History and culture of substituted amphetamines
Amphetamine and methamphetamine are central nervous system stimulants used to treat a variety of conditions; when used recreationally, they are colloquially known as "speed." Amphetamine was first synthesized in 1887 in Germany by Romanian chemist Lazăr Edeleanu, who named it phenylisopropylamine. Around the same time, Japanese organic chemist Nagai Nagayoshi isolated ephedrine from the Ephedra sinica plant and later developed a method for ephedrine synthesis.[note 1] Methamphetamine was synthesized from ephedrine in 1893 by Nagayoshi. Neither drug had a pharmacological use until 1934, when Smith, Kline and French began selling amphetamine as an inhaler under the trade name Benzedrine for congestion.
During World War II, amphetamine and methamphetamine were used extensively by Allied and Axis forces for their stimulant and performance-enhancing effects. As the addictive properties of the drugs became known, governments began to place strict controls on the sale of the drugs. During the early 1970s in the United States, amphetamine became a schedule II controlled substance under the Controlled Substances Act. Despite strict government controls, amphetamine and methamphetamine have been used (legally or illegally) by individuals from a variety of backgrounds for a variety of purposes.
Due to the large underground market for these drugs, they are often illegally synthesized by clandestine chemists, trafficked, and sold on the black market. Based on drug and drug precursor seizures, illicit amphetamine production and trafficking is much less prevalent than that of methamphetamine.
- 1 History of amphetamine and methamphetamine
- 2 Society and culture
- 3 Illicit drug culture
- 3.1 Adderall in the video gaming industry
- 3.2 Amphetamines in higher education
- 3.3 Recreational use
- 3.4 Illegal synthesis
- 3.5 Trafficking and distribution
- 4 See also
- 5 Notes
- 6 References
- 7 External links
History of amphetamine and methamphetamine
Amphetamine was first synthesized in 1887 in Germany by Romanian chemist, Lazăr Edeleanu, who named the drug phenylisopropylamine. This concoction was one of a series of compounds related to the plant derivative ephedrine, which had been isolated from the plant má huáng (ephedra) that same year by Nagayoshi Nagai. Shortly after the first synthesis of amphetamine, Nagai synthesized methamphetamine from ephedrine in 1893. In 1919, methamphetamine hydrochloride, also known as crystal meth, was synthesized by pharmacologist Akira Ogata via reduction of ephedrine using red phosphorus and iodine. The sympathomimetic properties of amphetamine were unknown until 1927, when pioneer psychopharmacologist Gordon Alles independently resynthesized it and tested it on himself while searching for an artificial replacement for ephedrine. At the time, Alles referred to the amphetamine compound as Benzedrine, a term derived from the name benzyl-methyl carbinamine. In 1934, Smith, Kline and French made the first amphetamine pharmaceutical when they began selling a decongestant inhaler containing the volatile amphetamine free base under the trade name Benzedrine. One of the first attempts at using amphetamine in a scientific study was done by M. Nathanson, a Los Angeles physician, in 1935. He studied the subjective effects of amphetamine in 55 hospital workers who were each given 20 mg of Benzedrine. The two most commonly reported drug effects were "a sense of well being and a feeling of exhilaration" and "lessened fatigue in reaction to work".
During World War II, amphetamine and methamphetamine were used extensively by both the Allied and Axis forces for their stimulant and performance-enhancing effects. In the 1950s, there was a rise in the legal prescription of methamphetamine to the American public. Methamphetamine constituted half of the amphetamine salts for the original formulation for the diet drug Obetrol. Methamphetamine was also marketed for sinus inflammation or for non-medicinal purposes as "pep pills" or "bennies". A thriving black market in pep pills among long-haul truck drivers in the 1950s and 1960s, linked to long drive times and intense competitive pressures within the industry, contributed to federal efforts by the late 1960s to curtail non-medical use of the substance.
Also in the 1950s, the Japanese Ministry of Health banned stimulant production, although drug companies continued to produce stimulants that wound up on the black market. From 1951 to 1954, a series of acts were passed by the Japanese government to try to stop production and sale of stimulants; however, the production and sale of stimulant drugs continued through criminal syndicates such as Yakuza criminal organizations. On the streets, it is also known as S, Shabu, and Speed, in addition to its old trademarked name. The United States in the 1960s saw the start of significant use of clandestinely manufactured methamphetamine, most of which was produced by motorcycle gangs.
A notable part of the 1960s mod subculture in the UK was recreational amphetamine use, which was used to fuel all-night dances at clubs like Manchester's Twisted Wheel. Newspaper reports described dancers emerging from clubs at 5 a.m. with dilated pupils. Mods used the drug for stimulation and alertness, which they viewed as different from the intoxication caused by alcohol and other drugs. Dr. Andrew Wilson argues that for a significant minority, "amphetamines symbolised the smart, on-the-ball, cool image" and that they sought "stimulation not intoxication [...] greater awareness, not escape" and "confidence and articulacy" rather than the "drunken rowdiness of previous generations." Wilson argues that the significance of amphetamines to the mod culture was similar to that of LSD and cannabis within the subsequent hippie counterculture. Dick Hebdige argues that mods used amphetamines to extend their leisure time into the early hours of the morning and as a way of bridging the gap between their hostile and daunting everyday work lives and the "inner world" of dancing and dressing-up in their off-hours.
After decades of reported abuse, in 1965 the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) banned Benzedrine inhalers, and limited amphetamine to prescription use, but non-medical use remained common. Amphetamine became a schedule II controlled substance in the U.S. under the Controlled Substances Act in 1971. That same year, the United Nations enacted the Convention on Psychotropic Substances, and amphetamine became a schedule II controlled substance, a highly restrictive category under the treaty. By the 1990s, roughly 180 state parties were signatories to the treaty and consequently, it became heavily regulated in most countries. Beginning in the 1990s in the United States, the production of methamphetamine in users' own homes for personal use became popular as well.
In 1997 and 1998, researchers at Texas A&M University claimed to have found amphetamine and methamphetamine in the foliage of two Acacia species native to Texas, A. berlandieri and A. rigidula. Previously, both of these compounds had been thought to be purely synthetic. These findings have never been duplicated and consequently the validity of the report has come into question.
Substituted amphetamine use has historically been especially common among Major League Baseball players and is usually known by the slang term "greenies". In 2006, the MLB banned the use of amphetamine. The ban is enforced through periodic drug-testing. However, the MLB has received some criticism because the punitive consequences for amphetamine use are dramatically less severe than for anabolic steroid use, with the first offense bringing only a warning and further testing.
Methamphetamine was formerly in widespread use by truck drivers to combat symptoms of somnolence and to increase their concentration during driving, especially in the decades prior to the signing by former president Ronald Reagan of Executive Order 12564, which initiated mandatory random drug testing of all truck drivers and employees of other DOT-regulated industries.
