|Member of the U.S. House of Representatives|
from Louisiana's 2nd district
January 3, 2009 – January 3, 2011
|Preceded by||William J. Jefferson|
|Succeeded by||Cedric Richmond|
|Born||Cao Quang Ánh|
March 13, 1967
Saigon, South Vietnam
|Education||Baylor University (BS)|
Fordham University (MA)
Loyola University, New Orleans (JD)
Ánh Quang "Joseph" Cao (// GOW; Vietnamese: Cao Quang Ánh; born March 13, 1967) is a Vietnamese American politician who was the U.S. Representative for Louisiana's 2nd congressional district from 2009 to 2011. He is a member of the Republican Party. In April 2011, Cao announced his candidacy for the office of Attorney General of Louisiana; however, in September 2011 he pulled out of the race, and the incumbent Buddy Caldwell ran unopposed for a second term.
He is the first Vietnamese American to serve in Congress, and the first and thus far only Republican from his New Orleans-based district since 1891. In December 2015, he announced that he would run for the open U.S. Senate seat being vacated by retiring fellow Republican David Vitter in 2016. He finished eleventh in the jungle primary and, as such, did not advance to the general election.
- 1 Early life and education
- 2 Law practice
- 3 U.S. House of Representatives
- 4 Political campaigns
- 5 Political Positions
- 6 Electoral history
- 7 Documentary
- 8 Personal life
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
Early life and education
Cao's father, My Quang Cao (1930–2010), was a lieutenant in the South Vietnamese Army and was captured by the North Vietnamese Army at the end of the Vietnam War in 1975. His mother, Khang Thi Tran (born 1935), did not immediately flee South Vietnam. She stayed with five of Cao's siblings and was allowed to visit her husband only five times during the seven years he was imprisoned in a Communist "re-education camp". Anh Cao was eight years old when he went to the United States in 1975 with two other siblings and an uncle as refugees. Once released, Cao's father joined his family in Houston, Texas, while suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder and diabetes.
Cao almost became a Roman Catholic priest. He graduated from Jersey Village High School in Houston. He then earned a Bachelor of Science degree in physics at Baylor University in Waco, Texas. He was a Jesuit seminarian for six years, but withdrew from his studies when he realized that the ministry was not his calling. He earned his Master of Arts in philosophy from Fordham University in New York City, and in 2000 his J.D. from Loyola University School of Law in New Orleans. While in law school, he also taught undergraduate courses in philosophy at Loyola.
Cao used his legal training and experience in immigration issues. He taught at a parochial school in Virginia and volunteered at Boat People SOS (BPSOS) to assist Vietnamese refugees and immigrants and help organize Vietnamese-American communities toward self-sufficiency. He served as a board member of BPSOS from September 1996 to March 2002. After working with Waltzer & Associates, Cao opened his own law practice specializing in immigration law. He decided to enter politics after seeing the government response to Hurricane Katrina, and soon became involved in leading New Orleans East residents to oppose a landfill.
U.S. House of Representatives
Cao was the first Vietnamese American, as well as the first native of Vietnam, to serve in US Congress, and the first Republican to serve in his district since 1890; his district usually votes overwhelmingly Democratic. Cao was the least affluent member of Louisiana's delegation in Congress: as of 2009 his assets were no greater than $195,000 and his potential liabilities mounted to $215,000, including student loans for himself and his wife.
Cao was sworn into office on January 6, 2009, with his family and a group of Vietnamese-Americans in attendance. After the swearing-in by Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, Jefferson Parish Judge Robert Murphy re-administered the oath in Cao's new office.
Despite the tardiness of the election date, Cao was able to set up his office and staff and to gain committee assignments for the 111th Congress. On March 24, 2009, 11 weeks to the day after he was sworn in as a new member, Cao delivered his first speech on the House floor—a statement supporting a bill by California Democrat Linda Sánchez to express congressional support of Welcome Home Vietnam Veterans Day.
Cao, with the support of congressional Republicans who collectively had an entitlement to 40 percent of earmarks for federal projects, soon set about to "bring home the bacon" for his district. His requested projects totaled $1.2 billion, approximately three times the average for the other six members of Louisiana's U.S. House delegation. Support by Louisiana's Democratic United States Senator Mary Landrieu and by lobbyist and former United States Representative Bob Livingston rendered several of the projects credible for congressional approval.
Livingston represented the adjoining First Congressional District of Louisiana from 1977 to 1998. Cao also showed interest in environmental issues, saying in a meeting at Loyola University New Orleans on April 16, 2009: "I recognize there is an issue of global warming that we have to address."
