I-96 highlighted in red
|Maintained by MDOT|
|Length:||192.032 mi (309.046 km)|
|Existed:||1959 – present|
|West end:||US 31 in Norton Shores|
|I-94 in Detroit|
|East end:||I-75 in Detroit|
|Counties:||Muskegon, Ottawa, Kent, Ionia, Clinton, Eaton, Ingham, Livingston, Oakland, Wayne|
Interstate 96 (I-96) is an Interstate Highway that runs for approximately 192 miles (309 km) entirely within the US state of Michigan. The western terminus is at an interchange with US Highway 31 (US 31) and Business US 31 (Bus. US 31) on the western boundary of Norton Shores southeast of Muskegon, and the eastern terminus is at I-75 near the Ambassador Bridge in Detroit. From Grand Rapids through Lansing to Detroit, the freeway parallels Grand River Avenue, never straying more than a few miles from the decommissioned US 16. The Wayne County section of I-96 is named the Jeffries Freeway from its eastern terminus to the junction with I-275 and M-14. Though maps still refer to the freeway as the Jeffries, the portion within the city of Detroit was renamed by the state legislature as the Rosa Parks Memorial Highway in December 2005 in honor of the late civil rights pioneer. There are four auxiliary Interstates as well as two current and four former business routes associated with I-96.
Grand River Avenue originated as an Native American trail before Michigan statehood. It later was used as a wagon road across the state. The roadway was included in the State Trunkline Highway System in 1919 as M-16 and later the United States Numbered Highway System as US 16. Construction of a freeway along the length of the corridor was proposed in the 1940s, and included as part of the Interstate Highway System in the mid-1950s. This construction was started in 1956 and initially completed across the state to Detroit in 1962. The proposed route for the Jeffries Freeway in Detroit was moved in the 1960s; it was built in the 1970s. I-96 was completed on November 21, 1977, in the Detroit area, closing the last gap along the route. Since then, additional interchanges and lanes have been added in places to accommodate traffic needs.
- 1 Route description
- 2 History
- 3 Exit list
- 4 Related trunklines
- 5 See also
- 6 Notes
- 7 References
- 8 External links
I-96 is maintained by the Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT) as a segment of the larger State Trunkline Highway System. In 2011, the department's traffic surveys showed that on average, 201,200 vehicles used the highway daily between 6 and 7 Mile roads in Livonia. Near Norton Shores, 20,638 vehicles did so each day between Airline and Fruitport roads. These are the highest and lowest counts along the highway, respectively. As an Interstate Highway, all of I-96 is included in the National Highway System, a network of roads important to the country's economy, defense, and mobility. In addition, the highway in Detroit has been named by the Michigan Legislature the Rosa Parks Memorial Highway to honor the civil rights pioneer Rosa Parks. The segment from Livonia west to I-275 is the Jeffries Freeway, named for a former mayor of Detroit, Edward Jeffries.
Muskegon to Grand Rapids
I-96 begins at a three-quarter cloverleaf interchange with US 31 northeast of the Muskegon County Airport in Norton Shores, near Muskegon. At the starting terminus, the highway has a grassy median and two lanes in each direction as it travels southeasterly through rural Muskegon County. The freeway is paralleled by Airline Highway in an area of with a mix of fields and residences as far as Fruitport. I-96 bypasses that village to the north and east before crossing into Ottawa County at Fruitport Road. After a distance of about five miles (8.0 km) in the county, the trunkline reaches Nunica. The highway crosses the Crockery Creek and turns eastward toward Coopersville. The freeway runs parallel to the Grand River, about 2.5 miles (4.0 km) to the north. Near Ironwood Drive, I-96 turns southeasterly again and goes through Marne.
Beyond Marne, I-96 passes the western end of M-11 and crosses into Kent County, curving around a rest area for the eastbound lanes. The freeway runs eastward through a light industrial area of the suburb of Walker as it enters the Grand Rapids metropolitan area. At the interchange with Alpine Avenue, M-37 merges onto the freeway and the two run concurrently past the studios for WZZM-TV with its iconic weatherball, a 16-foot-wide (4.9 m) sphere 100 feet (30 m) above the ground that uses colored lights to display a weather forecast. Adjacent to the studios are the ramps from eastbound I-96 to southbound US 131 and from northbound US 131 to westbound I-96. These ramps mark the northern end of I-296, an unsigned auxiliary Interstate Highway designation applied to them and the US 131 freeway south to downtown Grand Rapids. I-96 turns northeasterly past a commercial area to a three-quarter cloverleaf interchange that provides all of the other connections with US 131 next to a crossing of the Grand River.
East of the river, I-96 and M-37 pass through the northern suburb of Comstock Park, intersecting Connector M-44 (CONN M-44, Plainfield Avenue) near Lamberton Lake. Past that interchange, the freeway angles southeasterly and then southward, bypassing Grand Rapids to the northeast. East of downtown, I-96/M-37 meets I-196 (Gerald R. Ford Freeway) at a partial interchange; traffic headed eastbound on I-196 must enter I-96 eastbound and only westbound I-96 traffic may enter I-196. Immediately east of the interchange is another for M-44 (East Beltline Avenue) where M-37 separates from the freeway to turn southward. Through this series of interchanges, I-96 curves to the east and then turns back southward after passing through them. There are two more interchanges for M-21 (Fulton Street) and Cascade Road before I-96 meets the eastern end of M-11 at 28th Street. The next interchange for 36th Street provides access to the Gerald R. Ford International Airport. The freeway continues to the east of the airport and then intersects the eastern end of M-6 (Paul B. Henry Freeway, South Beltline Freeway) at an interchange over the confluence of the Thornapple and Grand rivers.
Grand Rapids to Brighton
The freeway exits the edges of the Grand Rapids urban area past the interchange with M-6, turning due east and paralleling the northern edge of Cascade Road. I-96 curves to the south of Pratt Lake near the county line, crossing into Ionia County. Grand River Avenue is the frontage road as the freeway heads east through farm fields. South of Ionia, I-96 intersects M-66. Near Portland, the trunkline turns to the southeast to cross the Grand River again. On the east side of town, the freeway crosses Grand River Avenue, its former business spur into town. I-96 continues southeasterly, crossing into Clinton County, and passes the community of Eagle. Entering the western reaches of the Lansing metropolitan area, I-96 merges with I-69 and turns southward at an interchange in the southwestern corner of the county; this interchange also provides access to Business Loop I-96 (BL I-96, Grand River Avenue).