Up to a quarter of college students use Adderall to help them focus on their studies instead of its intended purpose of helping people with ADHD. This use sometimes continues after the student graduates college due to its addictive properties.
As of 2015, amphetamines, especially Adderall, were increasingly being used by young white-collar workers who work long hours at demanding work. Many felt drug use was necessary to perform adequately.
As early as 1919, Akira Ogata synthesized methamphetamine via reduction of ephedrine using red phosphorus and iodine. Later, the chemists Hauschild and Dobke from the German pharmaceutical company Temmler developed an easier method for converting ephedrine to methamphetamine. As a result, it was possible for Temmler to market it on a large scale as a nonprescription drug under the trade name Pervitin (methamphetamine hydrochloride). It was not until 1986 that Pervitin became a controlled substance, requiring a special prescription to obtain. Pervitin was commonly used by the German and Finnish militaries. Adolf Hitler is said to have begun using amphetamine occasionally after 1937, and to have become addicted to it in late 1942; Albert Speer claimed that this use of amphetamine caused Hitler to have increasingly erratic behavior and inflexible decision making (for example, rarely allowing military retreats).
It was widely distributed across German military ranks and divisions, from elite forces to tank crews and aircraft personnel, with many millions of tablets being distributed throughout the war for its performance-enhancing stimulant effects and to induce extended wakefulness. Its use by German Tank (Panzer) crews also led to it being known as Panzerschokolade ("Tank-Chocolates"). It was also colloquially known among German Luftwaffe pilots as Stuka-Tabletten ("Stuka-Tablets") and Hermann-Göring-Pillen ("Herman-Göring-Pills"). More than 35 million three-milligram doses of Pervitin were manufactured for the German army and air force between April and July 1940. From 1942 until his death in 1945, Adolf Hitler was given intravenous injections of methamphetamine by his personal physician Theodor Morell. In Japan, methamphetamine was sold under the registered trademark of Philopon by Dainippon Pharmaceuticals (present-day Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma [DSP]) for civilian and military use. It has been estimated that one billion Phiporon pills were produced between 1939 and 1945. As with the rest of the world at the time, the side effects of methamphetamine were not well studied, and regulation was not seen as necessary. In the 1940s and 1950s, the drug was widely administered to Japanese industrial workers to increase their productivity. In Finland, Pervitin was colloquially known as höökipulveri ("pep powder"). Its use was essentially restricted to special forces, especially to long-range commandos.
Amphetamine was also given to Allied bomber pilots during World War II to sustain them by fighting off fatigue and enhancing focus during long flights. During the Persian Gulf War, amphetamine became the drug of choice for American bomber pilots, being used on a voluntary basis by roughly half of U.S. Air Force pilots. The Tarnak Farm incident, in which an American F-16 pilot killed several friendly Canadian soldiers on the ground, was blamed by the pilot on his use of amphetamine. A nonjudicial (UCMJ Article 15) U.S. Air Force hearing rejected the pilot's claim.
Due to amphetamines addiction liability in some people, newer wakefulness promoting drugs such as modafinil have been seen as possible safer alternatives for military use in some countries, including the United States.
Society and culture
AMC's Breaking Bad, a crime drama series revolving around the large-scale illicit production of methamphetamine, has been lauded by critics and audiences alike for its realist approach to the portrayal of the international drug trade. It has also been called a "contemporary western" by series creator Vince Gilligan.
The writers and poets of the Beat Generation used amphetamine extensively, mainly under the Benzedrine brand name. Jack Kerouac was a particularly avid user of amphetamine, which was said to provide him with the stamina needed to work on his novels for extended periods of time.
In 1965, beat writer Allen Ginsberg, a member of the hippie counterculture, which was very critical of substituted amphetamines, did an interview with the Los Angeles Free Press in which he commented that "Speed is antisocial, paranoid making, it's a drag... all the nice gentle dope fiends are getting screwed up by the real horror monster Frankenstein speed freaks who are going round stealing and bad-mouthing everybody". However, he also acknowledged that he had used speed to stay up all night writing.
Amphetamine is frequently mentioned in the work of American journalist Hunter S. Thompson. Speed not only appears among the inventory of drugs Thompson consumed for what could broadly be defined as recreational purposes but also receives frequent, explicit mention as an essential component of his writing toolkit, such as in his "Author's Note" in Fear and Loathing on the Campaign Trail '72.
One afternoon about three days ago [the publishers] showed up at my door with no warning, and loaded about forty pounds of supplies into the room: two cases of Mexican beer, four quarts of gin, a dozen grapefruits, and enough speed to alter the outcome of six Super Bowls. ... Meanwhile, [...] with the final chapter still unwritten and the presses scheduled to start rolling in twenty-four hours [...] unless somebody shows up pretty soon with extremely powerful speed, there might not be a final chapter. About four fingers of king-hell Crank would do the trick, but I am not optimistic.
Scottish author Irvine Welsh often portrays drug use in his novels, though in one of his journalism works he comments on how drugs (including amphetamine) have become part of consumerism and how his novels Trainspotting and Porno reflect the changes in drug use and culture during the years that elapsed between the two texts.
The northern soul and mod subcultures in England were known for their characteristic amphetamine use. Their concerts generally involved people taking amphetamines to keep dancing all night. DJ Roger Eagle got out of the northern soul scene, saying: "All they wanted was fast-tempo black dance music... [but they were] too blocked on amphetamines to articulate exactly which Jackie Wilson record they wanted me to play."
Many rock songs have been written about amphetamine. For example, in the track entitled "St. Ides Heaven" from singer/songwriter, Elliott Smith's self-titled album. Semi Charmed Life by Third Eye Blind explicitly references methamphetamine. Other examples include the song titled "Amphetamine" by Alternative rock band Everclear, another song called "Amphetamine" by Three Souls in My Mind, the song "20 Dollar nose bleed" by the pop-rock band Fall Out Boy, and the song "Headfirst For Halos" by My Chemical Romance. It has influenced the aesthetics of many rock and roll bands (especially in the garage rock, mod R&B, death rock, punk/hardcore, gothic rock and extreme metal genres). Hüsker Dü, Jesus and Mary Chain and The Who were keen amphetamine users in their early existences. Hollywood Undead references the negative effects of substituted amphetamines in the song "City" from their album Swan Songs.
Primus's songs "On the Tweek again" and "Those Damned Blue-Collar Tweekers" directly reference widespread amphetamine use in rural America. Land Speed Record is an allusion to Hüsker Dü's amphetamine use. Amphetamine was widely abused in the 1980s underground punk-rock scene. Punk-rock band NOFX have incorporated references to amphetamines and other stimulants, the two most obvious being the song "Three on Speed" from the Surfer 8-inch LP (in reference to the three guys being on amphetamine while recording the album), and the album The Longest Line is in reference to a "line" of Amphetamine ready for insufflation.