Cao was invited to a White House reception on April 23, 2009, at which time he presented the president with a letter requesting $490 million for post-Katrina restoration of New Orleans' Charity Hospital (FEMA had offered $150 million). Cao also spoke with Vice President Joe Biden regarding the recovery and met with White House social secretary Desiree Rogers.
In June 2010, Cao was one of only two Republicans to vote in favor of the DISCLOSE Act, intended to limit spending on political campaigns by corporations in the wake of the Supreme Court's decision in Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission. The bill requires added disclosure for political spending by corporations and prohibits some corporate political spending.
According to a 2011 survey by the National Journal, Cao was the most liberal Republican in the House. In 2009, he was one of seven Republicans who voted to publicly rebuke Representative Joe Wilson, Republican of South Carolina, for his outburst of "You lie!" against Obama during an address before a joint session of Congress.
The late date of Cao's election meant that he inherited Jefferson's office, 2113, in the Rayburn House Office Building, despite the difference in seniority. Writing in the Times-Picayune, Jonathan Tilove observed the notability of 2113 in the Rayburn Building due to its being, as Jefferson's former location, the only congressional office ever raided by the FBI. By the middle of February 2009 Cao had hired most of his staff.
In April 2009, Cao's district staff moved into what was reputed to be – by Kenner Mayor Ed Muniz – "Kenner's first-ever office for a sitting congressman". The office was formerly a storeroom in Kenner's Community Services Department at 624 Williams Boulevard (LA 49).
- Committee on Homeland Security
- Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure
- Committee on Oversight and Government Reform
Interest in Congressional Black Caucus
From the outset of Cao's congressional service, his relationship to the Congressional Black Caucus remained uncertain. George Mason University political scientist Michael K. Fauntroy described Cao's expressed interest in joining as "a very smart move".
It sends a message to black voters in his district that, even though he's a Republican, he is doing more than just paying lip service to the history of the district ... I don't expect it to work out, but if it doesn't, to me the caucus will look bad on this.
However, Cao was "rebuffed" by the Congressional Black Caucus in his attempt to join it despite representing a heavily black district.
Cao told the Times-Picayune that President Obama should receive a letter grade of "A" for his first 100 days in office. Cao cited as his reason for such a high mark Obama's "working with us in this whole recovery process" (in reference to Hurricane Katrina). 
Among the bills which came to the floor during Cao's first days in Congress, Cao voted against the Obama Administration's stimulus package. Cao justified his votes on expressed dissatisfaction that his 2nd congressional district of Louisiana ranked dead last among the 435 congressional districts in outlays provided by the legislation even though the district was one of the most seriously damaged by hurricanes. Cao's vote provoked a petition to recall him, which formally began on February 16, 2009. Louisiana Secretary of State Jay Dardenne and other Louisiana officials, as well as congressional analysts, perceived it as having little or no prospect of succeeding. Although the petition collected more than 13,000 signatures on the first day, it needed more than 100,000 within 180 days to fulfill Louisiana requirements. Congress has never removed, and has no constitutional provision to do, a member based on constituents' recall. Several leaders of the recall campaign, specifically the Reverends Samuel Butler and Toris Young, claimed to have been supporters of Cao, though Cao and his campaign manager Bryan Wagner, a former member of the New Orleans City Council, said they had never met them. After Louisiana Attorney General Buddy Caldwell issued an opinion that the state cannot recall federal officials, Butler and Young announced that they would pursue the matter in the federal courts. Young's ability to criticize Cao was mocked by Times-Picayune columnist James Gill because of Young's 11 convictions for fraud and identity theft.
On March 1, 2009, the Times-Picayune reported that Obama had tried to reach Cao on his cellphone prior to the vote on the stimulus package but was unsuccessful; Cao acknowledged that Obama "might have been persuasive" with a "concrete commitment" to help the 2nd district and New Orleans. Cao stated that the Obama administration's $410 billion omnibus spending bill for the final 7 months of Fiscal Year 2009 (ending September 30, 2009) "would provide important benefits for his 2nd Congressional District" and became one of 16 Republicans voting in favor of that bill.
Before the recall petition, a separate petition had been started to recall New Orleans City Councilwoman Stacy Head, who is white but represents a predominantly black constituency after defeating Jefferson protégé Renée Gill Pratt in 2006. Head, a Democrat, supported Cao in the election on December 6, 2008. James Gill defended Head's support for Cao (who is not white but Asian) and asserted it was based not on race but that "Jefferson ... is morally unfit for any public office." The petition to recall Head failed to meet its statutory deadline.
