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Kaduna State

Coordinates: 10°20′N 7°45′E / 10.333°N 7.750°E / 10.333; 7.750
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Kaduna State
Flag of Kaduna State
Seal of Kaduna State
Location of Kaduna State in Nigeria
Location of Kaduna State in Nigeria
Coordinates: 10°20′N 7°45′E / 10.333°N 7.750°E / 10.333; 7.750
Country Nigeria
Date created27 May 1967
 • BodyGovernment of Kaduna State
 • Governor[2]Uba Sani (APC)
 • Deputy GovernorHadiza Sabuwa Balarabe
 • LegislatureKaduna State House of Assembly
 • Chief JudgeTukur Mu’azu
 • National Assembly delegationSenators:

Representatives: List
 • Total46,053 km2 (17,781 sq mi)
 • Rank4th of 36
 (2006 census)1
 • Total6,113,503[1]
 • Estimate 
 • Rank4th of 36
 • Year2021
 • Total$27.88 billion[4]
11th of 36
 • Per capita$2,905[4]
14th of 36
Time zoneUTC+01 (WAT)
postal code
ISO 3166 codeNG-KD
HDI (2021)0.511[5]
low · 25th of 37
^1 Preliminary results

Kaduna State (Hausa: Jihar Kaduna, جىِهَر كَدُنا; مدينة كدونا; Fula: Leydi Kaduna, 𞤤𞤫𞤴𞤣𞤭 𞤳𞤢𞤣𞤵𞤲𞤢; Tyap: Si̱tet Ka̱duna) is a state in the northwest geopolitical zone of Nigeria. The state capital is its namesake, the city of Kaduna, which was the 8th largest city in the country as of 2006. Created in 1967 as North-Central State, which also encompassed the modern Katsina State, Kaduna State achieved its current borders in 1987. Kaduna State is the fourth largest and third most populous state in the country, Kaduna State is nicknamed the Centre of Learning, owing to the presence of numerous educational institutions of importance within the state such as Ahmadu Bello University.[6]

Modern Kaduna State is home to the sites of some of Africa's oldest civilizations, including the Nok civilization that prospered from c.1500 BC to c.500 AD.[7][8] In the 9th century, geographer and historian Ya'qubi documented the existence of the Hausa Kingdoms, which existed until the region was incorporated into the Sokoto Caliphate in the early 1800s. During the colonial era, the city of Kaduna was made the capital of Northern Nigeria Protectorate by British leadership.

The state economy is dependent on agriculture, especially cotton and groundnut production.[6][9][10] In the modern era, Kaduna State has been the site of violent ethnic and religious conflict,[11] with the 2002 Miss World riots in the state capital over purported blasphemy leading to around 250 deaths and the loss of homes for around 30,000.[12]


The most widespread etymology for the word Kaduna is that, it is a corruption of the Hausa plural for crocodile, kadduna, as there used to be many crocodiles in the Kaduna River.[6]

Another version of the etymology of the name is a narrative linked to the Gbagyi word/name 'Odna' for the Kaduna River.[13]


Zazzau, a traditional state which lies within the province's capital, is said to have been founded in 1536. It would later be renamed to Zaria after the younger sister of Queen Amina.[14] The Hausa people of Zaria are said to be the old ancestral of the region.[15][16][clarification needed]

It is indicative that the name, Kaduna, was taken up by Lord Frederick Lugard and his colonial colleagues when they moved the capital of the then Northern Region from Zungeru to Kaduna City in 1916. This move of the colonial office to Kaduna city started in 1912–1918/20, with the initial effort having been made in 1902 from Jebba to Zungeru.[17]

At the start of British colonial rule in northern Nigeria, the people groups who lived in the area became 'Northern Nigerians'- a construct which continues even today. By 1967 these people groups again carved into 'North Central State'; this was the case until 1975 that 'Kaduna State' was formerly created by the then military leader, Gen. Murtala Mohammed, with all distinct identities amalgamated into one state without a referendum. The state hence is the successor of the old Northern Region of Nigeria, which had its capital at Kaduna which is now the state capital to about 6.3 million people (Nigerian census figure, 2006).

