Human rights in South Africa
|This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Human rights in South Africa are protected under the constitution. The 2009 Human Rights Report by the United States Department of State noted that the government generally respected the rights of the citizens; however, there were concerns over the use of force by law enforcement, legal proceedings and discrimination. The Human Rights Commission is mandated by the South African Constitution and the Human Rights Commission Act of 1994, to monitor, both pro-actively and by way of complaints brought before it, violations of human rights and seeking redress for such violations. It also has an educational role.
- 1 Apartheid era
- 2 Education rights
- 3 Political rights
- 4 Welfare
- 5 Health
- 6 Deportation of foreigners
- 7 Sexual and LGBT Rights
- 8 Labour rights
- 9 Historical situation
- 10 International treaties
- 11 See also
- 12 Notes
- 13 References
- 14 External links
Apartheid was a system of segregation and discrimination implemented by a white minority onto a black majority. For example, blacks were not allowed to buy land outside of land reserves though they were the indigenous population. Many of South Africa's anti-apartheid laws have been enacted while keeping in mind that what is seen by the international community, human rights organisations, and the black majority in the country as the social and legal injustices associated with apartheid, and its anti-apartheid message has been hailed as an examplary face of a Subsaharan nation.
The South African government has legislated for equal education throughout the country. This legislation includes the White Paper on Education and Training 1995 and the South African Schools Act, Act 84 of 1996. Nevertheless, there have been issues in the implementation of these laws. The South African government tends to focus primarily on the quality of higher education. However, only 10% of South African students make it to grade 12 in a reasonable number of years. The other 90% drop out. Additionally, there is not much racial integration in government schools. Though laws allow for integration many schools remain predominantly one race.
Most of the Education in South Africa comes from rural schools. In fact, approximately 79% of black South Africans live in rural communities. However, the government has neglected the quality of education in these rural areas. Issues with rural schooling include poor facilities, lack of clean water, lack of resources, and unmotivated educators. Considering poor facilities, some schools are not structurally stable and are at risk of collapse. Additionally, some schools lack electricity. Most schools with more than 500 children lack proper sanitation for toilets while some schools lack toilets at all. Furthermore, many rural schools are in remote areas without direct access to clean water. Water is generally kilometers away and unclean because animals bathe in and drink it. This lack of water is a particular issue in the daytime when the temperature is highest. The remoteness of these rural schools is also a particular problem because they are quite distant from students' homes. And, many schools do not remedy this issue with transport. Additionally, many schools lack the needed books and supplies for learning. In June 2010, the Government Gazette recognised that these unfavorable learning environments increase rates of absenteeism of educators and dropout of students. Additionally, some students do not have enough food to eat and are hungry during school. This hunger causes a lack on concentration and makes learning environments less favorable.
Rights for disabled children
Though South Africa ratified the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in 2007, children with disabilities still do not have equal access to education. In many situations, a public school is able to determine which students are able to enroll and the school may simply reject a disabled child without any consequences. In cases where the student is able to enroll in a public school, a school may lack the resources necessary to effectively teach children with disabilities. Additionally, children with disabilities in public schools are forced to pay fees—such as for an assistant—that other students are not required to pay. South Africa has schools that cater for students with disabilities, but these schools are limited in number and require fees. The limited number of schools forces children to either board or use costly transport. In 2000, the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child was specifically concerned with the lack of implementation of South Africa's agreement to guarantee free primary education. South Africa still struggles to provide free primary education for all. Additionally, many disabled students are not able to access quality education because they are on waiting lists for schools that cater to students with special needs. For example, in 2015, there are approximately 5,552 children with disabilities on waiting lists.
South Africa has a liberal constitution that protects all basic political freedoms. However, there have been a number of incidents of political repression as well as threats of future repression in violation of this constitution leading some analysts and civil society organisations to conclude that there is or could be a new climate of political repression or a decline in political tolerance.
Political patronage is a significant aspect in South African politics. However, this patronage infringes on the rights of the people, especially those in poverty. 40% of South Africans are dependent on the state to supply necessities. This dependence on the state lessens the autonomy of South Africans in need of this assistance. These necessities are supplied in the form of grants, which require governmental documents to obtain. Consequently, bureaucracy plays a major role in an individual's ability to obtain a grant and thus obtain necessities. Politicians gain substituents based on material promises. If the politicians fulfill these promises, often the recipients are only those who supported the politicians. Essentially, voters dependence on the state precludes their ability to vote based on ideological platforms. This phenomenon does not align with the democratic principles of South Africa.