On February 25, 2009, Cao grabbed headlines by announcing that his staff members were investigating the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) office in New Orleans. Cao, whose aversive relationship with the agency had started during his time as a community activist for victims of Hurricane Katrina, accused FEMA of a host of malfeasance charges, including "widespread complaints of discrimination, sexual harassment, ethics violations, nepotism and cronyism." Cao conveyed his concerns to the Obama administration's Homeland Security Secretary Janet Napolitano, who promised that "we will obviously follow up." The next day Cao's call for the resignation of Doug Whitmer, head of FEMA's New Orleans office, was bolstered by United States Senator Mary Landrieu, whereupon the story spread on CBS News. Popular reaction quickly pervaded New Orleans blogsites, one of them calling its discussion FEMA having a Cao. On February 27, 2009, acting FEMA Director Nancy L. Ward replaced Whitmer with Tony Russell, previously an administrator in FEMA's Denver office. Ward stripped Jim Stark of his immediate responsibilities for Louisiana's FEMA district, leaving him as FEMA assistant administrator for Gulf Coast recovery. Cao had also been critical of John Connolly, FEMA chief for Gulf Coast public assistance, whom Stark cited as his source of information on "how much public-assistance money FEMA should approve for local projects" (in a congressional hearing with Cao on February 25, 2009). Connolly was previously with FEMA's Philadelphia office, and Cao asked rhetorically, "How many times has Philadelphia been hit by a hurricane?" On March 5, 2009, Cao joined Napolitano, Jindal, Housing and Urban Development Secretary Shaun Donovan, Louisiana Lieutenant Governor Mitch Landrieu, U.S. Representative Charlie Melancon, and other federal, state, and local officials on a tour of damaged areas in New Orleans, including the campus of Southern University at New Orleans (SUNO), where the group was led by SUNO President Victor Ukpolo. Eleven days later, on March 16, Cao again visited the SUNO campus, pledging full support of Ukpolo's mission to rebuild the campus. The seguing event on Cao's agenda during the same day was a fund-raising cocktail party at the home of bankers Stephen and Dana Hansel at which the admission contribution was $1000 a person and an unexpected guest was former Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich who was en route to lead a discussion in James Carville's political science class at Tulane University. The Times-Picayune, in an editorial on March 19, 2009, praised Ukpolo and Cao in their efforts to secure funding for restoration of SUNO's campus.
Formation of American Engagement Caucus
In January 2010, Cao partnered with Democratic Congressman Russ Carnahan of Missouri to create the American Engagement Caucus, its stated purpose being the promotion of a multilateral foreign policy in which the United States works closely with other countries to address global problems. As a joint editorial between the two congressmen stated, "We live in an age of interdependence. America's security, economic, environmental, and moral interests are inextricably linked with those of the international community. Simply put, it is in our vital national interest to support international engagement.".
Cao was the only Republican to vote for the draft Affordable Health Care for America Act (H.R. 3962) on November 7, 2009. Yet Cao, because of concerns of alleged public funding for elective abortion provisions, joined the rest of his party in opposing the final version, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.
Cao ran unsuccessfully as an independent for District 103 of the Louisiana House of Representatives. He was a delegate to the 2008 Republican National Convention during Hurricane Gustav, during which time his home was flooded. At the time of his election to Congress, Cao was a member of the Orleans Parish Board of Election Supervisors, appointed to the Board by Governor Bobby Jindal.
The situation, endorsements, campaign dynamics, and results gave the election significance far beyond the boundaries of the district.
Incumbent U.S. Representative William J. Jefferson won the Democratic primaries in 2008. Jefferson had weathered a major challenge in the Louisiana 2nd congressional district election, 2006, overcoming allegations that he had inappropriately used members of a Louisiana Army National Guard unit to reach his home during the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina.
In 2008 Jefferson also faced federal charges of bribery involving Nigerian business interests and was perceived as vulnerable, with only 25 percent of Democrats voting for him in the Democratic primary. Jefferson faced six African-American challengers, along with newscaster Helena Moreno. In a runoff primary, Jefferson defeated Moreno by 57 percent to 43 percent in a vote largely along racial lines. Unopposed for the Republican nomination, Cao ran against Jefferson, as did Green Party candidate Malik Rahim and Libertarian Party candidate Gregory Kahn. An earlier candidate, independent Jerry Jacobs, had withdrawn.
On November 30, the New Orleans Times-Picayune endorsed Cao in an editorial, while on its op-ed page columnist James Gill stated that Jefferson's reelection "is not going to happen". The prospect of a serious general election in the heavily African American and Democratic 2nd district was startling, as the last Republican to represent the district was Hamilton D. Coleman, who left office in 1891.