The Rolling Stones referenced the drug in their song "Can't You Hear Me Knocking" on the album Sticky Fingers ("Y'all got cocaine eyes / Yeah, ya got speed-freak jive now"). Lou Reed refers explicitly to the drug on his album Berlin, in the song "How Do You Think It Feels?". Reed's band The Velvet Underground, a creation of Andy Warhol's Factory Years, was fueled by amphetamines, as well as naming their second album White Light/White Heat after the drug. The Pulp song "Sorted for E's & Wizz" refers to British slang terms for ecstasy and amphetamines. English gothic rock band The Sisters of Mercy refers to the drug in their song "Amphetamine Logic" from their first album, First and Last and Always, and their singer Andrew Eldritch is associated with amphetamine use. The Byrds referenced amphetamines in the 1968 song "Artificial Energy" on the album The Notorious Byrd Brothers.
Many rock and roll bands have named themselves after amphetamine and the drug slang and drug culture surrounding it. For example, Mod revivalists The Purple Hearts named themselves after the amphetamine tablets popular with mods during the 1960s, as did the Australian band of the same name during the mid-1960s. The Amphetameanies, a ska-punk band, are also named after amphetamine, but hint at its effects in their musical style.[vague] Dexys Midnight Runners, of number-one hit "Come On Eileen", are named after "dexies", a slang term for the amphetamine Dexedrine. Motörhead derived their name from the song of the same name by Ian "Lemmy" Kilmister's earlier band, Hawkwind; the song is about a user of speed, a "motorhead".
Producer David O. Selznick, an amphetamine user, would often dictate long and rambling memos to his directors under the influence of amphetamine. The documentary Shadowing The Third Man relates that Selznick introduced The Third Man director Carol Reed to the use of amphetamine, which allowed Reed to bring the picture in below budget and on schedule by filming nearly 22 hours at a time.
The title of the 2009 movie Amphetamine plays on the double meaning of the word in Chinese. Besides the name for the drug, it also means "isn't this his fate? " which figuratively ties to the movie's plot. The word is transliterated as 安 非 他 命 – "ān fēi tā mìng" – and as commonly happens with transliteration of non-Chinese terms each character has independent meaning as an individual unrelated word.
Perhaps the most notable example of this is Paul Erdős, one of the most prolific and successful mathematicians in human history. He took amphetamine and methylphenidate occasionally throughout his early career. He began taking them daily at age 58, when a doctor prescribed them to him to allay the depression associated with his mother's death, and didn't stop until his death at age 83. He would also sustain himself on copious amounts of coffee and caffeine pills. Erdős took amphetamine despite the concern of his friends, one of whom (Ron Graham) bet him $500 that he could not stop taking the drug for a month. Erdős won the bet, but complained:
You've showed me I'm not an addict. But I didn't get any work done. I'd get up in the morning and stare at a blank piece of paper. I'd have no ideas, just like an ordinary person. You've set mathematics back a month.
He then promptly resumed his amphetamine use.
Illicit drug culture
Adderall in the video gaming industry
Adderall use in the video gaming industry has been receiving more and more attention in recent years. Many gamers have admitted to using it and have claimed that it has become a very widespread issue. Some gamers have even claimed that pills are regularly sold at professional tournaments. Adderall is peculiarly well suited to the medium, where victory depends on a competitor's alertness, ability to concentrate and hand-to-eye-coordination. As one StarCraft player wrote in 2011 on the game's official forums: "Adderall is basically a stimpack for gamers."
The Electronic Sports League said that it would test players for performance-enhancing drugs starting at a tournament in August 2015. ESL said it would work with two international agencies – the same ones that help oversee anti-doping policies for cycling, the Olympics and other sports – to create anti-doping guidelines and a testing program for players. "We want to create a level playing field for all competitors and maintain the integrity of the sport," said James Lampkin, vice president of professional gaming at ESL. In addition to the ESL, Major League Gaming has spoken up. Bruce Dugan, a spokesman for Major League Gaming, said that the organization's policies prohibit the use of performance-enhancing drugs. However, the league has never conducted drug tests of its players. "Now that a lot of attention is being paid, it's something we'll look at for the 2016 season," spokesman Bruce Dugan said.
Amphetamines in higher education
Non-medical use of amphetamines in higher education has seen a large increase in popularity. College and other higher education students have reported using amphetamines for many different purposes such as partying, self medication, and the most common being studying. Since amphetamine use is illicit in most countries, the off-label use by students is often regarded as a major issue by most governmental regulation institutions. Particularly, in the United States where amphetamine misuse is classified by the FDA as a Schedule II drug, which could potentially carry a felony offense if the user is found guilty of possession. Amphetamines classification as a Schedule II means it has a "high potential for abuse and could lead to psychological or physical dependence." Despite this, the trend in the use of amphetamines both prescription and non-prescription has increased steadily over time.
Both amphetamine and methamphetamine are used recreationally as euphoriants and aphrodisiacs, with methamphetamine being the more common recreational drug due to precursor availability and relative ease to manufacture. According to a National Geographic TV documentary on methamphetamine, "an entire subculture known as party and play is based around methamphetamine use." Members of this San Francisco sub-culture, which consists almost entirely of homosexual male methamphetamine users, will typically meet up through internet dating sites and have sex. Due to its strong stimulant and aphrodisiac effects and inhibitory effect on ejaculation, with repeated use, these sexual encounters will sometimes occur continuously for several days. The crash following the use of methamphetamine in this manner is very often severe, with marked hypersomnia.
Slang terms for methamphetamine, especially common among illicit users, are numerous and vary from region to region. Some names are crystal meth, meth, speed, crystal, ice, shards, shabu or shaboo, side, glass, gak, jib, crank, batu, tweak, piko, rock, tina, fast, and cold. Terms vary by region and subculture; some of these regional and local names include: Philopon in East Asia, P in New Zealand, "ya ba" (Thai for "Crazy Medicine") in Thailand, bato (Filipino for rock or stone) in the Philippines, angel delight in Scotland and tik in South Africa. Lastly, Vint, Russian for "a screw", refers to a very impure homemade form of methamphetamine in Russia. In Thailand and Myanmar, ya ba pills have many slang terms, "WY", such as "Athee" (Burmese for fruit), and "88". In Sweden tjack is a common slang term.
Recreational routes of administration
The effects of methamphetamine are proportional to the rate at which the blood level of the drugs increases. Consequently, the administration route affects the risk for psychological dependence and addiction independently of other risk factors, such as dosage and frequency of use. Intravenous injection is the fastest route of drug administration, causing blood concentrations to rise the most quickly, followed by smoking, use of a suppository (rectal or vaginal insertion), insufflation (snorting a powderized form), and ingestion (swallowing). While the onset of the rush induced by injection can occur in as little as a few seconds, the oral route of administration requires up to half an hour before the initial high sets in.