These two Interstates run southward together for about 6.5 miles (10.5 km) on the west side of the metropolitan area, picking up a third lane in each direction. The exit numbers and mileposts along the concurrency reflect those of I-96, which is considered the dominant designation of the pair. South of that interchange, the freeway crosses into Eaton County and over the Grand River. The trunkline passes near residential subdivisions, and next to the interchange for BL I-69/M-43 (Saginaw Highway), there is a large retail development. Further south, I-496 (Olds Freeway) branches off to run into downtown Lansing before the split between I-96 and I-69. I-69 turns southward while I-96 turns southeasterly, dropping back to four lanes in total. After the Lansing Road interchange, the freeway crosses the Grand River one last time and runs due east to bypass Lansing.
I-96 crosses into Ingham County and continues along the southern edges of the Lansing metro area. It passes through areas with residential subdivisions and commercial developments, coming to a pair of interchanges including one for the eastern end of BL I-96 (Cedar Street). Near the crossing of the Red Cedar River, I-96 goes through the interchange for I-496/US 127. East of that interchange, the freeway begins to exit the metro area as the landscape transitions back to farm fields. I-96 continues eastward, bypassing Williamston and Webberville to the south. Near the latter, the freeway turns more southeasterly and crosses into Livingston County.
In Livingston County, I-96 passes to the south of Fowlerville and Howell. Near the Livingston County Spencer J. Hardy Airport on the western edge of Howell, I-96 meets M-59, which carries the Howell business loop easterly to Grand River Avenue. The freeway expands to six lanes and runs parallel to Grand River Avenue on the southern side of town. The business loop reconnects near Lake Chemung on the east side of town, and I-96 turns further to the southeast. On the northeast side of Brighton, I-96 crosses over Grand River Avenue and the landscape transitions to include residential subdivisions. I-96 crosses US 23 and enters the far northwestern edge of Metro Detroit.
I-96 passes through an area with several lakes as it crosses into Oakland County. This area includes the Island Lake State Recreation Area to the south and the Kensington Metropark to the north of the freeway in an area where it crosses the Huron River. The Interstate runs through Wixom into Novi, where it passes to the south of the Twelve Oaks Mall. Southeast of the mall, I-96 enters a complex interchange on the border between Novi and Farmington Hills that connects it to M-5 (Haggerty Connector), I-275 and I-696 (Reuther Freeway). The trunkline drops a lane in each direction as it enters the interchange and turns southward. The freeway then merges into I-275 and increases to four lanes in each direction running south in Farmington Hills.
According to the Federal Highway Administration, I-275 ends at the junction with I-96 and M-14 along the boundary between Livonia and Plymouth Township and not at the interchange in Novi and Farmington Hills.[a] MDOT considers I-275 to extend northward concurrently with I-96 to the Novi and Farmington Hills, and maps from other providers follow MDOT's lead and label the freeway north of M-14 as I-96/I-275.
I-96/I-275 runs southward for about two miles (3.2 km) before crossing into Wayne County at the interchange with 8 Mile Road near the Meadowbrook Country Club. The freeway curves to the east around Schoolcraft College; then, south of 5 Mile Road, I-96 meets the interchange with M-14 and I-275 where it turns to the east along the Jeffries Freeway. To the north and south sides of I-96 are a pair of service drives named Schoolcraft Road which follow the 4 Mile location on the Mile Road System for Detroit. To the north of the Jeffries are residential neighborhoods and to the south are commercial or industrial areas. At Inkster Road, the freeway crosses into Redford Township where it intersects US 24 (Telegraph Road) near Eliza Howell Park. East of the park, I-96 enters Detroit.
Past the Outer Drive interchange, I-96 splits into a local-express lanes configuration. There are two carriageways in each direction, and the central ones have three lanes that bypass almost all of the exits while the outer ones have two lanes that have access to each exit. The Jeffries turns southeasterly and separates from Schoolcraft Road shifting one-half mile (0.80 km) to the south. The interchange with M-39 (Southfield Freeway) features slip ramps so that traffic can pass between the local and express lanes. Further east, I-96 turns northeasterly to cross Grand River Avenue at the southern end of M-5. I-96 curves over to the interchange with M-8 (Davison Avenue) and the local-express configuration ends as the freeway turns back to the south to cross over Grand River Avenue.
From the crossing south of Davison, I-96 runs parallel to Grand River Avenue southeasterly with eight lanes total. The two run together as far as the interchange with I-94 (Edsel Ford Freeway) near Bishop Park. I-96 turns more south-southeasterly there through residential neighborhoods on Detroit's southeastern side. I-96 terminates at an interchange that connects it to I-75 (Fisher Freeway) and to the Ambassador Bridge.
Interstate 96 was mostly constructed in sections that opened from 1957 to 1962, but it was not completed in the Detroit area until 1977. Even before the National Interstate and Defense Highways Act was signed in 1956, the route was being planned as a replacement of the old US 16, which was decommissioned in 1962.
The Muskegon–Grand Rapids–Lansing–Detroit corridor was initially named the Grand River Road, an Indian trail that was designated as a military highway in 1825. The roadway was included as a branch of "Division 2" of the State Trunkline Highway System when that was created in May 1913. When the system was signposted in 1919, the highway was assigned the M-16 designation. Grand River Avenue was the first paved highway across the state when paving was completed in 1926. The entire highway was designated as part of US 16 later that year.