Cao's candidacy received the endorsements of the Alliance for Good Government, the Family Research Council's Action PAC, Jefferson Parish Sheriff Newell Normand, Louisiana Governor Bobby Jindal, Jacquelyn Brechtel Clarkson, Stacy Head, and singer/entertainer Pat Boone. In the final days of the campaign, Democrats Helena Moreno, who was defeated by Jefferson in the Democratic primary runoff election, and former District Attorney Harry Connick Sr. endorsed Cao and recorded telephone messages to be played to voters. New Orleans Mayor Ray Nagin announced his support for Jefferson during the Democratic primary elections. The New Orleans Gambit Weekly, citing its opposition to Jefferson's alleged corruption and to Cao's noncommittal statements on embryonic stem-cell research, made no endorsement.
The campaign was characterized by what Jefferson's campaign called "overly negative" tactics on behalf of Cao's campaign by outside organizations, such as the National Republican Congressional Committee. References were made to Democratic Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi's removal of Jefferson from the House Ways and Means Committee and entailed what USA Today termed a "barrage" of automated telephone calls, including from a woman who identified herself as "Katy" and who cited Jefferson's federal indictment on 16 counts of corruption. In a meeting of African-American ministers, Reverend Samuel Butler claimed the reason was to "disenfranchise" African-American voters, which motivated Cao advisor and political mentor, former New Orleans City Council member Bryan Wagner to reply: "with Rev. Butler's imagination, he may want to go to work for Walt Disney."
On December 6, the Times-Picayune reiterated its endorsement of Cao, pointing to President-elect Barack Obama's efforts on behalf of Democrat Paul Carmouche in the simultaneous election in Louisiana's 4th congressional district and Obama's non-involvement in efforts to support Jefferson.
Unofficial results on the Louisiana Secretary of State's web site showed Cao with 33,122 (49.55%), Jefferson 31,296 (46.82%), Kahn 548 (0.82%), and Rahim 1,880 (2.81%). Jefferson won by 23,197 to 20,246 in Orleans Parish, where 21 of the 392 precincts showed zero votes for Cao. Cao, however, more than made up the difference with a margin of 12,696 to the incumbent's 8,099 in Jefferson Parish. A post-election map analysis by the Times-Picayune showed the election result as having depended on higher turnout in the precincts favorable to Cao.
After speaking by telephone 4 days after the election, on December 31, 2008, Wednesday, Jefferson and Cao met cordially at the home of New Orleans' Liberty Bank CEO Alden McDonald to discuss the transition.
Cao became the first Vietnamese-American elected to Congress. Cao's win made the 2nd District by far the most Democratic district in the nation to be represented by a Republican; the district has a Cook Partisan Voting Index of D+28. Obama carried the district with 74 percent of the vote, his 35th-best performance in the country and his fifth best in a Southern district.
Cao's victory over a tainted incumbent became a cause for celebration among many in Louisiana. Wrote Jeff Crouere in his column Ringside Politics, "The victory strikes a major blow against the reputation of Louisiana as a corrupt state".
House GOP members were particularly vocal in their glee over Cao's defeat of the Democratic incumbent. Among many other statements, House minority leader John Boehner asserted Cao's win was "a symbol of our future" in a memorandum with "The Future Is Cao" as its subject line.
By most accounts, Cao faced nearly impossible odds for reelection, owing to the district's overwhelming Democratic tilt. Indeed, many pundits likened Cao to Michael Patrick Flanagan, who ousted scandal-plagued House Ways and Means Committee chairman Dan Rostenkowski in 1994, only to be roundly defeated for reelection in his heavily Democratic Chicago-based district by future Governor Rod Blagojevich.
In his reelection bid, Cao was soundly defeated by Democratic nominee State Representative Cedric Richmond, an African American. Other candidates included Independents Ron Austin, Anthony K. Marquize, and Jack Radosta. Cao had the support of several of New Orleans' prominent Democrats, including Councilwoman Stacy Head, Assessor Erroll Williams, and State Representative Juan LaFonta (who had lost the Democratic Party's nomination to Richmond), but the vote fell on racial lines.
Representative Joseph Cao is a moderate Republican. He is "a grassroots activist and social progressive who believes in immigration reform, gay rights, and government services for the poor, who is also an adamantly pro-life Catholic that allied himself with the Republican Party". "He says he considers himself a moderate, fiscally conservative Republican." The non-partisan National Journal gave him a composite score of 57% conservative and 43% liberal in 2010. The American Conservative Union, a political action committee or PAC, gave Cao a lifetime score of 42% conservative. Americans for Democratic Action, a progressive PAC, gave him a 45% liberal quotient.