Drug injection via intravenous administration, intramuscular administration, or subcutaneous administration carries relatively greater risks than other methods of administration. The doses used by recreational intravenous users vary widely, with a range of 1–200 times the doses used therapeutically (i.e., up to several grams). Intravenous users risk developing pulmonary embolism (PE), a blockage of the main artery of the lung or one of its branches, and commonly develop skin rashes or infections at the site of injection. As with the injection of any drug, if a group of users share a common needle without sterilization procedures, blood-borne diseases, such as HIV or hepatitis, can be transmitted. The level of needle sharing among methamphetamine users is similar to that among other drug-injection users.
Smoking and insufflation
Smoking refers to vaporizing a drug and inhaling the resulting fumes; crystal methamphetamine (methamphetamine hydrochloride) and the free bases of amphetamine and methamphetamine are sufficiently volatile substances to allow them to be smoked. Crystal methamphetamine is commonly smoked in glass pipes, known as "bubbles", "globes", and "stems" (rose-stem water containers are often used as a makeshift pipe in urban populations). Lung disease has been reported in long-term methamphetamine smokers. Ya ba (a pill containing caffeine and methamphetamine) smokers often use a technique in which a ya ba pill is placed on aluminium foil that is heated underneath with a lighter, in turn vaporizing the pill so that it can be inhaled through a heat-resistant pipe. This method of administration is sometimes referred to as "chasing the dragon".
Crystal methamphetamine and salts of amphetamine are sometimes powdered and insufflated by recreational users, which results in a fairly rapid uptake of the drug through the nasal epithelium; with regular use, amphetamine or methamphetamine insufflation slowly damages and eventually destroys the nasal septum due to their causticity and vasoconstrictive effects.
Rectal and vaginal
Rectal administration and intravaginal administration are less-popular drug routes in the community with comparatively little research into their effects. Information on their use is largely anecdotal with reports of increased sexual pleasure and the effects of the drug lasting longer, though as methamphetamine is centrally active in the brain, these effects are likely experienced through the higher bioavailability of the drug in the bloodstream and the faster onset of action than many other routes of administration. Nicknames for the routes of administration within some methamphetamine communities include a "butt rocket", a "booty bump", "potato thumping", "turkey basting", "plugging", "boofing", "suitcasing", "hooping", "keistering", "shafting", "bumming", and "shelving" (vaginal).
Methamphetamine is most structurally similar to amphetamine. Synthesis is relatively simple, but entails risk with flammable and corrosive chemicals, particularly the solvents used in extraction and purification. The six major routes of production begin with either phenyl-2-propanone (P2P) or with one of the isomeric compounds pseudoephedrine and ephedrine.
One procedure uses the reductive amination of phenylacetone with methylamine, P2P was usually obtained from phenylacetic acid and acetic anhydride, and phenylacetic acid might arise from benzaldehyde, benzylcyanide, or benzylchloride. Methylamine is crucial to all such methods, and is produced from the model airplane fuel nitromethane, or formaldehyde and ammonium chloride, or methyl iodide with hexamine. This was once the preferred method of production by motorcycle gangs in California, until DEA restrictions on the chemicals made the process difficult. Pseudoephedrine, ephedrine, phenylacetone, and phenylacetic acid are currently DEA list I and acetic anhydride is list II on the DEA list of chemicals subject to regulation and control measures. This method can involve the use of mercuric chloride and leaves behind mercury and lead environmental wastes. The methamphetamine produced by this method is racemic, consisting partly of the less-desired levomethamphetamine isomer, though separation of the two enantiomeric forms through selective recrystallization of the tartrate salt can occur in order to isolate the more active dextromethamphetamine.
The alternative Leuckart route also relies on P2P to produce a racemic product, but proceeds via methylformamide in formic acid to an intermediate N-formyl-methamphetamine, which is then decarboxylated with hydrochloric acid.
Illicit methamphetamine is more commonly made by the reduction of ephedrine or pseudoephedrine, which produces the more active d-methamphetamine isomer. The maximum conversion rate for ephedrine and pseudoephedrine is 92%, although typically, illicit methamphetamine laboratories convert at a rate of 50% to 75%. Most methods of illicit production involve protonation of the hydroxyl group on the ephedrine or pseudoephedrine molecule.
Though dating back to the discovery of the drug, the Nagai route did not become popular among illicit manufacturers until c.1982, and comprised 20% of production in Michigan in 2002. It involves red phosphorus and hydrogen iodide (also known as hydroiodic acid or iohydroic acid). (The hydrogen iodide is replaced by iodine and water in the "Moscow route".) The hydrogen iodide is used to reduce either ephedrine or pseudoephedrine to methamphetamine. On heating, the precursor is rapidly iodinated by the hydrogen iodide to form iodoephedrine. The phosphorus assists in the second step, by consuming iodine to form phosphorus triiodide (which decomposes in water to phosphorous acid, regenerating hydrogen iodide). Because hydrogen iodide exists in a chemical equilibrium with iodine and hydrogen, the phosphorus reaction shifts the balance toward hydrogen production when iodine is consumed (see Le Châtelier's principle). In Australia, criminal groups have been known to substitute "red" phosphorus with either hypophosphorous acid or phosphorous acid (the "Hypo route"). This is a hazardous process for amateur chemists because phosphine gas, a side-product from in situ hydrogen iodide production, is extremely toxic to inhale. The reaction can also create toxic, flammable white phosphorus waste. Methamphetamine produced in this way is usually more than 95% pure.
The conceptually similar Emde route involves reduction of ephedrine to chloroephedrine using thionyl chloride (SOCl2), followed by catalytic hydrogenation. The catalysts for this reaction are palladium or platinum. The Rosenmund route also uses hydrogen gas and a palladium catalyst poisoned with barium sulfate (Rosenmund reduction), but uses perchloric acid instead of thionyl chloride.
The Birch reduction, also called the "Nazi method", became popular in the mid-to-late 1990s and comprised the bulk of methamphetamine production in Michigan in 2002. It reacts pseudoephedrine with liquid anhydrous ammonia and an alkali metal such as sodium or lithium. The reaction is allowed to stand until the ammonia evaporates. However, the Birch reduction is dangerous because the alkali metal and ammonia are both extremely reactive, and the temperature of liquid ammonia makes it susceptible to explosive boiling when reactants are added. It has been the most popular method in Midwestern states of the U.S. because of the ready availability of liquid ammonia fertilizer in farming regions.