East of Grand Rapids, the highway was a major artery of national importance, and was added to the proposed "Interregional Highway System" as part of a northern route between Chicago and Detroit by the 1940s. A branch from Grand Rapids to Muskegon was added later that decade, and in 1957 the Chicago–Detroit route was labeled as part of Interstate 94, with Interstate 94N on the spur to Muskegon. Michigan, believing that this would "cause considerable confusion to the public", requested a change in April 1958, which would move I-94 to the shorter Kalamazoo route (which was planned as I-92), make the Muskegon–Detroit route I-96, and assign I-67 to the connection from I-94 to I-96 at Grand Rapids, but this was initially rejected by the American Association of State Highway Officials (AASHO). By mid-1959, Michigan's plan had been approved, with one change: I-96 would take the south leg from I-94 at Benton Harbor to Grand Rapids, and the north leg to Muskegon would be I-196.
Construction of the Brighton–Farmington Expressway piece of the US 16 upgrade began in 1956, and, when a four-mile (6.4 km) piece opened on August 1, 1957, it was the first section of funded Interstate to open in Michigan. The entire 23-mile (37 km) freeway from east of Brighton to a bypass of Farmington was completed in December of that year. By early 1959, when signs for I-96 and I-196 were posted, 59 miles (95 km) of the "Detroit–Muskegon Freeway" had been completed and marked as US 16. With the opening of 51 miles (82 km) from west of Lansing to east of Howell, the entire route, except in the Detroit area, opened for travel on December 12, 1962. US 16 was decommissioned in the state at that time; the portions into Muskegon and Detroit, beyond the ends of the freeway, became separate related highways named Business Spur Interstate 196 (BS I-196) for Muskegon and for Detroit.
In 1963, the Michigan State Highway Department petitioned AASHO to again make the change it had requested back in 1958, moving I-96 over I-196 to end at Muskegon and renumbering I-96 west of Grand Rapids to I-67. The state cited problems with destination signing and numerous complaints from the public about confusion caused by the numbering. At their October 21, 1963 meeting, AASHO approved the relocation of I-96, but rejected I-67, stating that the number should be kept for a more major route in case the system is expanded, and instead assigned I-196 to the not-yet-complete Benton Harbor–Grand Rapids highway. With the scheduled completion of the Lodge Freeway on October 29, 1964, a full freeway route was available from I-96 into downtown Detroit via I-696 and the Lodge, but it would be some time before I-96 was finished into the city.
Construction of the Jeffries Freeway
The Detroit Expressway and Transit System plan, prepared in 1945 for the city of Detroit, included a Grand River Expressway, which was to parallel Grand River Avenue into downtown and relieve congestion on that artery. A rail line would be built in the median of the freeway west of West Chicago Street, where streetcars would exit onto the existing surface tracks on Grand River Avenue into downtown. The plan called for a future conversion to rapid transit with a grade-separated route to downtown. The Department of Street Railways determined in 1947 that the operation would cost $6 million per year (equivalent to $193 million/yr in 2015), and the planned transit line was dropped from the plans. By 1961, the proposed highway was renamed the Jeffries Freeway, after Edward Jeffries, who served as Detroit mayor from 1940 to 1948.
The first piece of the Jeffries Freeway connected the Fisher Freeway (I-75) with the Ford Freeway (I-94) in 1970. It was extended northwest to Livernois Avenue (exit 188A) in July 1971, and then to Grand River Avenue at Schaefer Highway (exit 185) in 1973. In 1976, the freeway was extended west to the Southfield Freeway (exit 183), and the entire I-275 concurrent section was opened. The final piece was completed on November 21, 1977, connecting the Detroit section to I-275. The I-96 designation was assigned along the I-275 freeway south to the Jeffries Freeway, and eastward along the new freeway to the M-39 interchange; the remaining stub of I-96 around Farmington was redesignated as an extension of M-102 (now M-5).
Originally, the route of Interstate 96 from the east end of the existing freeway in Farmington through Detroit, named the Jeffries Freeway (commonly referred to as simply "the Jeffries"), was to closely parallel Grand River Avenue (formerly US 16). However, by 1963, several freeway revolts were taking place in urban locations throughout the country, including Detroit. Several of Detroit's planned freeways were modified, scaled back, or outright cancelled. To minimize the impact to existing communities and businesses, it was decided that the Jeffries Freeway would no longer utilize the Grand River Avenue corridor. Instead, the new I-96 freeway corridor would partially use right-of-way from the C&O Railroad through the city of Livonia (ultimately being built over Schoolcraft Road), and utilize the planned I-275 freeway bypassing Detroit to the west to connect back to the existing freeway.
Since the completion of I-96 in 1977, several changes to the freeway have taken place. Beginning in 1984, an extension of the US 27 freeway (later to become I-69) bypassing Lansing opened; US 27 was then cosigned with I-96 along the western side of Lansing. Three years later, the I-69 designation was applied to this new bypass, resulting in a triple concurrency (I-96/I-69/US 27) that existed until 2002, when US 27 was decommissioned in Michigan.
From 2003 to 2005, the Beck Road interchange (exit 160) in Novi was reconstructed as a single point urban interchange (SPUI), the first in the metropolitan Detroit area and the first on I-96. An interchange between 36th Street and I-96 was built starting in 2005 and was completed in 2006. The project aimed to improve access to the Gerald R. Ford International Airport southeast of Grand Rapids. The reconstruction of the Wixom Road interchange near Novi as a SPUI was completed in late fall of 2008. Another interchange at Latson Road in Howell was approved for construction on July 19, 2012. This interchange was designed to bring improved access to the eastern Howell area, which prior to construction of the Latson Road exit was only accessible from westbound I-96. The project was completed on December 2, 2013. Also in 2013, the two interchanges near Nunica serving M-104 and B-31 were reconstructed, with two ramps removed from the former and two added to the latter; a new partial interchange was also built in preparation of M-231, a future bypass of Grand Haven that is slated for completion in 2016.
On April 5, 2014, MDOT closed I-96 between Newburgh Road and US 24 (Telegraph Road). The project is to cost $148 million, and it will rebuild the seven miles (11 km), replace two bridges, and repair 32 other bridges. The department will also install new drainage and replace the signs along I-96. The project was expected to be completed in October 2014. Instead, it was finished ahead of schedule, and that segment of I-96 was opened on September 21, 2014.
