Turkic history

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Turkic history is the common history between today's Turkic peoples. While the Göktürks were the first state established under the name of Turk, there were many Turkic tribes and states before the Göktürks.

Shoroon Bumbagar tomb mural, Göktürk, 7th century CE, Mongolia.

Most scholars believe that the Turks first appeared as a political community during the reign of the Huns (Hiung-nu or Shiongnu).[1][2][3][4] Although there are debates about its inception, the history of the Turks is an important part of world history. The history of all people that emerged in Eurasia and North Africa has been affected by the movements of the Turks to some degree. Turks also played an important role in bringing Eastern cultures to the West and Western cultures to the East. Their own religion became the pioneer and defender of the foreign religions they adopted after Tengrism, and they helped their spread and development (Mani religion, Judaism, Buddhism, Orthodox, Nestorian Christianity and Islam).

The beginning of Turkic history[edit]

The nationalization process of human communities living on earth begins with their transition from hunter-gatherer to farmer-herder.[5] It is thought that the human communities that formed the Turks started sheep breeding in 6000 BC.[6][unreliable source?] This date can be accepted as the beginning of the nomadic Turkic culture.

Map of a portion of the world in 300 BC

3rd century BC[edit]

Map of a portion of the world in 200 BC

2nd century BC[edit]

Map of a portion of the world in 100 BC

1st century BC[edit]

Map of a portion of the world in 65 BC
Map of a portion of the world in 100 AD

1st century[edit]

Map of a portion of the world in 200 AD

2nd century[edit]

Map of a portion of the world in 300 AD

3rd century[edit]

Map of a portion of the world in 400 AD

4th century[edit]

5th century[edit]

Map of a portion of the world in 451 AD

Middle Ages/Turks[edit]

Map of a portion of the world in 500 AD

6th century[edit]

Map of a portion of the world in 565 AD
Map of a portion of the world in 600 AD

7th century[edit]

Central Asia[edit]

Eastern Europe[edit]

Division of Bulgarians:

650 AD | 678 AD | 680 AD
Map of a portion of the world in 700 AD

8th century[edit]

Central Asia[edit]

Eastern Europe[edit]

Map of a portion of the world in 800 AD

9th century[edit]

820 AD, when the Khazar Khanate was at the height of its power

Central Asia[edit]

Eastern Europe[edit]

Asia and Africa[edit]

10th century[edit]

Central Asia[edit]

Eastern Europe[edit]

Asia and Africa[edit]

11th century[edit]

Central Asia[edit]

Eastern Europe[edit]

Asia[edit]

South Asia[edit]

12th century[edit]

Map of a portion of the world in 1100 AD

Asia[edit]

Iran and Central Asia[edit]

South Asia[edit]

Eastern Europe[edit]

The latest situation before the expansion of the Mongol Empire, 1200 AD

13th century[edit]

Spread of the Mongol Empire in the 13th century

Asia and the Middle East[edit]

Central Asia[edit]

South Asia[edit]

After the partition of the Mongol Empire, the Golden Horde state becomes Turkic, 1300 AD

The Chagatai Khanate has been completely Turkified since 1350.

14th century[edit]

Map of a portion of the world in 1400 AD

15th century[edit]

The borders of the Delhi Sultanate from 1206 to 1517

Asia[edit]

Central Asia[edit]

South Asia[edit]

  • 1414-1517: Delhi Sultanate's Turkic dynasty Iranianized

Eastern Europe[edit]

New Age[edit]

Map of a portion of the world in 1500 AD

16th century[edit]

Eastern Europe[edit]

Central Asia[edit]

Asia[edit]

South Asia[edit]

Africa[edit]

Map of a portion of the world in 1600 AD

17th century[edit]

Eastern Europe[edit]

Asia[edit]

Central Asia[edit]

South Asia[edit]

Map of a portion of the world in 1700 AD

Eastern Europe[edit]

Asia[edit]

Central Asia[edit]

Africa[edit]

19th century[edit]

Eastern Europe[edit]

Central Asia[edit]

South Asia[edit]

Africa[edit]

20th century[edit]

Map of a portion of the world in 1900 AD
The Anatolian Turks remained the only long-lived Turkish community with an independent state for about 60 years, 1950 AD
Map of a portion of the world in 2000 AD

21st century[edit]

Books[edit]

A miniature showing the march of Suleiman the Magnificent to Nakhchivan.