He broke with his party by voting with Democrats in favor of the Affordable Health Care for America Act which included a public option for health care. However, Cao voted against the Affordable Care Act, colloquially called Obamacare, because of concerns about abortion. He had also been one of 29 Republicans who voted with Democrats in favor of the re-authorization of the Children's Health Insurance Program.
Cao was one of five House Republicans who voted with Democrats to repeal of Don't Ask Don't Tell in May 2010. He was one of 15 Republicans who joined Democrats and voted in favor of the final repeal of Don't Ask Don't Tell in December, 2010.
Louisiana State Representative, 103rd Representative District, 2007
Threshold > 50%
|Reed S. Henderson||Democratic||1,376 (22%)||Runoff|
|Mark Madary||Republican||1,188 (19%)||Runoff|
|"Mike" Bayham||Republican||1,154 (18%)||Defeated|
|Clay Cosse||Republican||1,144 (18%)||Defeated|
|Anh "Joseph" Cao||Independent||895 (14%)||Defeated|
|"Rob" Ruffino||Democratic||609 (10%)||Defeated|
|Reed S. Henderson||Democratic||3,143 (52%)||Elected|
|Mark Madary||Republican||2,858 (48%)||Defeated|
U. S. Representative, 2nd Congressional District, 2008
|Anh "Joseph" Cao||Republican||33,132 (50%)||Elected|
|Bill Jefferson||Democratic||31,318 (47%)||Defeated|
U. S. Representative, 2nd Congressional District, 2010
|Cedric Richmond||Democratic||83,705 (65%)||Elected|
|Anh "Joseph" Cao||Republican||43,378 (33%)||Defeated|
On January 3, 2013, the Public Broadcasting Service aired the documentary "Mr. Cao Goes to Washington", directed by S. Leo Chiang. The film tracks Cao's brief tenure in Washington, D.C., as the first Vietnamese American elected to Congress.
Cao is married to Hieu Phuong "Kate" Hoang. The couple has two daughters and resides in New Orleans' Venetian Isles neighborhood. Kate and Joseph met in 1998 at the Mary Queen of Vietnam Catholic Church in New Orleans East and the family has attended there since. After the 2008 election, Kate, an alumna of the Xavier University of Louisiana College of Pharmacy and a registered pharmacist, resigned from her position at a New Orleans Walgreens pharmacy.
A devout Roman Catholic, Cao served as a board member for Mary Queen of Vietnam Catholic Church's Community Development Corporation which assists Vietnamese-Americans with hurricane relief. Cao is a member of the National Advisory Council of the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops.
- Vietnamese in New Orleans
- List of Asian Americans and Pacific Islands Americans in the United States Congress
- Halloran, Liz (December 10, 2008). "Once Snubbed By GOP, Now Hailed As Its Future". National Public Radio. Retrieved December 10, 2008.
- [dead link]
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- O'Brien, Soledad (November 2, 2010). "First Vietnamese-American congressman fights to keep his seat". CNN. Retrieved November 3, 2010.
- "Q & A: Rep. Larry Kissell and Rep. Anh "Joseph" Cao". C-SPAN. January 11, 2009. Retrieved November 30, 2014.
- "Video News". CNN.com. Retrieved 2017-07-10.
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- Tilove, Jonathan (June 26, 2009). "Fiscal watchdog Scalise has big credit card debt: Delegation's assets, liabilities detailed". Times-Picayune. p. A10. Retrieved June 26, 2009.
- Tilove, Jonathan (January 6, 2009). "Cao Makes Splash". Times-Picayune. p. A1, A5. Retrieved November 8, 2009.
- In the speech, which was broadcast on C-SPAN, Cao said, of Vietnam War veterans:
- I am pleased that I, a direct beneficiary of their service, can take part ... in this historic event.
- Tilove, Jonathan (April 15, 2009). "Rep. Anh 'Joseph' Cao seeks heaping helping of pork". Times-Picayune. Retrieved 2009-11-10.
- Cao, quoted in Molly Read, Carbon credits may fund coastal work, Times-Picayune, April 17, 2009, Saint Tammany Edition, pp. C6-C7. The quotation appears on p. C7. Web version = Wetlands restoration touted at panel discussion on climate change. Cf. Bruce Alpert, l Louisiana has much at stake in debate to reduce greenhouse emmissions Times-Picayune, April 16, 2009.
- Tilove, Jonathan (April 24, 2009). "The following article is part of our archive Cao hands Obama letter on Charity Pitch on recovery made at reception". Times-Picayune. Retrieved 2009-11-10.
