|EXPO San Antonio 1968|
The Tower of the Americas, the theme structure for HemisFair '68
|Motto||The Confluence of Civilizations in the Americas|
|Building||Tower of the Americas|
|Area||39 hectares (96 acres)|
|Awarded||November 17, 1965|
|Opening||April 6, 1968|
|Closure||October 6, 1968|
|Previous||IVA 65 in Munich|
|Next||Expo 71 in Budapest|
|Previous||Expo 67 in Montreal|
|Next||Expo '70 in Osaka|
HemisFair '68 was the official 1968 World's Fair (or International Exposition) held in San Antonio, Texas, from April 6 through October 6, 1968. The theme of the fair was "The Confluence of Civilizations in the Americas", celebrating the many nations which settled region. The fair was held in 1968 to coincide with the 250th anniversary of the founding of San Antonio in 1718. More than thirty nations and fifteen corporations hosted pavilions at the fair.
The Bureau International des Expositions (BIE) which oversees World's Fairs and Expositions, awarded HemisFair '68 with official Fair status on November 17, 1965.
The theme character of the fair was a dragon named Luther created by Sid and Marty Krofft, who was later renamed and starred in the Krofft's Saturday morning show H.R. Pufnstuf. The main premise of the television show H.R. Pufnstuf was taken from their production for the Coca-Cola pavilion at the fair.
The venture, which had an announced cost of $156 million, was financed by a combination of public and private funds. Public funding included $12.2 million from the U.S. Housing and Home Finance Agency for acquiring and clearing the site, $11 million in publicly approved city bonds for construction of the convention center and arena, $5.5 million in general revenues from the City of San Antonio for construction of the Tower of the Americas, $10 million from the State of Texas primarily for the construction of the Texas State Pavilion and $7.5 million from the United States Congress for the construction of the United States pavilion. Although HemisFair '68 attracted 6.3 million visitors and brought international attention to San Antonio and Texas, attendance never matched estimates and San Antonio's world's fair lost $7.5 million.
The 92-Acre Site
The fair was built on a 96.2-acre (389,000 m²) site on the southeastern edge of Downtown San Antonio. The site was acquired mainly through eminent domain and many structures were demolished and moved, in what was considered a blighted area, to make room for the fair. The project was partially developed with federal urban renewal funds. The San Antonio Conservation Society recommended that 129 structures on the site be preserved; however, on August 9, 1966, an agreement was made to save only 20 existing structures that would be incorporated into the fair site. Overall, only 24 structures were saved.
In addition, as a part of the overall HemisFair project, the city extended its River Walk (Paseo del Rio) one-quarter of a mile into the site in order to link the River Walk and the HemisFair grounds in 1968. In 2001, the River Walk was extended again under the new Convention Center Expansion and is now connected to a small lagoon inside HemisFair Park.
The opening of HemisFair was on April 6, 1968, with the gates opening at 9:00am and official ceremonies beginning at 10:00am in the new Convention Center Arena. However, with the opening just two days after Martin Luther King, Jr. was assassinated, VIPs including U.S. First Lady Lady Bird Johnson and Texas Governor John Connally, both of whom received death threats, were escorted around the site (under heavy security).
Pavilions at HemisFair
National pavilions at the fair included: Canada, Mexico, Italy, Spain, France, Japan, Belgium, Bolivia, Republic of China, Colombia, West Germany, Korea, Panama, Portugal, Switzerland, Thailand and Venezuela. There were also shared pavilions such as a five-nation Central American pavilion, representing Nicaragua, Honduras, Guatemala, El Salvador, and Costa Rica and the special pavilions of the Organization of American States, which represented eleven more Latin-American countries, including Brazil, Argentina, and Peru.
Just like the United States the year before at Expo 67 in Montreal, Japan had the unique privilege of promoting the next BIE sanctioned event EXPO 70 held in Osaka, Japan during 1970.
Corporate pavilions at the fair included: Eastman Kodak, Ford Motor Company, General Electric, General Motors, Humble Oil (now ExxonMobil), IBM, RCA, Southwestern Bell (now AT&T, Inc.), Frito Lay, Pepsi-Cola, Coca-Cola, American Express, Chrysler, 3M, among others.
Other pavilions at the fair included: the LDS Church, the Southern Baptist pavilion, the Women's Pavilion and Project Y (Youth Pavilion).
After HemisFair, much of the land ownership was transferred to the State of Texas and the U.S. Federal Government. Today, the City of San Antonio owns approximately 50 acres (200,000 m2) of the site, 30 of which the Convention Center occupies.
In 1986, many unused remaining structures built for the fair were removed and in celebration of the 20th Anniversary of HemisFair '68, approximately 15 acres (61,000 m2) of the site were redeveloped with cascading waterfalls, fountains, playgrounds and lush landscaping. Many of the improvements were concentrated near the base of the Tower of the Americas. At the site's re-dedication in April 1988, the site was re-christened "HemisFair Park". The urban park is a lasting legacy of the fair and is a gift from the city to its citizens.