In 1967, the old Northern Region was divided into six states in the north, leaving Kaduna as the capital of North-Central State, whose name was changed to Kaduna State in 1976. Meanwhile, Kaduna State was further divided in 1987, creating Katsina State. Under the governance of Kaduna are the ancient cities of Zaria, Kafanchan, and Nok. The most intriguing aspect of this area is that the colonial construction and its post-colonial successor called 'Nigeria' hardly documented the history or the method of how Kaduna State's people groups encompassed in these constructs define and identify themselves. As such, the people groups who populate the area have lived in near oblivion or obscurity as they are often thought of as Hausa people.[citation needed] In 2019 Kaduna State celebrated its 100-year anniversary, making it one of the oldest states in Nigeria.[18]

In 2021, Kaduna State was the site of several major attacks done by bandits involved in the Nigerian bandit conflict. On 24 February, at least 34 were killed in attacks in Kaduna and neighboring Katsina state.[19] On 11 March, 39 students were kidnapped when gunmen attacked the Federal College of Forestry Mechanization.[20] On 20 April, in another raid by bandits on Greenfield University students and staff, 22 were kidnapped and 6 of them were killed.[21] On 5 July, a further 140 students were kidnapped from Bethel Baptist High School.[22] Attacks have continued into 2022,[23][24] 2023,[25][26] and 2024.[27][28]


Kaduna River

The state is located at the Northern part of Nigeria's high plains. The vegetation cover is Sudan Savannah type, characterized by scattered short trees, shrubs and grasses. The soil is mostly loamy to sandy. A substantial amount of clay is found also.

Its northern half became Katsina state in 1987. The state is bordered by seven states: Zamfara for 117 km (73 miles) and Katsina for 161 km (100 miles) to the north, Kano to the north-east for 255 km, Bauchi and Plateau to the east, Nasarawa and Abuja Federal Capital Territory (for 45 km) to the south, and Niger to the west.[29] The Kaduna state is located between latitude 10°38'58" N and 10°25'36" N and to longitude 7°22'14" E and 7°32'00" E.[30]

The state was ranked number four by total area of land and number three by population.[31]

The Kaduna River, a tributary of the Niger River, flows through the state. There are rocky stones in Zaria and Kogoro Hill. Many communities are prone to seasonal flooding during the rainy season.[32]


The rainy season in Kaduna is hot, humid, and cloudy, while the dry season is hot and partly cloudy. Throughout the year, the temperature rarely falls below 50 °F or rises above 102 °F, usually ranging between 55 °F and 95 °F.[33]


The current governor of Kaduna state is legally under the control of Kaduna State Executives, Kaduna State House of Assembly and Kaduna State Judiciary. The current elected governor of the state is Senator Uba Sani and his deputy is Hadiza Sabuwa Balarabe.[34][35] In the state there 14 ministries that operate with the state government to improve the state: Ministries of Kaduna State. Within each Ministry there are multiple agencies with regulatory authority, such as the Kaduna State Environmental Protection Authority which overseas waste, water, and other environmental quality issues.

The governor of the state said he is trying to restore togetherness back in the state to make it hospitable for all Nigerians just as it has always been in the past. According to him, the city is now divided due to the frequent communal clashes that have been occurring in the last two decades.[36]

Local government areas[edit]

Kaduna State consists of 23 local government areas. They are:

s/n Local government area Zone Total area Political chairman Population density
1 Birnin Gwari C 6,257 km² Hon Garba Gambo Randagi
2 Chikun C 1,724 sq mi (4,466 km2) Hon Samaila Leeman
3 Giwa C Dr. Abubakar Shehu Giwa
4 Igabi C Hon Jabir Khamis
5 Ikara N Hon Sadiq Ibrahim Salihu
6 Jaba S Hon. Benjamin Jock
7 Jema'a S Comrade Yunana Markus Barde
8 Kachia S Hon. Aaron Bako
9 Kaduna North C Hon. Mukhtar Baloni
10 Kaduna South C Hon. Yakubu Jarimi
11 Kagarko S 910 sq mi (2,356 km2) Hon. Mustapha Gidado
12 Kajuru C Hon. Ibrahim Gajere
13 Kaura S Hon Siman Mathias (impeached)[2]
14 Kauru S
15 Kubau N Hon. Bashir Suleiman Zuntu
16 Kudan N Hon. Shuaibu Bawa Jaja[37]
17 Lere N Hon. Mathew Gambo Kaku.Lere, Nigeria
18 Makarfi N Hon Kabir Mayare
19 Sabon Gari N Hon. Engr. Mohammed Usman
20 Sanga S Hon Bisallah Malam
21 Soba N Hon. Engineer Suleiman Yahaya Richifa
22 Zangon Kataf S Hon. Dr Elias Manza.
23 Zaria N Alhaji Aliyu Idris Ibrahim