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- House Admonishes Wilson on Outburst, New York Times, September 15, 2009, //thecaucus.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/09/15/blogging-the-house-action-on-wilson/
- Jonathan Tilove, "Cao's Star Already Rising in D.C." (Times-Picayune, January 5, 2009, Metro Edition, pp. A1, A4; URL retrieved January 11, 2009).
- "Cao Settles on Legislative Director" in Times-Picayune, January 11, 2009, Metro Edition, p. A10; Bruce Alpert & Jonathan Tilove, "Cao Rounding Out Washington Staff" in Times-Picayune, February 8, 2009; Bruce Alpert & Jonathan Tilove's "Tulane Law Graduate Gets Job with Cao" in Times-Picayune, February 1, 2009, p. A12.
- Cao carves out space for Kenner constituents, Times-Picayune, April 19, 2009, Metro Edition, p. A17 (for web version go to Bruce Alpert & Jonathan Tilove's "On the Hill" and scroll down).
- Gerard Shields, "Lawmakers Get Assignments" in the Advocate (Baton Rouge) (accessed January 12, 2008); cf. the earlier article by Jonathan Tilove, "Cao Learns Which Panels He'll Get" in Times-Picayune, January 9, 2008 Metro Edition, p. A4, which mentioned Cao's desire to take the seat previously occupied by Jefferson on the Ways & Means Committee, which would have been a long shot for a freshman; instead, Charles Boustany, a Republican reelected from Louisiana's 7th congressional district, was assigned to Ways & Means.
- Fauntroy, quoted by Jonathan Tilove in the Times-Picayune, December 19, 2008, p. A15 (Tilove's entire article "Cao Tries to Crack Black Caucus" appears on pp. A1 and A15 of the Saint Tammany Edition).
- Alpert, Bruce; Tilove, Jonathan (2010-09-19). "Richmond featured at Emerging Leaders meeting". Times-Picayune (Metro Edition). New Orleans. p. A14.
- Jonathan Tilove, "Obama's first 100 days are graded on a curve" in Times-Picayune (New Orleans), April 29, 2009, Saint Tammany Edition, pp. A1, A6 (the Cao quotation appears twice on p. A1); web version = "Louisiana's congressional delegation grades President Obama's first 100 days from A to L"
- Jonathan Tilove, "Effort to recall representative faces long odds" in Times-Picayune, February 19, 2009, Saint Tammany Edition, p. A3.
- Michelle Krupa, "Recall reports 13,000 signees" in Times-Picayune, February 20, 2009, Saint Tammany Edition, p. A4. See also Bob Warren, Recall petitions face big obstacles Archived 2011-06-04 at the Wayback Machine. in Times-Picayune, February 21, 2009, Saint Tammany Edition, p. B5.
- Group Says It Will Seek Cao Recall In Federal Courts, WDSU-TV Channel 6, New Orleans, March 5, 2009 (accessed March 6, 2009).
- Cao critic has own worries, Times-Picayune, March 8, 2009, Metro Edition, p. B5. On January 14, 2010, Young was again indicted, this time on bank fraud charges, by a grand jury of the United States District Court for the Southern District of Mississippi (Paul Purpura, Controversial pastor in new legal jam: Alleged bank scam follows 2006 plea in Times-Picayune, 2010 January 15, Saint Tammany Edition, pp. B1, B2).
- Bruce Alpert & Jonathan Tilove, Cao phone too busy for the president Archived 2011-05-23 at the Wayback Machine., Times-Picayune, March 1, 2009, Metro Edition, p. A13.
- Bruce Alpert & Jonathan Tilove, Cao on board with Demo spending bill Archived 2011-05-23 at the Wayback Machine., Times-Picayune, March 1, 2009, Metro Edition, p. A13.
- James Gill, Of all the accusations against Stacy Head, only one sticks – she's white, Times-Picayune, March 18, 2009, Saint Tammany Edition, p. B5.
- Frank Donze & Michelle Krupa, "Head hunters miss the mark in recall attempt" in Times-Picayune, May 9, 2009, Saint Tammany Edition, p. B3).
- Jonathan Tilove, N.O. recovery office probed: Employees' complaints crippling, Times-Picayune, February 26, 2009, Saint Tammany Edition, pp. A1, A6.
- Tilove, ibid.
- Bruce Alpert & Jonathan Tilove, Landrieu, Cao call for FEMA official's resignation; Jonathan Tilove & Bruce Alpert, FEMA office chief is urged to quit, Times-Picayune, February 27, 2009, Saint Tammany Edition, pp. A1, A13; Gerard Shields, N.O. FEMA chief should resign, Landrieu, Cao say, Advocate (Baton Rouge), February 27, 2009, p. 1A, 4A (web version = Landrieu, Cao: N.O. FEMA chief should resign). Cao additionally called for the resignation of Jim Stark, director of FEMA's Louisiana office.