Also in 2015, work began on bypassing the 1960s interchange with US 23 near Brighton. A new set of through lanes will be built on I-96 between the current eastbound and westbound lanes with three new bridges over northbound and southbound US 23, and over Old US 23. The existing lanes of I-96 will be changed to be collector-distributor lanes for ramp traffic.
Beginning on February 25, 2008, MDOT and the Detroit International Bridge Company initiated the Ambassador Gateway Project at the eastern end of I-96. The adjacent section of I-75 closed completely to traffic in both directions to start the complete reconstruction of the road to better connect I-75 and I-96 to the Ambassador Bridge, and the plans included the reconstruction of a mile (1.6 km) of I-96. That segment of I-96 closed on July 14, 2008, and it was scheduled to reopen a month early the following September. The overall project to realign ramps and connect the bridge to the freeways was mired in lawsuits between MDOT and the private company that owns the bridge. The company's owner was jailed for contempt of court during court proceedings in early 2012. MDOT was later ordered to assume responsibility for construction, and the department completed the project on September 21, 2012.
On January 12, 2005, a large multiple-vehicle collision consisting of over 200 motor vehicles occurred on both directions of I-96 near Williamston in Ingham County. Two people, Douglas James Baker (age 15) and Jason Eldridge (age 27) were killed in the incident. It was one of the largest collisions in US history and was blamed on heavy fog.
In October 2012, reports of a sniper shooting cars along I-96 in four counties led to a federal investigation and a multi-jurisdictional task force of 100 law enforcement officials. As of October 30, 2012, 25 shootings had been linked to one suspect. The Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, and Crime Stoppers offered a $102,000 reward for information leading to the arrest of the perpetrator. The suspect, Raulie Casteel of Wixom, was arrested on November 5, 2012, and ordered to stand trial in 2013 in Oakland County for 60 charges in one case, with a second trial on terrorism and murder charges to be brought by the Michigan Attorney General. On October 30, 2013, the suspect pleaded no contest, but mentally ill, in the Oakland County case, and he was sentenced to serve anywhere from six years and eight months to 10 years in prison on multiple assault charges (as well as two concurrent years on weapons charges) for that case on February 4, 2014. The trial for the Livingston County case began on January 14, 2014, and after being convicted on the terrorism charge, Casteel was sentenced to 16 to 40 years in state prison.
|Muskegon||Norton Shores||0.000||0.000||1|| US 31 / LMCT south / Airline Road – Grand Haven, Ludington
Bus. US 31 north / LMCT north – Downtown Muskegon
|Signed as exits 1A (south) and 1B (north); freeway continues west as Bus. US 31; exit 110 on US 31|
|Fruitport Township||0.293||0.472||1C||Hile Road||Eastbound exit and entrance only; westbound access is at exit 1A|
|3.517||5.660||4||Airline Road – Fruitport|
|5.100||8.208||5||Fruitport Road – Fruitport||Westbound exit and eastbound entrance|
|9|| M-104 west – Grand Haven, Spring Lake
M-231 south (120th Avenue)
|Formerly directional access (eastbound to eastbound and westbound to westbound only), with eastbound exit signed as B-31, Nunica; new eastbound exit and westbound entrance built 2013, connecting to M-231; eastern terminus of M-104 and northern terminus of M-231|
|10.081||16.224||10||B-31 – Nunica||Converted to full interchange in late 2013; eastbound exit and westbound entrance were previously at exit 9|
|Coopersville||15.991||25.735||16||B-35 – Coopersville, Eastmanville||Westbound entrance via Randall Avenue|
|Wright Township||22.805||36.701||23||Marne||Eastbound access via Jackson Street; westbound access via Franklin Street|
|Tallmadge Township||23.939||38.526||24||M-11 – Walker, Grandville||Eastbound exit and westbound entrance; western terminus of M-11|
|24.215||38.970||25||8th Avenue, 4 Mile Road||Westbound exit and eastbound entrance; westbound access to M-11|
|Kent||Walker||26.430||42.535||26||Fruit Ridge Avenue|
|30.295||48.755||30||M-37 north (Alpine Avenue) – Newaygo||Western end of M-37 concurrency; signed as exits 30A (south) and 30B (north) westbound|
|31||US 131 (I-296 south) – Grand Rapids, Kalamazoo, Big Rapids, Cadillac||Signed as exits 31A (south) and 31B (north); northern terminus of unsigned I-296; exit 89 on US 131|
Conn. M‑44 north (Plainfield Avenue)
|Southern terminus of CONN M-44|
|37.073||59.663||37||I-196 (Gerald R. Ford Freeway) – Downtown Grand Rapids, Holland||Westbound exit and eastbound entrance; eastern terminus of I-196|
|37.801||60.835||38||M-37 south / M-44 (East Belt Line Avenue) to M-21||Eastern end of M-37 concurrency; M-21 signed westbound only|
|Grand Rapids Township||38.687–
|39||M-21 – Lowell, Flint||Eastbound exit and westbound entrance; missing connections at exit 38|
|40.014||64.396||40||Cascade Road – Cascade||Signed as exits 40A (west) and 40B (east); former US 16|
|Cascade Township||42.986||69.179||43||M-11 west (28th Street) – Cascade||Signed as exits 43A (west) and 43B (east); eastern terminus of M-11|
|44||36th Street||Signed as access to Gerald R. Ford International Airport|
|46||M-6 west – Holland||Eastern terminus of M-6|
|Lowell Township||52.303||84.174||52||M-50 east – Charlotte, Lowell||Western terminus of M-50|
|Ionia||Boston Township||58.912||94.810||59||Saranac, Clarksville||Saranac signed eastbound only|
|Berlin Township||64.429||103.688||64||Saranac, Lake Odessa||Saranac signed westbound only|
|67.427||108.513||67||M-66 – Ionia, Battle Creek|
|Orange Township||73.291||117.950||73||Portland Road, Grand River Avenue – Lyons, Muir||Portland Road signed eastbound only; Lyons and Muir signed westbound only|
|77.493||124.713||77||Grand River Avenue – Portland||Former BS I-96; Portland signed westbound only|