Turkish books[edit]

  • Hasan Celal Güzel, Kemal Çiçek, Salim Koca Türkler Ansiklopedisi, Adana, 2002.
  • İbrahim Kafesoğlu, Türk Millî Kültürü, Ankara, 1983.
  • Zeki. Velidi Togan, Umumi Türk Tarihine Giriş, İstanbul, 1970.
  • Faruk Sümer, Oğuzlar, İstanbul, 1980.
  • Bahaeddin Ögel, İslamiyetten Önce Türk Kültür Tarihi, Ankara, 1962.
  • Bahaeddin Ögel, Türk Kültür Tarihine Giriş, İstanbul, 1978.
  • Bahaeddin Ögel, Büyük Hun İmparatorluğu Tarihi, Ankara, 1981.
  • Çeçen Anıl, Tarihte Türk Devletleri, İstanbul, 1986.
  • O. Esad Arseven, Türk Sanat Tarihi, İstanbul, 1955.
  • Muharrem Ergin, Orhun Abideleri, İstanbul, 1977.
  • Erol Güngör, Tarihte Türkler, İstanbul, 1989.
  • Abdülkadir İnan, Eski Türk Dini Tarihi, İstanbul, 1976.
  • A. Nimet Kurat, Karadeniz Kuzeyindeki Türk Kavimleri ve Devletleri, Ankara, 1972.
  • Hüseyin Namık Orkun, Eski Türk Yazıtları, İstanbul, 1986.
  • Hüseyin Namık Orkun, Türk Tarihi, Ankara, 1946.
  • Osman Turan, Türk Cihan Hakimiyeti Mefrukesi Tarihi, İstanbul, 1978.
  • Bahaeddin Ögel, Türk Mitolojisi, Ankara, 1971.
  • Yusuf Hikmet Bayur, Hindistan Tarihi, Ankara, 1946.
  • İbrahim Kafesoğlu, Selçuklu Tarihi, İstanbul, 1972.
  • İbrahim Kafesoğlu, Harzemşahlar Devleti Tarihi, Ankara, 1956.
  • M. Altay Köymen, Büyük Selçuklu İmparatorluğu Tarihi, Ankara, 1954.
  • Çağatay Uluçay, İlk Müslüman Türk Devletleri, İstanbul, 1977.
  • Faruk Sümer, Karakoyunlular, Ankara, 1984.
  • A.N. Kurat, Peçenek Tarihi, İstanbul, 1937.
  • B. Yenilmez, Yenilmez, Rize, 2002.

English and foreign books[edit]

  • R. Grousset, L'Empire des steppes, Paris, 1960 (Türkçe çevirisi: Reşat Uzmen-Bozkır İmparatorluğu, 1996.)
  • DE. Guignes, Histoire generale des Huns des Turcs et des Mongols, Paris, 1756.
  • Jean-Paul Roux, Historie des Turcs, 1984.
  • Jean-Paul Roux, Timur, 1994.
  • Fayard Paris, Historie des Turcs, 1984.
  • D.Sinor, Aspects of Altaic Civilization, 1963.
  • M. Barthold, Turkestan down to the Mongol Invansıon, Londra, 1968.
  • E. Berl, Historie de l'Europe d'Attila a Tamerlan, Paris, 1946.
  • M.A. Czaplıcka, The Turks of Central Asia in History and at the Present Day, Oxford, 1918.
  • W. Eberhard, Kultur und Siedlung der Randvölker China, 1942.
  • L. Hambis, La Haute-Asie, Paris, 1953.
  • Hammer-Purgstall, Von, Historie de l'Empire ottoman depuis son origine jusqu!a nos jours, Paris, 1835.
  • H.H. Howorth, History of the Mongols, Londra, 1876.
  • Jean-Paul Roux, Türklerin Tarihi - Pasifikten Akdenize 2000 Yıl, 2004

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hucker 1975: 136
  2. ^ Henning 1948
  3. ^ Sims-Williams 2004
  4. ^ Savelyev, Alexander; Jeong, Choongwon (May 10, 2020). "Early nomads of the Eastern Steppe and their tentative connections in the West". Cambridge. The predominant part of the Xiongnu population is likely to have spoken Turkic (Late Proto-Turkic, to be more precise).
  5. ^ Jared Diamond Tüfek, Mikrop ve Çelik, Tübıtak Yayınları, ISBN 975-403-271-81997
  6. ^ Mirfatih Zekiyev, Türklerin ve Tatarların Kökeni, s. 143-178, Selenge Yayınları, Ağustos 2007
  7. ^ "Geçmişten Günümüze Türk Tarihi". Story And History (in Turkish). 18 December 2020. Retrieved 18 December 2020.