In recent years, a simplified "Shake 'n Bake" one-pot synthesis has become more popular. The method is suitable for such small batches that pseudoephedrine restrictions are less effective, it uses chemicals that are easier to obtain (though no less dangerous than traditional methods), and it is so easy to carry out that some addicts have made the drug while driving. It involves placing crushed pseudoephedrine tablets into a nonpressurized container containing ammonium nitrate, water, and a hydrophobic solvent such as Coleman fuel or automotive starting fluid, to which lye and lithium (from lithium batteries) is added. Hydrogen chloride gas produced by a reaction of salt with sulfuric acid is then used to recover crystals for purification. The container needs to be "burped" periodically to prevent failure under accumulating pressure, as exposure of the lithium to the air can spark a flash fire. The battery lithium can react with water to shatter a container and potentially start a fire or explosion.
Short-term exposure to high concentrations of chemical vapors that exist in black-market methamphetamine laboratories can cause severe health problems and death. Exposure to these substances can occur from volatile air emissions, spills, fires, and explosions. Such methamphetamine labs are sometimes discovered when emergency personnel respond to fires due to improper handling of volatile or flammable materials. Single-pot "shake and bake" syntheses are particularly prone to explode and ignite, and, when abandoned, still pose a severe hazard to firefighters.
Methamphetamine cooks, their families, and first responders are at high risk of experiencing acute health effects from chemical exposure, including lung damage and chemical burns to the body. After the seizure of a methamphetamine lab, a low exposure risk to chemical residues often exists, but this contamination can be sanitized. Chemical residues and lab wastes that are left behind at a former methamphetamine lab can cause severe health problems for people who use the property.
Impurities and adulterants
In Japan, methamphetamine seizures are usually white crystals of high purity, but contain impurities that vary according to the means of production, and are sometimes adulterated.
Diagnostic impurities are the naphthalenes 1-benzyl-methylnaphthalene and 1,3-dimethyl-2-phenylnaphthalene, arising in the Nagai and Leuckart routes, and cis- or trans- 1,2-dimethyl-3-phenylaziridine, ephedrine, or erythro-3,4-dimethyl- 5-phenyloxazolidine, arising in the Nagai and Emde routes; these are absent in the reductive amination route. Characteristic impurities of the Birch route include N-methyl-1-(1-(1,4-cyclohexadienyl))-2-propanamine. Methamphetamine produced by the Birch route contains phenyl-2-propanone, the precursor for the reductive amination route, as a degradation product. However, specific diagnostic impurities are not very reliable in practice, and it is generally preferable for forensic technicians to evaluate a larger profile of trace compounds.
A common adulterant is dimethyl sulfone, a solvent and cosmetic base without known effect on the nervous system; other adulterants include dimethylamphetamine HCl, ephedrine HCl, sodium thiosulfate, sodium chloride, sodium glutamate, and a mixture of caffeine with sodium benzoate.
In the United States, illicit methamphetamine comes in a variety of forms with prices varying widely over time. Most commonly, it is found as a colorless crystalline solid. Impurities may result in a brownish or tan color. Colorful flavored pills containing methamphetamine and caffeine are known as ya ba (Thai for "crazy medicine").
An impure form of methamphetamine is sold as a crumbly brown or off-white rock, commonly referred to as "peanut butter crank". It may be diluted or cut with non-psychoactive substances like inositol, isopropylbenzylamine or dimethylsulfone. Another popular method is to combine methamphetamine with other stimulant substances, such as caffeine or cathine, into a pill known as a "Kamikaze", which can be particularly dangerous due to the synergistic effects of multiple stimulants. Reports in 2007 of the appearance of flavored "Strawberry Quik meth" circulated in the media and local law enforcement, but were debunked in 2010 by the DEA, although meth of varying colors has been seized.
Rarely, the impure reaction mixture from the hydrogen iodide/red phosphorus route is used without further modification, usually by injection; it is called "ox blood". "Meth oil" refers to the crude methamphetamine base produced by several synthesis procedures. Ordinarily it is purified by exposure to hydrogen chloride, as a solution or as a bubbled gas, and extraction of the resulting salt occurs by precipitation and/or recrystallization with ether/acetone.
Trafficking and distribution
Until the early 1990s, the U.S. market for methamphetamine was supplied mostly by labs run by drug traffickers in both Mexico and California. As of 2007,[update] drug and lab seizure data suggests that approximately 80% of the methamphetamine used in the United States originates from larger laboratories operated by Mexican-based syndicates on both sides of the border; approximately 20 percent comes from small toxic labs (STLs) in the United States. The 2006 National Drug Threat Assessment, produced by the Department of Justice, found "decreased domestic methamphetamine production in both small and large-scale laboratories." It also noted a decline in domestic methamphetamine manufacture which was replaced by an increase in illicit Mexican production.
As of October 2015,[update] the Sinaloa Cartel is the most active drug cartel involved in smuggling methamphetamine and other illicit drugs into the United States and trafficking wholesale quantities throughout the United States.
- Breaking Bad – An award-winning television series involving the criminal production of methamphetamine
- Faces of Meth
- Methamphetamine in the United States
- Montana Meth Project
- Rolling meth lab
- Ephedra spp., known as má huáng (麻黄), had been used as a stimulant and anti-asthmatic since the Han dynasty.
- "Amphetamines (speed): what are the effects?". Retrieved 27 September 2013.
- Edeleano, Lazăr (January–June 1887). "Über einige Derivate der Phenylmethacrylsäure und der Phenylisobuttersäure". Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft (in German). Berlin. 20 (1): 616–622. doi:10.1002/cber.188702001142.
- Rassool, GH (2009). Alcohol and Drug Misuse: A Handbook for Students and Health Professionals. London: Routledge. p. 113. ISBN 978-0-203-87117-1.
- "Historical overview of methamphetamine". Vermont Department of Health. Government of Vermont. Archived from the original on 19 April 2012. Retrieved 29 January 2012.
- Woodburne O. Levy; Kavita Kalidas (26 February 2010). Norman S. Miller (ed.). Principles of Addictions and the Law: Applications in Forensic, Mental Health, and Medical Practice. Academic Press. pp. 307–308. ISBN 978-0-12-496736-6.
- Shulgin, Alexander; Shulgin, Ann (1992). "6 – MMDA". PiHKAL. Berkeley, California: Transform Press. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-9630096-0-9.
- Grobler, Sias R.; Chikte, Usuf; Westraat, Jaco (2011). "The pH Levels of Different Methamphetamine Drug Samples on the Street Market in Cape Town". ISRN Dentistry. 2011: 1–4. doi:10.5402/2011/974768. PMC 3189445. PMID 21991491.
- Rasmussen N (July 2006). "Making the first anti-depressant: amphetamine in American medicine, 1929–1950". J. Hist. Med. Allied Sci. 61 (3): 288–323. doi:10.1093/jhmas/jrj039. PMID 16492800.
SKF first packaged it as an inhaler so as to exploit the base's volatility and, after sponsoring some trials by East Coast otolaryngological specialists, began to advertise the Benzedrine Inhaler as a decongestant in late 1933.
