. 476, Revolt of
Heruli, Scirii and Turcilingi mercenaries, Battle of Ravenna, Germanic Heruli chieftain Odoacer becomes King of Italy, Fall of the Western Roman Empire. 486,
Franks under Merovingian King Clovis I defeat the Kingdom of Soissons in the Battle of Soissons, Fall of the Kingdom of Soissons. 489,
Theodoric the Great defeats Odoacer in the Battle of Isonzo, Battle of Verona.
6th century [ edit ]
526, Raid against Gothic
Gepidae by Byzantine General Belisarius. 533–534, Invasion of
North Africa by the Byzantine Empire, Vandalic War.
535–554, Invasion of
Italy by the Byzantine Empire, [53 ] Ostrogothic War.
535, Capture of Sicily by Byzantine General
Belisarius. 536, Capture of
Naples and Rome by Byzantine General Belisarius. 537–538,
Siege of Rome by Ostrogoths. 540, Capture of
Mediolanum and the Ostrogothic capital Ravenna by Byzantine General Belisarius, Capture of Ostrogothic King Witiges. 541–542,
Bubonic plague wipes out most of the farming community of the former Roman Empire and leaving dead an estimated 25 million people across the world, Begin of territorial decline until the 9th century. 541–544, Recapture of Northern Italy by
Sack of Rome by Ostrogoths. c. 548, Recapture of Rome by the
Byzantine Empire. 549–550,
Siege and Capture of Rome by Ostrogoths. 551,
Battle of Sena Gallica, Capture of Ostrogothic chieftain Gibal, Demoralization of Gothic army. 552, Byzantine Empire with aid of the
Heruli and Lombards defeat the Ostrogoths in the Battle of Taginae, Ostrogothic King Totila dies on the run, Defeat of Gothic Gepids in the Battle of Asfeld against Lombards (Longbeards), Gepid King Thurisind dies in battle. 552–553, Capture of Rome and Siege of
Cumae by Byzantine General Narses, Battle of Mons Lactarius, Ostrogothic king Teia dies in battle, Fall of the Ostrogothic Kingdom.
554, Byzantine General
Narses defeats the Franks and Alemanni in the Battle of the Volturnus. [54 ] c. 558–561, Failed Uprising of the Ostrogoth
Widin. [55 ] 567,
Lombards decisively defeat the Gepids, Gepid King Cunimund dies in battle, Fall of the Kingdom of the Gepidae. 568–c. 572, Invasion of Northern Italy by
Lombards, Bavarians, Gepids and Saxons, Longbeards (Lombards) establish a Kingdom in Northern Italy (capital Pavia), Begin of End of Byzantine rule.
See also [ edit ]
References [ edit ]
^ a b Mommsen, Theodor. "History of Rome: Book IV - The Revolution". p. 67 . Retrieved . 2009-04-18
^ a b c d Theodor Mommsen, Römische Geschichte. Vol. 2. Von der Schlacht von Pydna bis auf Sullas Tod.. 3.Ed. Weidmann, Berlin 1861, S. 178. (German) (Roman History: From the battle of Pydna down to Sulla's death.) Römische Geschichte: Bd. Von der Schlacht von Pydna bis auf Sullas Tod
^ a b c d Mossman, Theodor (1908). . New York: Charles Scribner's SOns. p. 71 History of Rome . Retrieved . 9 October 2009
^ Florus, Epitome 1.38.16-17 and Valerius Maximus, Factorum et Dictorum Memorabilium 6.1.ext.3 (in Latin)
^ Caesar. In: Hans Herzfeld (1960): Geschichte in Gestalten ( History in figures), vol. 1: A-E. Das Fischer Lexikon 37, Frankfurt 1963, p. 214. "Hauptquellen [betreffend Caesar]: Caesars eigene, wenn auch leicht tendenziöse Darstellungen des Gallischen und des Bürgerkrieges, die Musterbeispiele sachgemäßer Berichterstattung und stilistischer Klarheit sind" (" Main sources [regarding Caesar]: Caesar's own, even though slightly tendentious depictions of the Gallic and the Civil Wars, which are paradigms of pertinent information and stylistic clarity")
^ Julius Caesar, Commentarii de Bello Gallico 1.31-53
^ Dio Cassius, Roman History 38.34-50; see also Plutarch, Life of Caesar 19
^ Smith, William (1867). "Ambiorix". In William Smith. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology 1. Boston: Little, Brown and Company. pp. 138–139.
^ Florus, III. 10. § 8.
^ Birkhan, Helmut, 1997, , p. 238. Die Kelten (German) (The Celts)
^ Suetonius, Augustus, 23, Tiberius, 12; Tacitus, Annals, I.10, III.48; Velleius II.97, 102; Pliny, Nat. Hist. IX.35 (58); Dio, liv.6.
^ Dio, , Roman History LIV.33.
^ Several examples by Max Ihm, s. v. Cheruski, in: (RE) III.2, Stuttgart 1899, cols. 2270–2272. Paulys Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft (German))
^ "Chatti in Encyclopædia Britannica". Encyclopædia Britannica. September 2010.