Twenty-five percent of South Africans receive some form of government welfare grants, most of whom are women. The 1997 "White Paper on Social Welfare" outlines South Africa's social welfare policy. The White Paper on Social Welfare focuses on providing South Africans with opportunities for increased autonomy. For example, White Paper on Social Welfare stipulates the provision of public works projects. The White Paper also emphasizes the significance of non-state welfare organizations in providing welfare. Such organizations include non-governmental organizations (NGO's) and religious organizations. Additionally, the White Paper focuses on the government providing welfare specifically to families. But, the White Paper has relatively fewer provisions for the elderly. The government expects families to take responsibility for caring their elderly relatives, partly because of cultural values. The White Paper also covered child support grants and refrained from stereotyping concerning the gender roles in a family. For instance, the White Paper did not specifically refer to the male in a household as the "bread-winner".
South Africa has a plethora of infectious disease cases. Malaria is major cause of death because of a lack of resources to treat patients. Additionally, the water is dirty with human and industrial waste which contributes to the spread of disease. Many deaths are caused by poverty rather than a lack of cures for a disease. Poverty is a major reason for death because poor families are not able to afford proper health services and hospitals are not able to buy enough supplies. Additionally, people living in South Africa who are illegal immigrants lack resources for health care that is non-emergency. For example, many of the people living in the Hillbrow Health Precinct are not legal and have poor health resources. Specifically, some hospital buildings were built before World War II. Furthermore, the Hillbrow community has high rates of Sexually Transmitted Diseases.
South Africa has the largest number of people living with HIV/AIDS in the world. It was first detected in 1982. The disease was first detected in homosexuals, but it rapidly spread to heterosexuals. Because of the rapid spread, the government tried to step in and help. However, South Africa was in the last years of apartheid during the time when HIV/AIDS was becoming an epidemic. Thus, the South African government had great difficulty mitigating the effect of the epidemic. For instance, because of the desegregation of schools and the controversy surrounding that, the government did not focus on providing quality sex education that specifically focused on HIV/AIDS. Additionally, the local and federal governments had contention about the allocation of funds for HIV/AIDS prevention, thus causing inefficiency and gridlock. Also, some of the money allocated to HIV/AIDS prevention was misused. For example, a musical called Serefina II was projected to increase awareness about AIDS and AIDS prevention. However, the play was not clear and did not significantly help with sex education. Much of the HIV/AIDS treatment and progress have been funded by non profit organizations such as WHO and UNAIDS.
There are multiple theories about the causes for the HIV/AIDS epidemic in South Africa. Some theorize that migrant workers were a source of the proliferation of the disease. The migrant workers usually would not see their wives and families for months, so they had extramarital sexual intercourse in the cities. Then, later during the holidays, husbands would return home and unknowingly infect their wives with the disease. Another theory is that the culture makes South Africa more vulnerable to the epidemic. For example, male circumcision at birth reduces the risk of the child getting HIV/AIDS. However, many South Africans do not do this procedure because it is not traditional to do circumcision at birth.
Additionally, a lack of quality health care can exacerbate the epidemic. There is quite a disparity between public and private healthcare. Overall, public hospitals provide worse care than private hospitals do. Public hospitals are generally overcrowded and understaffed. In fact, 82% of South Africans are cared for by 27% of South Africa's general physicians. The difference in these percentages is caused by general physicians moving to the private healthcare sector and by brain drain. Brain drain is when professionals emigrate from their home country to work elsewhere. Also, the disparity is caused by the fact that private hospitals have more resources and funds than public hospitals do because of the higher fees at private hospitals.
Deportation of foreigners
The South African government has been criticised by Human Rights Watch for deporting hundreds of thousands of Zimbabwean refugees and treating victims of political violence as economic migrants. By sending refugees back to persecution, Human Rights Watch has asserted that South Africa is violating the refugee convention and international law.