|Eagle Township||86.273||138.843||86||M-100 south (Wright Road) – Grand Ledge||Northern terminus of M-100|
|Watertown Township||89.670||144.310||89||I-69 east – Flint||Eastbound exit and westbound entrance; exit 81 on I-69|
|90.040||144.905||90||BL I-96 east (Grand River Avenue)||Western terminus of BL I-96; signed westbound as only Grand River Avenue|
|90.466||145.591||91||I-69 east – Flint||Westbound exit and eastbound entrance; western end of I-69 concurrency|
|Eaton||Delta Township||93.118||149.859||93||M-43 / BL I-69 east (Saginaw Highway) – Grand Ledge||Signed as exits 93A (west) and 93B (east)|
|95||I-496 east – Downtown Lansing||Western terminus of I-496|
|97||I-69 south – Fort Wayne||Eastern end of I-69 concurrency; exit 72 on I-69|
|98||Lansing Road||Signed as exits 98A (south) and 98B (north); former US 27|
|Ingham||Lansing||101.425||163.228||101||M-99 (M L King Boulevard) – Eaton Rapids|
|104||BL I-96 west (Cedar Street) – Holt||Indirect access to Cedar Street, requires exiting onto a trumpet interchange with Edgewood Boulevard; eastern terminus of BL I-96; signed eastbound as only Cedar Street|
|106||I-496 west / US 127 – Jackson, East Lansing, Downtown Lansing||Signed as exits 106A (south) and 106B (north); eastern terminus of I-496; exit 73 on US 127|
|Alaiedon Township||109.732||176.597||110||Okemos, Mason|
|Wheatfield Township||117.504||189.104||117||Dansville, Williamston||Signed as exits 117A (Dansville) and 117B (Williamston) eastbound|
|Webberville||121.914||196.202||122||M-43 / M-52 – Webberville, Stockbridge||Eastern terminus of M-43|
|Howell Township||133.305||214.534||133||M-59 / BL I-96 east (Highland Road) – Howell, Pontiac||Western terminus of BL I-96 and M-59; signage eastbound omits Highland Road; signage westbound omits BL I-96, Howell, and Pontiac|
|Howell||136.799||220.157||137||D-19 – Howell, Pinckney|
|Genoa Township||140.113||225.490||140||Latson Road||Announced on July 19, 2012 and opened December 2, 2013|
|141.218||227.268||141||BL I-96 west – Howell||Westbound exit and eastbound entrance from eastbound Grand River only; eastern terminus of BL I-96|
|Brighton||145.130||233.564||145||Grand River Avenue – Brighton||Signage westbound omits Brighton|
|Brighton Township||146.768||236.200||147||Spencer Road – Brighton||Spencer Road signed eastbound only; Brighton signed westbound only; connected to exit 148 westbound|
|148||US 23 – Ann Arbor, Flint||Signed as exits 148A (south) and 148B (north); exit 60 on US 23|
|149.458||240.529||150||Pleasant Valley Road||Westbound exit and eastbound entrance|
|Oakland||Lyon Township||152.887||246.048||153||Kent Lake Road – South Lyon||Only South Lyon signed eastbound|
|154.900||249.287||155||New Hudson, Milford||Signed as exits 155A (New Hudson) and 155B (Milford) westbound|
|160||Beck Road – Novi|
|162.413||261.378||162||Walled Lake, Novi, Northville||Northville signed eastbound only; Walled Lake signed westbound only|
|163.381||262.936||163|| I-696 east (Reuther Freeway) – Port Huron
M-5 east / Grand River Avenue
I-275 south – Toledo
|Northern end of I-275 concurrency; eastbound exit and westbound entrance; western terminus of I-696; exit 1 on I-696|
|163.818||263.640||164||M-5 north / 12 Mile Road||Westbound exit and eastbound entrance|
|Farmington Hills||164.964||265.484||165|| I-696 east (Reuther Freeway) – Port Huron
M-5 / Grand River Avenue
|Westbound exit and eastbound entrance; exit 1 on I-696|
|Farmington Hills–Livonia city line||167.383||269.377||167||8 Mile Road – Northville|
|Wayne||Livonia||168.440||271.078||169||7 Mile Road||Signed as exits 169A (west) and 169B (east) westbound|
|169.438||272.684||170||6 Mile Road|
|173|| I-275 south – Toledo
M-14 west – Ann Arbor
|Southern end of I-275 concurrency; no exit number eastbound, exit 30 on I-275 northbound; eastern terminus of M-14|
|Livonia||172.365||277.395||173||Newburgh Road, Levan Road||Signed as exits 173A (Newburgh Road) and 173B (Levan Road) westbound|
|176.374||283.846||176||Middle Belt Road|
|Redford Township||177.372||285.453||177||Inkster Road|
|179||US 24 (Telegraph Road)|
|180.465||290.430||Western end of express lanes|
|183||M-39 (Southfield Freeway)||Additional westbound exit and eastbound entrance on the express lanes; exit 11A on M-39|
|185||Schaefer Highway, Grand River Avenue (M-5 north)|
|186B||Davison Avenue (M-8)||Western terminus of M-8; no exits to westbound Davison Avenue or entrances from eastbound Davison Avenue|
|186.362||299.921||Eastern end of express lanes|
|186.996||300.941||187||Grand River Avenue||Eastbound exit and westbound entrance|
|188||Livernois Avenue, West Chicago Avenue, Joy Road||Signed as exits 188A (Livernois Avenue, West Chicago Avenue) and 188B (Joy Road) westbound|
|189||Tireman Avenue, West Grand Boulevard|
|190A||I-94 (Edsel Ford Freeway) – Port Huron, Chicago||Exit 213B on I-94|
|191||US 12 (Michigan Avenue) / M L King Jr. Boulevard|
|190.933||307.277||—|| I-75 north (Fisher Freeway) – Flint
M-10 (Lodge Freeway) – Civic Center
|Eastbound exit and westbound entrance; exit 48 on I-75|
|191.466||308.135||192A||Vernor Highway||Eastbound exit and westbound entrance|
|191.966||308.939||192B||Bridge to Canada||Eastbound exit and westbound entrance|
|192.032||309.046||—||I-75 south (Fisher Freeway) – Toledo||Eastbound exit and westbound entrance; exit 48 on I-75|
|1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi
I-96 has four related, auxiliary Interstate highways that connect the main freeway to downtowns and other cities. I-196 is a relatively long freeway spur, beginning at I-96 east of downtown Grand Rapids and heading west through downtown to Holland, and then south to I-94 near Benton Harbor. The unsigned I-296 connects I-96 north of downtown Grand Rapids with I-196 in downtown, and is signed as US 131. I-496 is a loop through downtown Lansing, which I-96 bypasses to the south, and I-696 is a northern bypass of Detroit, connecting I-96 in Novi with I-75 in Royal Oak and I-94 in St. Clair Shores.