- Rasmussen N (2011). "Medical science and the military: the Allies' use of amphetamine during World War II". J. Interdiscip. Hist. 42 (2): 205–233. doi:10.1162/JINH_a_00212. PMID 22073434.
- Defalque RJ, Wright AJ (April 2011). "Methamphetamine for Hitler's Germany: 1937 to 1945". Bull. Anesth. Hist. 29 (2): 21–4, 32. doi:10.1016/s1522-8649(11)50016-2. PMID 22849208.
- "Controlled Substances Act". United States Food and Drug Administration. 11 June 2009. Retrieved 4 November 2013.
- Gyenis, A. "Forty Years of On the Road 1957–1997". wordsareimportant.com. DHARMA beat. Archived from the original on 14 February 2008. Retrieved 18 March 2008.
- Wilson, Andrew (2008). "Mixing the Medicine: The Unintended Consequence of Amphetamine Control on the Northern Soul Scene" (PDF). The Internet Journal of Criminology. SSRN 1339332. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 July 2011.
- Hill J (4 June 2004). "Paul Erdos, Mathematical Genius, Human (In That Order)" (PDF). untruth.org. Retrieved 2 November 2013.
- Liddle DG, Connor DJ (June 2013). "Nutritional supplements and ergogenic AIDS". Prim. Care. 40 (2): 487–505. doi:10.1016/j.pop.2013.02.009. PMID 23668655.
Amphetamines and caffeine are stimulants that increase alertness, improve focus, decrease reaction time, and delay fatigue, allowing for an increased intensity and duration of training ...
Physiologic and performance effects
• Amphetamines increase dopamine/norepinephrine release and inhibit their reuptake, leading to central nervous system (CNS) stimulation
• Amphetamines seem to enhance athletic performance in anaerobic conditions 39 40
• Improved reaction time
• Increased muscle strength and delayed muscle fatigue
• Increased acceleration
• Increased alertness and attention to task
- Chawla S, Le Pichon T (2006). "World Drug Report 2006" (PDF). United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. pp. 128–135. Retrieved 2 November 2013.
- Sulzer D, Sonders MS, Poulsen NW, Galli A (April 2005). "Mechanisms of neurotransmitter release by amphetamines: a review". Prog. Neurobiol. 75 (6): 406–433. doi:10.1016/j.pneurobio.2005.04.003. PMID 15955613.
- "Historical overview of methamphetamine". Vermont Department of Health. Archived from the original on 28 November 2016. Retrieved 29 January 2012.
- Rasmussen N (July 2006). "Making the first anti-depressant: amphetamine in American medicine, 1929–1950". J Hist Med Allied Sci. 61 (3): 288–323. doi:10.1093/jhmas/jrj039. PMID 16492800.
- Barondes S (16 June 2003). Better than Prozac : Creating the Next Generation of Psychiatric Drugs: Creating the Next Generation of Psychiatric Drugs. Oxford University Press. pp. 62–63. ISBN 9780198034506. Retrieved 16 January 2016.
- Iversen, Leslie (2008). Speed, Ecstasy, Ritalin : The Science of Amphetamines. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0198530909.[page needed]
- Kevin Riley. "Driving on speed: Long-haul truck drivers and amphetamines in the postwar period." Labor: Studies in Working-Class History of the Americas, 11(4), 63–90, 2014. http://labor.dukejournals.org/content/11/4/63.short.
- Tamura, M. (1 January 1989). "Japan: stimulant epidemics past and present". Bulletin on Narcotics. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. pp. 83–93. Retrieved 14 July 2006.
- Hebdige, Dick, "The Meaning of Mod," in Stuart Hall and Tony Jefferson, eds., Resistance Through Rituals: Youth Subcultures in Post-War Britain (London: Routledge, 1993) p. 171
- "Convention on psychotropic substances". United Nations Treaty Collection. United Nations. Retrieved 11 November 2013.
- United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (2007). Preventing Amphetamine-type Stimulant Use Among Young People: A Policy and Programming Guide (PDF). New York: United Nations. ISBN 9789211482232. Retrieved 11 November 2013.
- "List of psychotropic substances under international control" (PDF). International Narcotics Control Board. United Nations. August 2003. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 December 2005. Retrieved 19 November 2005.
- Clement B.A.; Goff C.M.; Forbes T.D.A. (1998). "Toxic amines and alkaloids from Acacia rigidula". Phytochemistry. 49 (5): 1377–1380. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(97)01022-4.
- Clement B.A.; Goff C.M.; Forbes T.D.A. (1997). "Toxic amines and alkaloids from Acacia berlandieri". Phytochemistry. 46 (2): 249–254. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(97)00240-9.
- "Ask Dr. Shulgin Online: Acacias and Natural Amphetamine". Cognitiveliberty.org. 26 September 2001. Retrieved 8 May 2012.
- Frias C (2 April 2006). "Baseball and amphetamines". Palm Beach Post. Archived from the original on 17 December 2007. Retrieved 2 December 2007.
- Kreidler M (15 November 2005). "Baseball finally brings amphetamines into light of day". ESPN.com. Retrieved 2 December 2007.
- Associated Press (18 January 2007). "MLB owners won't crack down on 'greenies'". MSNBC.com. Archived from the original on 25 December 2007. Retrieved 2 December 2007.
- Lund, Adrian K; David F. Preusser, Richard D. Blomberg, Allan F. Williams, J. Michael Walsh (1989). "Drug Use by Tractor-Trailer Drivers" (PDF). In Steven W. Gust (ed.) (eds.). Drugs in the Workplace: Research and Evaluation Data. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research. Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse. pp. 47–67. Retrieved 2 December 2007.
This study has provided the first objective data regarding the use of potentially abusive drugs by tractor-trailer drivers... Prescription stimulants, such as amphetamine, methamphetamine, and phentermine were found in 5 percent of the  drivers [who participated in the study], often in combination with similar but less potent stimulants, such as phenylpropanolamine. Nonprescription stimulants were detected in 12 percent of the drivers, about half of whom gave no medical explanation for their presence... One limitation of these findings is that 12 percent of the randomly selected drivers refused to participate in the study or provided insufficient urine and blood for testing; the distribution of drugs among these 42 drivers is unknown... Finally, the results apply to tractor-trailer drivers operating on a major east-west interstate route in Tennessee. Drug incidence among other truck-driver populations are unknown and may be higher or lower than reported here. (64)CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: uses editors parameter (link)
- Yanes, Arianna. "Just say yes? The rise of 'study drugs' in college". CNN. Cable News Network. Retrieved 10 June 2015.
- Alan Schwarz (18 April 2015). "Workers Seeking Productivity in a Pill Are Abusing A.D.H.D. Drugs". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 April 2015.