Sexual and LGBT Rights
South Africa has had some issues concerning gender inequality in court cases. A prominent example is that of "Jacob Zuma's Rape Trial in 2006. " Khwezi, a female AIDS activist, brought Zuma to court for raping her. As his defense, Zuma claimed that he could "have liaisons with women" quite easily, so he asserted that he would not have raped Khwezi. Zuma also used Zulu culture as support for his defense. Some of Zuma's supporters gathered outside of the courthouse and burned photographs of Khewzi and yelled phrases like "Burn the Bitch. " These actions caused gender activists to protest against sexism and to raise concern about the fact that the judge allowed the court to admit evidence about Khwezi's sexual history, but did not admit evidence from Zuma's sexual history. Many people felt that Zuma went against the modern South African liberal democracy because he represented patriarchy at a relative extreme.
It is estimated that 500,000 women are raped in South Africa every year with the average woman more likely to be raped than complete secondary school. A 2009 survey found one in four South African men admitted to raping someone and another survey found one in three women out of 4000 surveyed women said they had been raped in the past year.
Rapes are also perpetrated by children (some as young as ten). Child and baby rape incidences are some of the highest in the world. A number of high-profile baby rapes that included extensive reconstructive surgery to rebuild urinary, genital, abdominal, or tracheal systems have appeared.
The Civil Union Act 17 of 2006 legalized same-sex marriage in South Africa. It was a direct retort to the Minister of Home Affairs v Fourie, which did not recognize same-sex marriage as legal.
South Africa's post-apartheid constitution was the first in the world to outlaw discrimination based on sexual orientation. South Africa was the first country in Africa, and the fifth in the world, to legalise same-sex marriage.
South Africa has implicit and explicit labour regulations. Its implicit labour regulations are stated in the Constitution and set the boundaries for explicit regulations. Explicit regulations are set by employers and are specific to each job. On the other hand, implicit regulations are the Labour Relations Act 66 of 1995, the Basic Conditions of Employment Act 75 of 1997, the New Employment Equity Act 55 of 1998, and the Skills Development Act 97 of 1998—each with subsequent amendments. The Labour Relations Act 66 allows workers to create unions and collectively bargain. Over the years, the number of unions in South Africa have declined. Also, there are fewer federation-associated trade unions and more independent trade unions in South Africa today. The Basic Conditions of Employment Act 75 has regulations concerning working hours, leave, and termination. The New Employment Equity Act 55 was created to lessen discrimination. It also provides parameters for affirmative action. The Skills Development Act 97 promotes worker productivity and competitiveness in the market.
South Africa has some labour related issues. One aspect is the formation of unions. In fact, 22% of South African workers are union members. In 2012, the Marikana Massacre occurred. The Marikana Massacre was the killing of 44 platinum miners who were on strike to earn increased wages. 78 people were wounded and 259 were arrested. One reason for this brutality was that the strike was not protected. Additionally, poorly paid farm workers have been striking. One example is of the Western Cape Farm worker strike in which the workers were mostly female. The strike resulted in 3 deaths, but the workers got a 52% increase in pay. This strike was also unprotected. There was another platinum mining strike in 2014, but it differed from the 2012 platinum mining strike because it was protected. The protection prevented police brutality. In fact, this strike lasted for five months. Consequently, the world's platinum production decreased by 40% because of the lack of labour. The worker's wages did increase as a result but, the workers also suffered losses because of the "no work, no pay" policy in South Africa. Workers who strike are generally strongly motivated, even with protected strikes, because there is much risk of loss.
The union membership rate in South Africa is one of the highest in the world. Furthermore, the risk of union conflict is a deterrent for foreign companies. South Africa is receptive to foreign companies because they create jobs. The unemployment rate in South Africa is approximately 30%. The government encourages foreign and disadvantaged domestic company partnership by giving benefits to foreign companies. Also, the South African government requires that businesses with government contracts donate to social programs. Also, South Africa has high numbers of migrant workers from rural areas throughout Africa, which gives foreign companies a large labor force to choose from.
South Africa's stances on international human rights treaties are as follows:
- 1.^ Note that the "Year" signifies the "Year covered". Therefore the information for the year marked 2008 is from the report published in 2009, and so on.
- 2.^ As of 1 January. Until 1994 the Head of Government was the Prime Minister. From 1984 to 1994 it was the State President, and since then has been the President.