In 2008 Hyatt Hotels completed construction of the Grand Hyatt San Antonio on the north and eastern sides of the convention center theater (built for HemisFair '68). It features guest rooms on the first 24 floors and condos on the last 10, all rooms on the south side have an unobstructed view of HemisFair Park and the Tower of the Americas.
Venues still on the site today
As of spring 2013 only a handful of structures built/renovated for the HemisFair remain on the former fairgrounds and are still open to the public.
Convention Center Theater The theater (now Lila Cockrell Theater) was built as one of a three building complex (along with the Convention Center and Arena) during the build up for HemisFair '68 and leased to San Antonio Fair, Inc for use during the Fair. Sometime after the Fair it was renamed in honor of the city's former three term mayor Lila Cockrell. After decades of limited upgrades the building received a 26 million dollar renovation in 2010. Above the windows on the exterior is the mural titled: "Confluence of Civilizations in the Americas" created by Mexican artist Juan O'Gourman for HemisFair '68.
Eastman Kodak Pavilion Built next to the Women's Pavilion this venue has seen little to no use since the fair. It is projected this building will be demolished to provide room for the expansion Women's Pavilion at Hemisfair Park at some later date.
Gulf Insurance Pavilion Built near the Tower of the Americas as a rest area, today it's closed to the public and serves as storage and support for the tower.
Humble Oil Pavilion Originally built in the 19th century this building was renovated for HemisFair '68 housing the exhibit and theater for Humble Oil (now ExxonMobil). In recent years the building was renovated once again and now serves as additional banquet/ballroom facilities for the Hilton Palacio Del Hotel (also built for HemisFair) located across the street.
Mexico Pavilion Mexico Pavilion (now the Mexican Cultural Institute) is the only national pavilion still in its original location, although the original structure was modified and expanded during the expansion of the adjacent convention center and was re-opened in 2002.
Southern Baptist Pavilion Originally built in the late 19th century by Sam Edgar as a wedding gift to his daughter, for HemisFair '68 it was renovated and housed the Southern Baptist exhibit. In 2012 the house was renovated once again and now serves as offices for the Hemisfair Park Area Redevelopment Corporation.
State of Texas Pavilion The fair's largest pavilion belonged to the state of Texas. This pavilion also remained after the fair closed and became the Institute of Texan Cultures, which is now operated as a museum and the third campus of the University of Texas at San Antonio.
Tower of the Americas The fair's theme structure is the 750-foot-tall (228 m) Tower of the Americas, which remains today as San Antonio's tallest skyscraper. The top of the tower houses a revolving restaurant, lounge, and outdoor observation deck, and it was designed by architect O'Neil Ford.
United States of America Pavilion The United States Confluence Theater (now the John H. Wood, Jr. United States District Court for the Western District of Texas) remains today as well as the Confluence Exhibit Hall (now the Adrian Spears Judicial Training Center). As part of the pavilion was a fountain called "Migration", although the bird sculptures have been replaced with bushes the outline of the fountain is still in place.
Women's Pavilion The theme of this venue was to showcase the contributions women have made in society: past, present and future. The building was built as a permanent structure to help meet the requirements of Urban Renewal, as well as be part of the re-use plan after the Fair. One idea was for it to be re-used as a student union building as one proposal was to locate the new University of Texas at San Antonio campus on the site. After decades of use as a storage facility by the Institute of Texan Cultures, several of the ladies who were originally involved with the pavilion are working to restore and reopen the pavilion.
HemisFair Park Area Redevelopment Corporation
In 2009 the San Antonio City Council under the leadership of Mayor Julian Castro created a non-profit organization - "HemisFair Park Area Redevelopment Corporation" to generate ideas and oversee the re-development of the former fairgrounds which has seen little development since 1988.
In 2012 HPARC completed the renovation of three indigenous structures on the site which now serve as offices (Eagar House), conference center (Carriage House) and support services (Eagar Dependency) for HPARC. Along with the renovations, the San Antonio City Council voted on and approved HPARC's master-plan for the redevelopment of the former site.
- HemisFair '68 from the Handbook of Texas Online
- Initial Security | International Directory of Company Histories | Find Articles at BNET.com
- A Guide to the San Antonio Fair, Inc., Records, 1963–1995 (Bulk 1964–1968) Series 1: Executive Officers
- HemisFair '68 Online An online source for the 1968 World's Fair
- Hemisfair Park Area Redevelopment Corporation
- Hemisfair '68 from the Handbook of Texas Online
- San Antonio Fair, Inc. Records (finding aid) at the University of Texas at San Antonio Archives
- A Guide to HemisFair '68 History and Resources at the University of Texas at San Antonio Archives
- Works by or about HemisFair '68 in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
- Several home movies from Hemisfair at Texas Archive of the Moving Image