Mississippi's 2nd congressional district (MS-2) is the only majority-black district in the state, covering much of western Mississippi. The district includes most of Jackson, the riverfront cities of Greenville and Vicksburg, and the interior market cities of Clarksdale, Greenwood, and Clinton. The district is approximately 275 miles (443 km) long, 180 miles (290 km) wide and borders the Mississippi River; it encompasses much of the Mississippi Delta, and a total of 15 counties and parts of several others.
From statehood to the election of 1846, Mississippi elected representatives at-large statewide on a general ticket.
Following Reconstruction and the Democratic Party's regaining control of the state legislature, it redefined congressional districts to try to reduce Republican voting strength, which dominated in the Delta. Most blacks were covered by a 'shoestring' Congressional district running the length of the Mississippi River, leaving five other districts with white majorities. With passage of the 1890 constitution and other measures, the Democratic-dominated legislature effectively disfranchised most blacks and poor whites for decades, subduing the Republican and Populist movements.
The districts have been redefined over the years to reflect populations changes in the state, and districts 5 through 8 were reallocated to the 1st, 3rd and 4th. The 2nd, bounded by the Mississippi River on the west, continues to have a black-majority population. Since the 20th century southern realignment of political parties, African-American residents here have consistently supported Democratic party candidates.