- Pace, Gina (2009-02-26). "La. Sen. Landrieu Demands FEMA Resignation". CBS News. Retrieved 2017-07-10.
-  Archived 2011-06-04 at the Wayback Machine.
- Gwen Filosa, Local FEMA leaders reassigned: National chief in N.O. probing complaints, Times-Picayune, February 28, 2009, Saint Tammany Edition, pp. A1, A8.
- Filosa, February 28, 2009, p. A8.
- Cao, quoted in Filosa, February 28, 2009, p. A8.
- John Pope & Katy Reckdahl, Obama aides vow to speed recovery, Times-Picayune, March 6, 2009, pp. A1, A9. Allen M. Johnson Jr., 2 Cabinet members tour N.O., vow to boost recovery, Advocate (Baton Rouge), March 6, 2009.
- John Pope, Cao vows to help SUNO's recoveryCao vows to help SUNO's recovery: FEMA rejects plan for move to high ground, Times-Picayune, March 17, 2009, Saint Tammany Edition, p. B3.
- Jonathan Tilove, Gingrich backs Cao at fundraiser: He offered support after improbable win, Times-Picayune, March 17, 2009, Saint Tammany Edition, p. A4.
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- Michelle Krupa, "Newcomer Hopes to Unseat Jefferson: Republican Lawyer Vows to Restore Ethics", Times-Picayune (New Orleans), December 1, 2008, pp. A1, A4
-  Archived 2008-12-10 at the Wayback Machine.
- Michelle Krupa (with Frank Donze), "2 Candidates Offer Alternative Views," Times-Picayune, December 2, 2008, pp. A6, A7 Archived December 11, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Cao for Congress". The Times-Picayune. November 30, 2008. Archived from the original on December 19, 2008. Retrieved December 20, 2008.
- Gill, James (November 30, 2008). "Polls Apart". The Times-Picayune. Archived from the original on December 10, 2008. Retrieved December 20, 2008.
- Nossiter, Adam (December 7, 2008). "History and Amazement in House Race Outcome". The New York Times. Retrieved December 20, 2008.
- Krupa, Michelle; Donze, Frank (December 4, 2008). "Sea of early New Orleans voters dries up". The Times-Picayune. Archived from the original on December 20, 2008. Retrieved December 20, 2008.
- "For Congress: No Endorsement". Gambit Weekly. December 1, 2008. Retrieved December 20, 2008.
- "Louisiana: McCain" in New York Times, November 6, 2008 (accessed May 5, 2009).
- "Voters oust indicted U.S. Rep. Jefferson". USAToday.com. Associated Press. December 7, 2008. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved December 20, 2008.
- Krupa, Michelle (December 5, 2008). "Tension rises as finale nears in 2nd". The Times-Picayune. Retrieved December 20, 2008.
- "Why today's election matters". The Times-Picayune. December 6, 2008. p. B4. Archived from the original on December 10, 2008. Retrieved December 20, 2008.
- "Louisiana Secretary of State Multi-Parish Elections Inquiry". Louisiana Secretary of State. December 6, 2008. Retrieved December 20, 2008.[dead link] These results remained the same on becoming "official" after promulgation by the Jefferson Parish Board of Election Supervisors, the Orleans Parish Board of Election Supervisors, and the State Board of Election Supervisors.
- "Louisiana Election Results for the U.S. House". CNN.com. December 7, 2008. Retrieved December 20, 2008.
- "Louisiana Secretary of State Election Results by Precinct U.S. Representative, 2nd Congressional District Orleans Parish". Louisiana Secretary of State. December 6, 2008. Retrieved December 20, 2008.[dead link]
- "Louisiana Secretary of State Election Results by Precinct U. S. Representative, 2nd Congressional District Jefferson Parish". Louisiana Secretary of State. Retrieved December 20, 2008.[dead link]
- "How Cao Did It" (JPG). NOLA.com. December 2008. Retrieved December 20, 2008.
- McDonald and fellow Jefferson supporters, the Rev. Tom Watson and Jefferson's campaign manager and former chief of staff, Eugene Green, attended the December 31, 2008 meeting. With Cao at the meeting was former Appeals Court Judge David Williams. Jonathan Tilove, "Cao's Star Already Rising in D.C." (Times-Picayune, January 5, 2009, Metro Edition, pp. A1, A4; URL retrieved January 11, 2009).