There have been six business routes of Interstate 96 (I-96) in the US state of Michigan. There are two business loops designated Business Loop Interstate 96 (BL I-96): one through Lansing and one through Howell. Both follow the old route of US 16, with appropriate connections to I-96. There are three former business spurs that were designated Business Spur Interstate 96 (BS I-96). One connected to the carferry docks in Muskegon, running concurrently with part of Business US 31 (Bus. US 31) along former US 16, but it has been eliminated. The second spur ran into downtown Portland until it was decommissioned in 2007. Two routes in the Detroit area—a loop through Farmington and a spur into Detroit—both using Grand River Avenue, and meeting at the temporary end of I-96 near Purdue Avenue, were eliminated when I-96 was moved to the completed Jeffries Freeway in 1977. These Detroit-area business routes are still state-maintained as unsigned highways.
- "New Highway Signs". Holland Evening Sentinel. February 25, 1959. p. 1. OCLC 13440201.
- Michigan Department of Transportation & Michigan Center for Shared Solutions and Technology Partnerships (2009). MDOT Physical Reference Finder Application (Map). Michigan Department of Transportation. Retrieved June 30, 2012.
- Bureau of Transportation Planning (2008). "Traffic Monitoring Information System". Michigan Department of Transportation. Retrieved June 30, 2012.
- Michigan Department of Transportation (April 23, 2006). National Highway System, Michigan (PDF) (Map). Scale not given. Michigan Department of Transportation. Retrieved October 7, 2008.
- Natzke, Stefan; Neathery, Mike & Adderley, Kevin (September 26, 2012). "What is the National Highway System?". National Highway System. Federal Highway Administration. Retrieved January 1, 2013.
- Michigan Legislature (2001). "Rosa Parks Memorial Highway". Michigan Memorial Highway Act (Excerpt) Act 142 of 2001. State of Michigan. MCL 250.1098. Retrieved August 18, 2006.
- Barnett, LeRoy (2004). A Drive Down Memory Lane: The Named State and Federal Highways of Michigan. Allegan Forest, MI: Priscilla Press. pp. 120–1. ISBN 1-886167-24-9. OCLC 57425393.
- Michigan Department of Transportation (2012). Pure Michigan: State Transportation Map (Map). c. 1:975,000. Lansing: Michigan Department of Transportation. §§ K8–M13. OCLC 42778335, 794857350.
- Google (July 20, 2012). "Overview Map of Interstate 96" (Map). Google Maps. Google. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
- Staff Writer (August 15, 2011). "The Story of the 13 Weatherball". Walker, MI: WZZM-TV. Archived from the original on March 9, 2013. Retrieved March 9, 2013.
- Michigan Department of Transportation (2012). Pure Michigan: State Transportation Map (Map). c. 1:158,400. Lansing: Michigan Department of Transportation. Detroit Area inset. §§ C3–C7, C7–E7, E7–E11. OCLC 42778335, 794857350.
- DeSimone, Tony (October 31, 2002). "Table 2: Auxiliary Routes of the Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways as of October 31, 2002". Route Log and Finder List. Federal Highway Administration. OCLC 47914009. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
- Rand McNally (2013). "Michigan: Cities" (Map). The Road Atlas (2013 Walmart ed.). c. 1:316,800. Chicago: Rand McNally. p. 52. Detroit & Vicinity inset. §§ H3–J3. ISBN 0-528-00626-6. OCLC 773666955.
- Gavrilovich, Peter & McGraw, Bill (2000). The Detroit Almanac: 300 Years of Life in the Motor City. Detroit: Detroit Free Press. pp. 20–1. ISBN 978-0-937247-34-1. OCLC 45227386.
- Woodard, Sadie G. (1966). Grand River Road: A Traveler's View of a Historic Route that Traversed Early Michigan. Lansing, MI: Plane Tree Press. p. 12. OCLC 433271.
- Wayne County Department of Public Services. "Part I: An Indian Trail". History: The River Road. Wayne County Department of Public Services. Archived from the original on December 18, 2007. Retrieved September 6, 2010.
- Wayne County Department of Public Services. "Part II: A Military Road". History: The River Road. Wayne County Department of Public Services. Archived from the original on December 19, 2007. Retrieved September 6, 2010.
- Michigan Legislature (1915). "Chapter 91: State Reward Trunk Line Highways". In Shields, Edmund C.; Black, Cyrenius P. & Broomfield, Archibald. The Compiled Laws of the State of Michigan, Volume I. Lansing, MI: Wynkoop, Hallenbeck, Crawford. pp. 1868–72. OCLC 44724558. Retrieved January 24, 2012.
- "Michigan May Do Well Following Wisconsin's Road Marking System". The Grand Rapids Press. September 20, 1919. p. 10. OCLC 9975013.
- Michigan State Highway Department (July 1, 1919). State of Michigan (Map). Scale not given. Lansing: Michigan State Highway Department. Lower Peninsula sheet. OCLC 15607244.
- Barnett, LeRoy (2004). A Drive Down Memory Lane: The Named State and Federal Highways of Michigan. Allegan Forest, MI: Priscilla Press. p. 93. ISBN 1-886167-24-9. OCLC 57425393.
- Bureau of Public Roads & American Association of State Highway Officials (November 11, 1926). United States System of Highways Adopted for Uniform Marking by the American Association of State Highway Officials (Map). 1:7,000,000. Washington, DC: United States Geological Survey. OCLC 32889555. Retrieved November 7, 2013 – via University of North Texas Libraries.