Given the increase in rates of abuse in college students over the last decade, it is essential that we understand the outcomes as they leave college and assume adult roles,
- Grinspoon; Hedblom (1 January 1975). Speed Culture: Amphetamine Use and Abuse in America. Harvard University Press. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-674-83192-6.
- Freye, Enno (2009). Pharmacology and Abuse of Cocaine, Amphetamines, Ecstasy and Related Designer Drugs. University Düsseldorf, Germany: Springer. p. 110. ISBN 978-90-481-2447-3.
- "Methamphetamine" (PDF). EMCDDA.
- Heston, Leonard L.; Heston, Renate (1980) . The Medical Casebook of Adolf Hitler: His Illnesses, Doctors, and Drugs. New York: Stein and Day. ISBN 978-0-8128-2718-7.
- Ulrich, Andreas (6 May 2005). "The Nazi Death Machine: Hitler's Drugged Soldiers". Spiegel Online.
- Adam Tooze (2007). The Wages of Destruction: The Making and Breaking of the Nazi Economy. London, UK: Penguin Books. ISBN 9780141040929. Retrieved 21 November 2012.
- Nick Reding (16 June 2009). Methland. The Death and Life of an American Small Town. Bloomsbury, 2009. p. 45. ISBN 978-1-59691-650-0.
- John Philip Jenkins. "methamphetamine (drug) – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. Retrieved 29 January 2012.
- Miller, Greg (4 January 2003). "'Go' pills for F-16 pilots get close look: Amphetamines prescribed in mission that killed Canadians". SFGATE. Retrieved 19 December 2017.
- "Air force rushes to defend amphetamine use". The Age. 18 January 2003. Archived from the original on 13 January 2009. Retrieved 26 January 2009.
- "Indepth: Friendly Fire – U.S. Air Force Verdict". CBC News Online. 6 July 2004. Retrieved 30 August 2013.
- Nevins, Bill (27 March 2013). "Contemporary Western: An Interview with Vince Gilligan". Local IQ. Retrieved 31 May 2013.
- Brecher EM (1972). "How speed was popularized". The Consumers Union Report on Licit and Illicit Drugs. Schaffer Drug Library. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
- Carr, David (29 June 2008). "Fear and Loathing on a Documentary Screen". New York Times. pp. AR7. Archived from the original on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 18 March 2009.
- Thompson, Hunter S. (1973). Fear and Loathing on the Campaign Trail '72. New York: Warner Books. pp. 15–16, 21. ISBN 978-0-446-31364-3.
- Welsh, Irvine (10 August 2006). "Drug Cultures in Trainspotting and Porno". irvinewelsh.net. Retrieved 13 October 2008.
- Keith Rylatt and Phil Scott, Central 1179: The Story of Manchester's Twisted Wheel Club, BeeCool Publishing. 2001.[page needed]
- TSIMM (1975) "Amphetamine" Cisne Raff – RF-941
- Memo From David O. Selznick, https://www.amazon.com/Memo-David-Selznick-Memorandums-Autobiographical/dp/0375755314
- Shadowing the Third Man, https://www.imdb.com/title/tt0429086/
- Hoffman, Paul (1998). The man who loved only numbers : the story of Paul Erdős and the search for mathematical truth (1st ed.). New York: Hyperion. ISBN 978-0786884063.
- Nutt, D; King, LA; Saulsbury, W; Blakemore, C (24 March 2007). "Development of a rational scale to assess the harm of drugs of potential misuse". Lancet. 369 (9566): 1047–53. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(07)60464-4. PMID 17382831.
- "Winners might use drugs". Eurogamer.net. Retrieved 5 February 2016.
- Wingfield, Nick; Dougherty, Conor (23 July 2015)."Drug Testing Is Coming to E-Sports". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 5 February 2016.
- Weyandt, Lisa; White, Tara; Gudmundsdottir, Bergljot; Nitenson, Adam; Rathkey, Emma; De Leon, Kelvin; Bjorn, Stephanie (27 June 2018). "Neurocognitive, Autonomic, and Mood Effects of Adderall: A Pilot Study of Healthy College Students". Pharmacy. 6 (3): 58. doi:10.3390/pharmacy6030058. ISSN 2226-4787. PMC 6165228. PMID 29954141.
- Arria, Amelia M; Geisner, Irene M; Cimini, M. Dolores; Kilmer, Jason R; Caldeira, Kimberly M; Barrall, Angelica L; Vincent, Kathryn B; Fossos-Wong, Nicole; Yeh, Jih-Cheng; Rhew, Isaac; Lee, Christine M; Subramaniam, Geetha A; Liu, David; Larimer, Mary E. Perceived academic benefit is associated with nonmedical prescription stimulant use among college students. OCLC 1016923169.
- "Drugs@FDA: FDA Approved Drug Products". www.accessdata.fda.gov. Retrieved 2 April 2019.
- "Controlled Substance Schedules". www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov. Retrieved 2 April 2019.
- Piper, Brian J.; Ogden, Christy L.; Simoyan, Olapeju M.; Chung, Daniel Y.; Caggiano, James F.; Nichols, Stephanie D.; McCall, Kenneth L. (28 November 2018). "Trends in use of prescription stimulants in the United States and Territories, 2006 to 2016". PLOS ONE. 13 (11): e0206100. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0206100. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 6261411.
- San Francisco Meth Zombies (TV documentary). National Geographic Channel. August 2013. ASIN B00EHAOBAO.
- "Meth Slang Names". MethhelpOnline. Retrieved 1 January 2014.
- "What is methamphetamine? | New Zealand Police". Police.govt.nz. 15 October 2004. Retrieved 9 January 2011.
- Plüddemann A (June 2005). "Tik, memory loss and stroke". Science in Africa. South Africa: Science magazine for Africa CC. Retrieved 27 September 2013.
- Bangkok Ice. Drugs, Inc. (TV documentary). National Geographic Channel. 23 December 2015. ASIN B0155KW3VI.
- Smirnov A (March–April 2001). "Drugs and HIV infection in the Russian Federation". drugtext foundation. Archived from the original on 1 May 2009. Retrieved 1 September 2011.
- "Google Translate". translate.google.com. Retrieved 23 March 2017.
- Winger, G.; Hursh, SR; Casey, KL; Woods, JH (2002). "Relative Reinforcing Strength of Three N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Antagonists with Different Onsets of Action". Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 301 (2): 690–7. doi:10.1124/jpet.301.2.690. PMID 11961074.
- "Methamphetamine". Abstemious Outpatient Clinic. Retrieved 26 November 2011.
- Fox, Marilyn S.; Brown, Sue E. (2007). "Methamphetamine: One of America's Greatest Challenges Part I". University of Nebraska-Lincoln.
- "Methamphetamine Use and Health | UNSW: The University of New South Wales – Faculty of Medicine" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 August 2008. Retrieved 15 January 2011.