^ Velleius, , Compendium of Roman History book 2, 104,2.
^ Wells, Peter S. . New York: W.W. Norton & Company. 2003, p. 187 The Battle that stopped Rome ISBN 0-393-32643-8
^ ". Fergus M. Bordewich, The Ambush That Changed History" Smithsonian Magazine. September 2005 . Retrieved . 2008-10-17
^ ". Edward Shepherd Creasy, Germans under Arminius Revolt Against Rome" The Great Events by Famous Historians, Vol. 2. 1905.
^ Kevin Sweeney, . www.nujournal.com 2010-10. Scholars look at factors surrounding Hermann’s victory
^ Tacitus, Annals, XII.27
^ Dean-Jones, Lesley (1992), p. 144
^ a b Kulikowski, Michael, 2007, , p. 18. Rome's Gothic Wars
^ Jordanes, in The Goths in the Third Century AD THE ORIGIN AND DEEDS OF THE GOTHS, translated by Charles C. Mierow, www.earth-history.com
^ Zosimus, Historia Nova, book 1.43
^ Potter, David S., , p. 270 A Companion to the Roman Empire
^ Sozomen, , Ecclesiastical History book 1, chapter 8 & book 2, chapter 34.
^ Kulikowski, Michael, 2007, , pp. 83-84. Rome's Gothic Wars
^ Origo Constantini 6.32 mention the actions.
^ Eusebius, , IV.6 The Life of the Blessed Emperor Constantine
^ Odahl, Charles M., , chapter X. Constantine and the Christian Empire
^ Ammianus Marcellinus, , Historiae book 27, chapter 5.
^ Kulikowski, Michael, 2007, , pp. 115-116. Rome's Gothic Wars
^ a b c Zosimus, , Historia Nova book 4.
^ a b Ammianus Marcellinus, , Historiae book 31, chapter 3.
^ a b c Philostorgius, , Ecclesiastical history book 9, chapter 17.
^ a b c Sozomen, , book 6, chapter 37. Ecclesiastical History
^ a b Heather, Peter, 1998, The Goths, pp. 98-104.
^ a b Kulikowski, Michael, 2007, , pp. 124-128. Rome's Gothic Wars
^ Heather, Peter, 2010, , p. 215. Empires and barbarians
^ Heather, Peter, 1995, The English Historical Review, The Huns and the end of the Roman Empire in Western Europe
^ Ammianus Marcellinus, , Historiae book 31, chapters 5-16.
^ Socrates Scholasticus, , book 4, chapters 34-38 & book 5, chapter 1. The Ecclesiastical History
^ Heather, Peter, 1998, , pp. 130-138. The Goths
^ Kulikowski, Michael, 2007, Rome's Gothic Wars, pp. 130-153.
^ Hahn, Irene (2007). "The Day of the Barbarians: The Battle That Led to the Fall of the Roman Empire". Book review. http://romanhistorybooksandmore.freeservers.com . Retrieved . 2008-04-19
^ Ammianus Marcellinus, Historiae, book 31, chapters 12–14.
^ Zosimus, Historia Nova, book 4.
^ Roman Empire – Adrianople roman-empire.net. Illustrated History of the Roman Empire. Retrieved April 2, 2007.
^ a b Heather, Peter, The Goths, p. 205
^ Jaques, Tony. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2007, Dictionary of Battles and Sieges: F-O. ISBN 978-0-313-33538-9, p. 345.
^ a b Heather, Peter, The Goths, p. 194
^ . University of California Press. 13 February 1990 History of the Goths . Retrieved . 5 April 2012
^ "World Timeline of Europe AD 400-800 Early medieval". The British Museum. 2005 . Retrieved . 2009-04-06
^ Haldon, John, 2008, , p. 39. The Byzantine Wars
^ Amory, Patrick, 2003, People and Identity in Ostrogothic Italy, 489-554.
Further reading [ edit ]
Florus on the Germanic wars, translated by E.S. Forster, www.livius.org 2010-10.
The Germanic Wars, 2nd century, www.unrv.com 2010-10.
Roman Germanic Wars, 12 BC to 17 AD, www.heritage-history.com 2010-10.
Timeline of Ancient Europe, www.earth-history.com 2010-10. Speidel, Michael, 2004,
. (book) Ancient Germanic warriors: Warrior styles from Trajan's column to Icelandic sagas
Ancient Roman wars
Wars of the Roman Republic
Punic Wars ( First, Second, Third)
Illyrian Wars ( First, Second, Third)
Macedonian Wars ( First, Second, Third, Fourth)
Roman conquest of Hispania ( First Celtiberian War, Lusitanian War, Numantine War, Sertorian War, Cantabrian Wars)
Servile Wars ( First, Second, Third)
Sulla's civil wars ( First, Second)
Mithridatic Wars ( First, Second, Third)
Caesar's invasions of Britain
Caesar's Civil War
End of the Republic ( Post-Caesarian, Liberators', Sicilian, Fulvia's, Final)
Wars of the Roman Empire