- 3.^ The 1982 report covers the year 1981 and the first half of 1982, and the following 1984 report covers the second half of 1982 and the whole of 1983. In the interest of simplicity, these two aberrant "year and a half" reports have been split into three year-long reports through extrapolation.
- "2009 Human Rights Report: South Africa". State.gov. 2010-03-11. Retrieved 2016-05-19.
- "About the SAHRC". sahrc.org.za. Retrieved 2015-10-26.
- Kanopy (Firm) (2014). "South Africa Beyond Apartheid". Kanopy. Kanopy. Retrieved 1 Nov 2015.
- "South Africa profile - Timeline - BBC News". BBC News. Retrieved 2015-11-02.
- Dyzenhaus, David (1998). Judging the Judges, Judging Ourselves:. p. 116.
- Lawson, Edward (1996). Encyclopedia of Human Rights. p. 87.
- Legotlo, Wilfred (2014). Challenges and Issues Facing the Education System in South Africa. South Africa: Africa Institute of South Africa. pp. 2, 3, 7.
- Films for the Humanities and Sciences (Firm) (1992). "7 Up: South Africa". Films on Demand. Films Media Group. Retrieved 19 November 2015.
- Legotlo, Wilfred (2014). Challenges and Issues Facing the Education System in South Africa. South Africa: Africa Institute of South Africa. pp. 15–27.
- Gardiner, Michael (2008). Education in Rural Areas. Johannesburg, South Africa: Centre for Educational Policy Development. pp. 10–12.
- Martinez, Elin (2015). "Complicit in Exclusion": South Africa's failure to guarantee an inclusive education for children with disabilities. New York: Human Rights Watch.
- The Return of State Repression, Professor J. Duncan, South African Civil Society Information Services, 31 May 2010
- Increasing police repression highlighted by recent cases, Freedom of Expression Institute, 2006
- Political tolerance on the wane in South Africa, Imraan Buccus, SA Reconciliation Barometer, 2011
- Mcebisi, Ndletyana (2014). Patronage Politics Divides Us. South Africa: Real African Publishers. pp. 113–116.
- Freund, Bill (2010). Development Dilemmas. South Africa: University of KwaZulu-Natal Press. pp. 327, 332, 335, 336.
- Kauffman, Kyle (2004). AIDS and South Africa: the Social Expression of a Pandemic. Great Britain: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 1–55.
- Sample, Hilary (2015). Questions Concerning Health. New York: Columbia University. pp. 136–138.
- "South Africa: Grant Temporary Status to All Zimbabweans". Human Rights Watch. 19 June 2008. Retrieved 22 June 2008.
- Freund, Bill (2010). Development Dilemmas in Post-Apartheid South Africa. South Africa: University of KwaZulu-Natal Press. p. 372.
- "SOUTH AFRICA: One in four men rape". Irinnews.org. 18 June 2009. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
- "South Africa's corrective rape". Time. 8 March 2011. Retrieved 12 July 2011.
- "South African rape survey shock". BBC News. 18 June 2009. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
- "South Africa's rape shock". BBC News. 19 January 1999. Retrieved 30 May 2010.
- "Child rape in South Africa". Medscape. Retrieved 31 December 2010.
- Perry, Alex (5 November 2007). "Oprah scandal rocks South Africa". TIME. Retrieved 15 May 2011.
- Ntlama, N (2010). "A Brief Overview of the Civil Union Act" (PDF). North-West University. North-West University. Retrieved 31 Oct 2015.
- "Parliament ordered to allow gay marriage". Mail & Guardian. 1 December 2005. Retrieved 10 July 2011.
- Linde, Bennie (2015). The Value of Wellness in the Workplace a Perspective of the Employee-Organisation Relationship in the South African Labour Market. NY: Springer. pp. 29–30, 41–42, 44–48.
- Department of Labor (2002). "Republic of South Africa No. 66 of 1995: Labour Relations Act" (PDF). Department of Labour. Department of Labour. Retrieved October 19, 2015.
- Zopedol (September 30, 2014). "Basic Conditions of Employment Act 2002". Department of Labour. The South African Department of Labour. Retrieved October 19, 2015.
- Creator (January 14, 2015). "Employment Equity Act". Department of Labour. The South African Department of Labour. Retrieved October 19, 2015.