Sun-dried tomato and pepper farm, Hunkuyi, Kaduna State

The Kaduna State economy was ranked 15th largest state in Nigerian economy from 2002 to 2008, and it made up 3.3% of Nigerian GDP. While agriculture contributed 30% of SGDP in Kaduna.[38] Kaduna state cultivate cotton and peanuts (groundnuts) for exporting and domestic extraction of Peanut oil. In the state there is National Institute of Leather and Technology, to improve modern technology and traditional method.[6][9][10][39][40]


In Kaduna State there are many means of communication through mass media, broadcasting, internet communication and banking transaction. In Kaduna State, there are 21 radio stations and more than 4 television stations broadcasting. Many of them are owned by the state government or federal government, and a few are private. The following is a list of radio stations in Kaduna:[41][42][43]

s/n Name (AM) Frequency Motto
1 Brila FM 88.9
2 Kada 2 FM, Kaduna (KSMC) 89.9
3 Rockside FM, Kafanchan (KSMC) 89.9
4 Capital Sounds FM, Kaduna (KSMC) 90.9
5 Liberty Radio (English) Kaduna 91.7
6 Karama FM, Kaduna (FRCN) 92.1 Tumbin giwa
7 Freedom Radio FM, Kaduna 92.9
8 Vision FM Kaduna 92.5
9 FCE Zaria FM 93.7
10 Queen FM, Zaria (KSMC) 94.1
11 Supreme FM, Kaduna (FRCN) 96.1
12 Alheri Radio FM, Kaduna 97.7
13 ASU FM (Kaduna State University Radio) 98.5
14 Invicta FM, Kaduna 98.9
15 Human Right Radio Kaduna 99.9
16 BU Samaru FM, Zaria 101.1
17 Teachers Radio (Nigeria Institute of Teachers, NTI) 102.5
18 Spider FM (Kaduna Polytechnic Radio) 102.7
19 Liberty Radio (Hausa) Kaduna 103.1 Tashar Yanci
20 Ray Power FM Kaduna 106.5
21 Demographics 106.5

Ethnic groups[edit]

Kaduna State is populated by about 59 to 63 different ethnic groups, if not more, with the exactitude of the number requiring further verification through field work.[44] The question as in the last paragraph[clarification needed] with the Hausa and Fulani as the dominant ethnic groups followed by at least 60 others. These groups include:

S/N Ethnic group Origin Area
1 Abinu (dubbed Binawa)
2 Ada (dubbed Kuturmi)
3 Adara (dubbed Kadara)
4 Agbiri (dubbed Gure)
5 Akurmi (labelled Kurama by the Hausa)
6 Anghan (dubbed Kamanton by the Hausa)
7 Amap (dubbed Amo by the Hausa)
8 Aniragu (dubbed Kahugu)
9 Aruruma
10 Asholio (dubbed Moro'a)
11 Atachaat (dubbed Kachechere)
12 Atuku
13 Atyap (dubbed Kataf by the Hausa)
14 Ayu
15 Bajju (dubbed Kaje by the Hausa)
16 Bakulu (Ikulu by the Hausa)
17 Bhazar (named Koro)
18 Bur (Sanga)
19 Dingi
20 Fantswam (dubbed Kafanchan)
21 Fulani
22 Gbagyi-Gbari (Gwari in Hausa) Southern Kaduna
23 Gwandara
24 Gwong (Kagoma in Hausa)
25 Ham (dubbed Jaba in Hausa, which is a derogatory name)
26 Hausa
27 Ikulu
28 Janji (dubbed Gwari by the Hausa)
29 Kaivi (dubbed Kaibi)
30 Kanufi
31 Kanuri
32 Kigono
33 Kinugu
34 Kitimi
35 Kiwafa
36 Kiwollo
37 Koro
38 Kubvori (dubbed Surubu)
39 Mada (Mardan) Mada must have migrated during colonial rule
40 Marghi Borno
41 Nandu
42 Nduyah
43 Numana
44 Nindem
45 Ningeshe
46 Nikyop
47 Ninzo
48 Nyenkpa (Yeskwa)
49 Oegworok (dubbed Kagoro)
50 Pikal
51 Pitti
52 Ribang
53 Rishuwa
54 Rumada
55 Ruruma
56 Rumayya
57 Shemawa
58 Zaar (dubbed Siyawa; Bauchi state?)
59 Takad (dubbed Attakar)
60 Tarri
61 Atsam (dubbed Chawai)