- Cottencin, O; Rolland, B; Guardia, D; Karila, L (May 2012). "[Current data on methamphetamine]". La Revue du Praticien. 62 (5): 679–81. PMID 22730802.
- "National Drug Strategy – 1.9 Routes of administration | Department of Health and Ageing". Health.gov.au. Retrieved 26 November 2011.
- "Meth Facts". All Treatment. Retrieved 26 November 2011.
- Matsuda, Lisa A.; Schmidt, Christopher J.; Gibb, James W.; Hanson, Glen R. (1987). "Ascorbic acid-deficient condition alters central effects of methamphetamine". Brain Research. 400 (1): 176–80. doi:10.1016/0006-8993(87)90668-8. PMID 2434185.
- B. Remburg; A. H. Stead (1999). "Drug characterization/impurity profiling, with special focus on methamphetamine: recent work of the United Nations International Drug Control Programme". Bulletin on Narcotics (UNODC).
- "A Synthesis of Amphetamine. J. Chem. Educ. 51, 671 (1974)". Erowid.org. Retrieved 9 January 2011.
- Otto Snow (2002). Amphetamine syntheses. Thoth Press. ISBN 978-0-9663128-3-6. p. 90.
- Y. Makino (2005). "Investigation of the origin of ephedrine and methamphetamine by stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry: a Japanese experience" (PDF). 52 (1–2). Bulletin on Narcotics. Cite journal requires
- Uncle Fester. Secrets of methamphetamine manufacture (8 ed.). Festering Publications.
- Owen, Frank (2007). "Chapter 1: The Rise of Nazi Dope". No Speed Limit: The Highs and Lows of Meth. Macmillan. pp. 17–18. ISBN 978-0-312-35616-3.
- "Types of Meth Labs". METH Awareness and Prevention Project of South Dakota. Archived from the original on 27 August 2009.
- National Drug Intelligence Center. "Methamphetamine". U. S. Department of Justice.
- "Procedures for the Resolution of Racemic Amphetamines".
- "The War on Drugs: Methamphetamine, Public Health, and Crime | University of California, Santa Cruz (UCSC)" (PDF). Retrieved 9 January 2011.
- United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Laboratory and Scientific Section (1 March 2006). "nagai+route" Recommended methods for the identification and analysis of amphetamine, methamphetamine and their ring-substituted analogues in seized materials. ISBN 9789211482089.
- Michigan Department of Community Health Under a Cooperative Agreement with Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (November 2004). "Potential Health Effects at a Clandestine Methamphetamine Laboratory using the Red Phosphorus Production Method" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 May 2006.
- Hiroyuki Inoue et al. (2008). "Characterization and Profiling of Methamphetamine Seizures" (PDF). Journal of Health Science. 54 (6): 615–622. doi:10.1248/jhs.54.615.
- T. S. Cantrell et al. (October 1988). "A study of impurities found in methamphetamine synthesized from ephedrine". Forensic Science International. 39 (1): 39–53. doi:10.1016/0379-0738(88)90116-8. (online version, 2005, at )
- "A single step process for methamphetamine manufacture using hypophosphorus acid". Journal of the Clandestine Laboratory Investigating Chemists Association. 5: 14–15. 1995. (cited in Inoue)
- Albouy, Dominique; Etemad-Moghadam, Guita; Vinatoru, Mircea; Koenig, Max (15 February 1997). "Regenerative role of the red phosphorus in the couple 'HIaq/Pred'". Journal of Organometallic Chemistry. 529 (1–2): 295–299. doi:10.1016/S0022-328X(96)06558-8. (archived online 2005 at Regenerative Role)
- "Skinner, H. F. (1990). "Methamphetamine Synthesis via HI/Red Phosphorus Reduction of Ephedrine". Forensic Science International. 48 (2): 128–134. doi:10.1016/0379-0738(90)90104-7. Reprinted at Synthesis (dead link)" (cited in )
- Andrew Allen; Thomas S. Cantrell (1989). "Synthetic Reductions in Clandestine Amphetamine and Methamphetamine Laboratories". Forensic Science International. 42 (3): 183–199. doi:10.1016/0379-0738(89)90086-8.
- "Recommended methods of the identification and analysis of amphetamine, methamphetamine, and their ring-substituted analogues in seized materials" (PDF). UNODC. 2006. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
- "Illinois Attorney General | Basic Understanding Of Meth". Illinoisattorneygeneral.gov. Retrieved 9 January 2011.
- "New 'shake-and-bake' method for making crystal meth gets around drug laws but is no less dangerous". New York Daily News. Associated Press. 25 August 2009.
- Evan Ziegelman (3 February 2011). "Meth Lab Busted on Warpath". The Columbus Packet. Archived from the original on 7 February 2011.
- "Acute Public Health Consequences of Methamphetamine Laboratories | Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC)". Cdc.gov. Retrieved 9 January 2011.
- Jay D. Michael. "Firefighting in Clandestine Drug Labs". Fire Engineering.
- "Health Consultation" (PDF). Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry (ATSDR). Retrieved 9 January 2011.
- "The Price and Purity of Illicit Drugs: 1981 Through the Second Quarter of 2003". WhiteHouseDrugPolicy.gov. November 2004. Archived from the original on 27 October 2005.
- Amos, Glenda (September 2007). "The Ice Epidemic" (PDF). WCTU.com.au. Australia: Woman's Christian Temperance Union. Retrieved 17 November 2010.
- De Vries, Lloyd (2 May 2007). "Candy Flavored Meth Targets New Users". CBS News. Retrieved 9 August 2012.
- Mikkelson, Barbara. "Strawberry Meth". Snopes.com. Retrieved 25 August 2009.
- DEA Congressional Testimony, "Drug Threats And Enforcement Challenges". U. S. Drug Enforcement Administration. 22 March 2007. Archived from the original on 14 May 2008. Retrieved 3 May 2008.
- "Methamphetamine – National Drug Threat Assessment 2006". National Drug Intelligence Center. January 2006. Retrieved 25 August 2009.
- "2015 National Drug Threat Assessment Summary" (PDF). Drug Enforcement Administration. United States Department of Justice: Drug Enforcement Administration. October 2015. pp. 1–2. Retrieved 10 April 2016.
Mexican TCOs pose the greatest criminal drug threat to the United States; no other group is currently positioned to challenge them. These Mexican poly-drug organizations traffic heroin, methamphetamine, cocaine, and marijuana throughout the United States, using established transportation routes and distribution networks. ... While all of these Mexican TCOs transport wholesale quantities of illicit drugs into the United States, the Sinaloa Cartel appears to be the most active supplier. The Sinaloa Cartel leverages its expansive resources and dominance in Mexico to facilitate the smuggling and transportation of drugs throughout the United States.