- Zopedol (September 8, 2009). "Skills Development Act". Department of Labour. The South African Department of Labour. Retrieved October 19, 2015.
- Davie, Grace (2014). Poverty Knowledge in South Africa. New York: Cambridge University Press.
- Freedom House (2012). "Country ratings and status, FIW 1973-2012" (XLS). Retrieved 2012-08-22.
- United Nations. "United Nations Treaty Collection: Chapter IV: Human Rights: 1. Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. Paris, 9 December 1948". Archived from the original on 20 October 2012. Retrieved 29 August 2012.
- United Nations. "United Nations Treaty Collection: Chapter IV: Human Rights: 2. International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination. New York, 7 March 1966". Archived from the original on 11 February 2011. Retrieved 29 August 2012.
- United Nations. "United Nations Treaty Collection: Chapter IV: Human Rights: 3. International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. New York, 16 December 1966". Archived from the original on 17 September 2012. Retrieved 29 August 2012.
- United Nations. "United Nations Treaty Collection: Chapter IV: Human Rights: 4. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. New York, 16 December 1966". Archived from the original on 1 September 2010. Retrieved 29 August 2012.
- United Nations. "United Nations Treaty Collection: Chapter IV: Human Rights: 5. Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. New York, 16 December 1966". Retrieved 2012-08-29.
- United Nations. "United Nations Treaty Collection: Chapter IV: Human Rights: 6. Convention on the non-applicability of statutory limitations to war crimes and crimes against humanity. New York, 26 November 1968". Retrieved 2012-08-29.
- United Nations. "United Nations Treaty Collection: Chapter IV: Human Rights: 7. International Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid. New York, 30 November 1973". Archived from the original on 18 July 2012. Retrieved 29 August 2012.
- United Nations. "United Nations Treaty Collection: Chapter IV: Human Rights: 8. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. New York, 18 December 1979". Archived from the original on 23 August 2012. Retrieved 29 August 2012.
- United Nations. "United Nations Treaty Collection: Chapter IV: Human Rights: 9. Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment. New York, 10 December 1984". Archived from the original on 8 November 2010. Retrieved 29 August 2012.
- United Nations. "United Nations Treaty Collection: Chapter IV: Human Rights: 11. Convention on the Rights of the Child. New York, 20 November 1989". Archived from the original on 11 February 2014. Retrieved 29 August 2012.
- United Nations. "United Nations Treaty Collection: Chapter IV: Human Rights: 12. Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, aiming at the abolition of the death penalty. New York, 15 December 1989". Archived from the original on 20 October 2012. Retrieved 29 August 2012.
- United Nations. "United Nations Treaty Collection: Chapter IV: Human Rights: 13. International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families. New York, 18 December 1990". Archived from the original on 25 August 2012. Retrieved 29 August 2012.
- United Nations. "United Nations Treaty Collection: Chapter IV: Human Rights: 8b. Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. New York, 6 October 1999". Retrieved 2012-08-29.
- United Nations. "United Nations Treaty Collection: Chapter IV: Human Rights: 11b. Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict. New York, 25 May 2000". Retrieved 2012-08-29.
- United Nations. "United Nations Treaty Collection: Chapter IV: Human Rights: 11c. Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography. New York, 25 May 2000". Retrieved 2012-08-29.
- United Nations. "United Nations Treaty Collection: Chapter IV: Human Rights: 15. Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. New York, 13 December 2006". Archived from the original on 19 August 2012. Retrieved 29 August 2012.
- United Nations. "United Nations Treaty Collection: Chapter IV: Human Rights: 15a. Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. New York, 13 December 2006". Archived from the original on 13 January 2016. Retrieved 29 August 2012.
- United Nations. "United Nations Treaty Collection: Chapter IV: Human Rights: 16. International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance. New York, 20 December 2006". Retrieved 2012-08-29.
- United Nations. "United Nations Treaty Collection: Chapter IV: Human Rights: 3a. Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. New York, 10 December 2008". Retrieved 2012-08-29.
- United Nations. "United Nations Treaty Collection: Chapter IV: Human Rights: 11d. Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on a communications procedure . New York, 19 December 2011. New York, 10 December 2008". Archived from the original on 25 August 2012. Retrieved 29 August 2012.