The main religions in Kaduna State are Islam and Christianity while some minority ethnic groups practice traditional worshiping, mostly in the southern area of the state. The people of Kaduna are very religious, causing two religious crises in 2001 and 2002, the Miss World riots.


LGA Languages
Birnin Gwari Hausa, Fulani Acipa, Eastern; Gbagyi; Kamuku; Rogo; Shama-Sambuga
Chikun Gbagyi
Giwa Hausa; Fulani
Igabi Hausa;


Ikara Hausa; Fulani
Jaba Ashe; Duya; Hyam
Jema'a Ashe; Berom; Duya; Fantswam; Gyong; Hyam; Jju; Kanufi; Mada; Kyoli; Nikyob-Kaninkon; Ninzo; Nungu; Nyankpa; Shamang; Tyap; Tyuku Zhire; Numana
Kachia Adara; Doka; Gbagyi; Hyam; Iku-Gora-Ankwa; Ikulu; Jju; Nghan; Koro Wachi; Kuturmi; Shamang; Tyap; Zhire
Kaduna North Hausa; Fulani; Gbagyi
Kaduna South Hausa; Fulani; Gbagyi
Kagarko Ashe; Duya; Gbagyi; Koro Wachi
Kajuru Adara; Ajiya; Kuce; Gbagyi; Shuwa-Zamani
Kaura Gworok; Iten; Takad; Sholyio; Tyap and Tyecarak (Tyecaat)
Kauru Abisi; Bina; Hausa; Fulani; Dungu; Jere; Ikulu; Kaivi; Kinuku; Koono; Mala; Rigwe; Ruma; Sheni; T'kurmi; Tsam; Tumi; Tyap; Vono; and Vori
Kubau Hausa; Fulani
Kudan Hausa; Fulani
Lere Amo; Bina; Janji; Lemoro; Lere; Sanga Hausa; Fulani; Tugbiri-Niragu
Makarfi Hausa; Fulani
Sabon Gari Hausa; Fulani
Sanga Ahwai; Ayu; Bu; Gwandara; Hasha; Ninzo; Numana; Nungu; Sambe; Sha; Toro
Soba Hausa, Fulani
Zangon Kataf Ikulu; Jju; Nghan; Tyap; Tyecarak (Tyecaat) Hausa; Fulani.
Zaria Hausa; Fulani

Other languages in Kaduna State are Bacama, Firan, and Sambe.[45] Almost all of these languages are spoken in Southern Kaduna.


Kaduna is one of the largest centres of education in Nigeria. The slogan of the state is Center of Learning because of the presence of many institution like Ahmadu Bello University (established 1962). There are many government schools, include primary schools and secondary schools. All secondary schools in Kaduna are owned by the state government, federal government or private organisations. there are many tertiary institutions in the state. The state also has colleges for transportation and agriculture.[6]

Universities and institutes[edit]

Secondary schools and colleges[edit]


Federal Highways are:

  • A2 north from Abuja FCT at Sabon Wuse as the Abuja-Kaduna-Zaria Expressway via Kaduna and Zaria to Kano State as the Kaduna-Kano Rd or Zaria Rd at Gidan Mallam Idi (part of the African Unity Road or Trans-Sahara Highway or Trans African 2: TAH2),
  • A3 northeast from Nasarawa State at Barimaw as the Makurdi-Jos Rd to Plateau State at Jenta,
  • A11 east from A2 at Katabu to A236 at Pambeguwa,
  • A125 east from Niger State at Gishiri to A2 north of Kaduna,
  • A126 northwest from A236 in Zaria as the Zaria-Funtua Rd to Katsina State at Gangara,
  • A235 southeast from A2 south of Kaduna via Doka, Gumel and Kafanchan to A3 at Nimbia Forest Reserve,
  • A236 southeast from A2 at Zaria as the Zaria-Pambeguwa Rd to Plateau State at Jengre as the Pambeguwa-Jengre Rd.