- Public Roads Administration (c. 1943). Routes of the Recommended Interregional Highway System (Map). Scale not given. Washington, DC: Public Roads Administration. Retrieved May 10, 2008.
- Public Roads Administration (August 2, 1947). National System of Interstate Highways (Map). Scale not given. Washington, DC: Public Roads Administration. Retrieved May 10, 2008.
- American Association of State Highway Officials (August 14, 1957). Official Route Numbering for the National System of Interstate and Defense Highways (Map). Scale not given. Washington, DC: American Association of State Highway Officials. Retrieved May 10, 2008 – via Wikimedia Commons.
- Michigan State Highway Department (April 25, 1958). "Recommended Numbering: Interstate Highways in Michigan". Michigan State Highway Department. Archived from the original on November 21, 2003. Retrieved May 10, 2008.
- American Association of State Highway Officials (June 27, 1958). Official Route Numbering for the National System of Interstate and Defense Highways (Map). Scale not given. Washington, DC: American Association of State Highway Officials. Retrieved May 10, 2008 – via Wikimedia Commons.
- "Spring to Bring Debut for Interstate Road Numbering". The Herald-Press (St. Joseph, Michigan). Associated Press. January 8, 1959. p. 5. OCLC 10117184.
- "Road Plans Revised". Holland Evening Sentinel. June 30, 1956. p. 1. OCLC 13440201.
- Kelley, Frank E. (June 29, 2006). "Meeting Minutes" (PDF). Michigan State Transportation Commission. Retrieved May 10, 2008.
- "Expressway to Be Opened by Dec. 13". Ironwood Daily Globe. Associated Press. December 6, 1957. p. 10. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
- "Michigan Freeway Hits 1,000th Mile". The Milwaukee Sentinel. December 13, 1962. part 1, p. 12. ISSN 1052-4479. OCLC 11723897 – via Google News.
- "Drop US 16 Designation". Holland Evening Sentinel. April 14, 1962. p. 2. OCLC 13440201.
- Michigan State Highway Department (1964). Official Highway Map (Map). [c. 1:918,720]. Lansing: Michigan State Highway Department. §§ K7, M13. OCLC 12701120, 81213707.
- "Muskegon Freeway Link Number Change Sought". Holland Evening Sentinel. August 24, 1963. p. 1. OCLC 13440201.
- "New Numbers Seen for Road". Holland Evening Sentinel. October 23, 1963. p. 4. OCLC 13440201.
- "Lodge Road to be Opened". Holland Evening Sentinel. October 28, 1964. p. 5. OCLC 13440201.
- Kulsea, Bill & Shawver, Tom (1980). Making Michigan Move: A History of Michigan Highways and the Michigan Department of Transportation. Lansing, MI: Michigan Department of Transportation. p. 27. OCLC 8169232.
- Andrews, W. Earle. (1945). Detroit Expressway and Transit System. New York: Detroit Transportation Board. OCLC 7195393.
- United States nominal Gross Domestic Product per capita figures follow the Measuring Worth series supplied in Johnston, Louis; Williamson, Samuel H. (2016). "What Was the U.S. GDP Then?". MeasuringWorth. Retrieved April 10, 2016. These figures follow the figures as of 2015.
- "Detroit Will Stay Accessible During I-75 Shutdown". The Detroit News. January 18, 1999. ISSN 1055-2715. OCLC 137348716.
- Malo, Alger F. (January 1961). "The Relation of Mass Transportation to Total Transportation in Detroit". Traffic Quarterly. Vol. 15 no. 1 (New York: Eno Foundation for Highway Traffic Control). pp. 226–41. ISSN 0041-0713. OCLC 1695558.
- Michigan Department of State Highways (1970). Official Highway Map (Map). c. 1:158,400. Lansing: Michigan Department of State Highways. Detroit and Vicinity inset. § E8. OCLC 12701120.
- Michigan Department of State Highways (1971). Official Highway Map (Map). c. 1:158,400. Lansing: Michigan Department of State Highways. Detroit and Vicinity inset. § E8. OCLC 12701120, 77960415.
- Michigan Department of State Highways (1973). Official Highway Map (Map). c. 1:158,400. Lansing: Michigan Department of State Highways. Detroit and Vicinity inset. §§ E7–E8. OCLC 12701120, 81679137.
- Michigan Department of State Highways and Transportation (1974). Official Transportation Map (Map). c. 1:158,400. Lansing: Michigan Department of State Highways and Transportation. Detroit and Vicinity inset. §§ E7–E8. OCLC 12701177, 83138602.
- Milliken, William (1975). Economic Report of the Governor (Report). Lansing, MI: Office of the Governor. p. 37.
- Michigan Department of State Highways and Transportation (1977). Official Transportation Map (Map) (1976–77 ed.). c. 1:158,400. Lansing: Michigan Department of State Highways and Transportation. Detroit and Vicinity inset. §§ D5, E5–E5. OCLC 12701177.
- Michigan Department of State Highways and Transportation (1978). Official Transportation Map (Map) (1978–79 ed.). c. 1:158,400. Lansing: Michigan Department of State Highways and Transportation. Detroit and Vicinity inset. §§ D5, E5–E5. OCLC 12701177.
- Bureau of Public Roads (September 1955). "Detroit and Environs" (Map). General Location of National System of Interstate Highways Including All Additional Routes at Urban Areas Designated in September 1955. Scale not given. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. p. 41. OCLC 4165975. Retrieved September 6, 2010 – via Wikimedia Commons.
- Michigan State Highway Department (1964). I-96 Freeway Planning and Route Location Study, City of Detroit, Volume 1 (Report). Lansing: Michigan State Highway Department. p. 20.
- Michigan Department of Transportation (1984). Official Transportation Map (Map). c. 1:918,720. Lansing: Michigan Department of Transportation. § L11. OCLC 12701177.
- Michigan Department of Transportation (1985). Official Transportation Map (Map). c. 1:918,720. Lansing: Michigan Department of Transportation. § L11. OCLC 12701177.
- Michigan Department of Transportation (1986). Official Transportation Map (Map). c. 1:918,720. Lansing: Michigan Department of Transportation. § L11. OCLC 12701177.