- Alexander Burns, "Top 10 Political Upsets of 2008" posted December 29, 2008 retrieved January 7, 2009. Cao was supposed to be interviewed on Fox News' Hannity & Colmes but was repeatedly bumped by news stories related to Rod Blagojevich and Caylee Anthony. Cao was, however, interviewed on C-SPAN, broadcast January 11, 2009. See "Dance Cart a Little Too Full for Cao on Fox News Show" (retrieved January 12, 2008) in Times-Picayune, January 11, 2008, Metro Edition, p. A10.
- Before Cao, the last Republican to represent a majority African-American congressional district was white attorney Webb Franklin for Mississippi's 2nd congressional district from 1983 to 1987. The last black Republican to represent a district with an African-American majority was Oscar Stanton De Priest, whose career representing Illinois' 1st congressional district ended in 1935. Besides numerous examples during the Reconstruction era and its aftermath, in the 20th century black Republicans Edward Brooke, Gary Franks, and J. C. Watts represented largely non-black constituencies in Congress.
- "Holy Cao, Louisiana Makes History". Daily Star. Hammond, Louisiana. December 16, 2008. p. 4A.
- Grace, Stephanie (December 14, 2008). "Gleeful GOP mobs Cao bandwagon". Times-Picayune. p. B5. Retrieved December 20, 2008. On March 27, 2009, Boehner participated in a fund-raising effort for Cao in New Orleans (Jonathan Tilove, 'Future is Cao' author visits Times-Picayune, March 28, 2009, Saint Tammany Edition, p. A2).
- Jefferson goes down. The Economist, 2008-12-08.
- Donze, Frank (2010-10-13). "Assessor hands Cao his nod from afar". Times-Picayune. p. A7. Retrieved 2010-10-13. Donze, Frank (2010-10-15). "Cao's vote on health care front and center at forum: Cao talks up Obama ties; another Democrat for Cao". Times-Picayune (Saint Tammany Edition). p. A2. Retrieved 2010-10-15.
- Fitzgerald, Sara (2013-10). Peterson, Elly (1914-2008), Republican Party leader and women's rights activist. American National Biography Online. Oxford University Press. Check date values in:
- CNN, By Tristan Smith. "Attorney hopes to become first Vietnamese in Congress - CNN.com". www.cnn.com. Retrieved 2018-07-12.
- "Joseph Cao's Ratings and Endorsements". votesmart.org.
- "Former US Rep. Cao enters Senate race in Louisiana". The Seattle Times. 2016-03-01. Retrieved 2018-07-12.
- Sarlin, Benjamin (2010-10-29). "Obama's Favorite Republican Joseph Cao On the Ropes". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 2018-07-12.
- "House passes historic health bill". POLITICO. Retrieved 2018-07-12.
- "'Mr. Cao' Recalls Rookie Congressman's Unlikely Rise". NPR.org. Retrieved 2018-07-12.
- Herszenhorn, David M. "Louisiana Republican Breaks Ranks on Health Bill". Retrieved 2018-07-12.
- Staff, The Hill (2010-05-28). "House votes to repeal 'Don't ask, don't tell' policy on gay service members". TheHill. Retrieved 2018-07-12.
- Willis, Derek. "Repeals 'Don't Ask, Don't Tell' - H.R.2965: Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act of 2010". ProPublica. Retrieved 2018-08-08.
- "Election Results". Louisiana Secretary of State. Archived from the original on January 17, 2009. Retrieved December 20, 2008.
- "Mr. Cao Goes to Washington". nola.com. Retrieved December 1, 2012.
- Tilove, Jonathan (2012-03-24). "'Mr. Cao Goes to Washington,' wins favorable review in Variety". Times-Picayune. Retrieved 2012-05-08.
- Michelle Krupa and Frank Donze. "Anh 'Joseph' Cao beats Rep. William Jefferson in 2nd Congressional District" (The Times-Picayune, December 6, 2008, Saturday, 11:40 pm CST, for paper publication the following day).
- Peter Finney, "Mr. Cao Goes to Washington as First Vietnamese-American in Congress" reported by the Catholic News Service on December 16, 2008.
- "The Candidate" by Michelle Krupa, Times-Picayune, December 8, 2008, p. A2
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-12-11. Retrieved 2008-12-08. MQVNCDC
- "Newshorn.com". Newshorn.com. Retrieved 2017-07-10.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Joseph Cao.|
- Joseph Cao for Congress official campaign website
- Appearances on C-SPAN
- Biography at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
- Profile at Vote Smart
- Financial information (federal office) at the Federal Election Commission
|U.S. House of Representatives|
William J. Jefferson
| Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Louisiana's 2nd congressional district
|111th||Senate: M. Landrieu | D. Vitter||House: R. Alexander | C. Boustany | C. Melancon | S. Scalise | J. Cao | B. Cassidy | J. Fleming|