- Michigan Department of Transportation (1987). Official Transportation Map (Map). c. 1:918,720. Lansing: Michigan Department of Transportation. § L11. OCLC 12701177.
- Debnar, Kari & Bott, Mark (January 14, 2002). "US 27 Designation Soon to Be Deleted from Michigan Highways" (Press release). Michigan Department of Transportation. Archived from the original on February 23, 2002. Retrieved March 14, 2012.
- Kalousdian, Aram (August 7, 2004). "Single Point Interchange Under Construction". Michigan Contractor and Builder (Reed Business Information). OCLC 761993683. Retrieved July 21, 2012. (subscription required)
- Bloemendaal, Dirk C. (September 2, 2006). "Interchange Improves Traffic Flow". Michigan Contractor and Builder (Reed Business Information). OCLC 761993683. Retrieved July 21, 2012. (subscription required)
- Kalousdian, Aram (November 3, 2008). "Wixom/I-96 Interchange Reconstructed". Michigan Contractor and Builder (Reed Business Information). OCLC 761993683. Retrieved July 21, 2012. (subscription required)
- Greenwood, Tom (July 19, 2012). "$32M Interchange Project OK'd for I-96 in Livingston County". The Detroit News. ISSN 1055-2715. OCLC 137348716. Archived from the original on July 19, 2012. Retrieved July 19, 2012.
- Behnan, Christopher (December 2, 2013). "Long-Awaited Latson Road Interchange Ready to Roll". Livingston County Daily Press & Argus (Howell, MI). Retrieved December 2, 2013.
- Anderson, Michelle D. (November 15, 2013). "M-231 Project Update: MDOT Opens Nearly All Lanes and Ramps at New I-96 Interchange". MLive (Booth Newspapers). Retrieved September 23, 2014.
- Abdel-Razzaq, Lauren (April 5, 2014). "The Driving Challenge Begins with I-96 Closure". The Detroit News. Retrieved April 6, 2014.
- Walker, Marlon A. (September 21, 2014). "Yay! I-96 Is Back in the Traffic Business". Detroit Free Press. Retrieved September 22, 2014.
- Peal, Wayne (February 25, 2015). "I-96/US 23 Interchange Work Set to Begin". Detroit Free Press. Retrieved April 15, 2015.
- Greenwood, Tom & Wilkinson, Mike (February 26, 2008). "Motorists Maneuver Through Gateway Project Maze". The Detroit News. pp. 1B, 5B. ISSN 1055-2715. OCLC 137348716. Retrieved October 29, 2012 – via NewsBank.
- "I-96 Closes from I-94 to Rosa Parks". The Detroit News. July 14, 2008. p. 2B. ISSN 1055-2715. OCLC 137348716. Retrieved June 6, 2013 – via NewsBank.
- Greenwood, Tom (September 6, 2008). "Closed Stretch of I-96 near Ambassador Bridge Reopens Early". The Detroit News. ISSN 1055-2715. OCLC 137348716. Retrieved June 6, 2013 – via NewsBank.
- Helms, Matt & Gallagher, John (January 12, 2012). "Mich. Billionaire, 84, Jailed over Bridge Dispute". USA Today. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
- Wattrick, Jeff T. (March 16, 2012). "MDOT Launches 'Getting Gateway to the Finish Line' Social Campaign". MLive (Detroit: Booth Newspapers). Retrieved October 29, 2012.
- Muller, David (September 20, 2012). "Detroit Neighborhoods to See Less Truck Traffic as $230 million Gateway Plaza Opens". MLive (Detroit: Booth Newspapers). Retrieved October 29, 2012.
- Phillips, Lauren (January 20, 2005). "Police Continue Investigation of Massive I-96 Accident". The State News (Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI). OCLC 6678066. Retrieved September 2, 2006.
- Dolan, Matthew (October 30, 2012). "Drivers Fear Sniper May Prowl Michigan Highway". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved October 30, 2012. (subscription required)
- Web Staff (October 29, 2012). "$102,000 Reward for Information Leading to I-96 Area Shooter". Detroit: WXYZ-TV. Archived from the original on March 9, 2013. Retrieved October 30, 2012.
- Dougovito, Lori (November 6, 2012). "Task Force Confirms Suspect Arrested in Highway Shootings". Flint, MI: WJRT-TV. Archived from the original on March 9, 2013. Retrieved November 6, 2012.
- Turk, John (May 30, 2013). "Jury Trial for Accused I-96 Corridor Shooter Postponed 5 Months". The Oakland Press (Pontiac, MI). Retrieved June 6, 2013.
- "I-96 Shooter Suspect's Trial Is in Nov.". Grand Rapids, MI: WOOD-TV. Associated Press. May 31, 2013. Retrieved June 6, 2012.
- AlHajal, Khalil (October 30, 2013). "Suspect in I-96 Shooting Spree Pleads No Contest to Some Charges, Still Faces Terrorism Trial". The Grand Rapids Press. Retrieved November 24, 2013.
- Williams, Corey (February 4, 2013). "Mich. highway shooter gets more than 6½ years". MSN News. Associated Press. Retrieved February 4, 2013.
- "Convicted I-96 Shooter Raulie Casteel Sentenced to 16 to 40 years in Prison for Terrorism". Detroit: WXYZ-TV. March 3, 2014. Retrieved March 5, 2014.
- Michigan Department of Transportation (1984). Official Transportation Map (Map). c. 1:190,080. Lansing: Michigan Department of Transportation. Muskegon inset. OCLC 12701177.
- Michigan Department of Transportation (1985). Official Transportation Map (Map). c. 1:190,080. Lansing: Michigan Department of Transportation. Muskegon inset. OCLC 12701177.
- Michigan Department of Transportation (October 31, 2007). "Contract Number 103107". Michigan Department of Transportation. Retrieved November 2, 2007. (registration required (. ))
- Michigan Department of Transportation (2014). Truck Operator's Map (Map). c. 1:221,760. Lansing: Michigan Department of Transportation. Detroit and Vicinity inset.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Interstate 96.|