Other major roads include:

  • the Dan Dume-Birnin Gwai Rd north from A125 via Malam Mudi to Katsina State at Ungwan Chitumu,
  • the Malam Mudi-Zaria Rd east to A2,
  • the Makarf-Gubuchi Rd southeast from A2 at Mai-Rijiya as the Ikara-Kargi Rd to Babinda on A236 as the Babinda-Nasari-Damau Rd,
  • south from A236 at Kubanni via Wuchichiri, Matari and Dan Jaba to A11 at Tama B,
  • the Tarau-Sabon Birni Rd north from A236 at Jaja to Bauchi State at Agaji,
  • the Lidin-Doka-Gidan Sarkin Rd south from A236 at Jaja via Lere and Doka to the Garun Kuama-Pari Rd via Mariri, Damakasuwa and Zaman Dabo to Samaru,
  • the Kagoro-Samaru-Pari Junction Rd continues south from Samaru to A235 at Kagoro,
  • the Kachia-Zonkwa Rd east from A235 at Gumel via Fadan Kamantan, and Zonkwa to Samaru to Manchok
  • the Jos-Kafanchan Rd east from Manchok to Plateau State,
  • west from A2 at Gidan Bahagu to Niger State at Gidan Wakili,
  • southwest from A2 at Dutsi Hill to Niger State near Rijana.

Railways: the 1435 mm Lagos-Kano Standard Gauge Line is complete from Abuja via Minna in Niger State to Rigasa Station in Kaduna (2016), replacing part of the 1067 mm Cape gauge Western Line which continues north via Kano to Nguru. Kaduna is also connected by the Linking Line to Kafanchan with the Cape Gauge Eastern Line north from Lafia in Nasarawa State to Jos in Plateau State.

Airports: Kaduna International Airport (1982).


The entrance gate of Zazzau

Architecture includes the National Museum which was built in 1975 with archaeological and ethnographic exhibitions, the Kajuru Castle, Lugard Hall, Zaria walls and gates and Nok settlements. In the state there are many architectural buildings like Ahmadu Bello Stadium, Murtala Square, Investment house, Kaduna central market, and Sultan Bello Mosque. The palace of empire of Zazzau is one of the oldest traditional buildings in Kaduna state.[49][50]

Traditional architecture[edit]

Kajuru castle

In Kaduna State there are a lot of ethnic groups, which lead to the variation of culture and architectural style, this include the city wall of Zaria. The walls constructed during the reigns of Queen Amina of Zazzau protected the city and they are between 14 and 16 km long, and are closed by eight gates, Also the Emir's Palace of Zaria is an important traditional heritage. The palace has luxurious interiors. The St. Bartholomew's Church Zaria, built by the Church Missionary Society in 1929, still stands in Zaria, the church was built based on Hausa traditional architecture.

Modern architecture[edit]

Throneroom's Salama radio 14-storey tower, Kafanchan

Modern architecture is present in the state as a result of civilization and development. Most of these architectural buildings were built by the federal or state government, while the residential ones are mostly built by individuals; these buildings include Ahmadu Bello Stadium, Ten storey building, Investment house, federal secretary, Ranchers Bees Stadium, and Murtala square.


Kaduna State has over 1,000 primary healthcare facilities to cater to every resident, even in the most remote village or ward of the state. To further improve on healthcare delivery, in 2016, the Kaduna State Government partnered with the UK Department for International Development (DFID) to install over 1.3 megawatts of solar power in primary healthcare facilities across the state.[51]


In Kaduna State many sports are played, such as football,[52] golf, swimming, traditional wrestling and handball.[53][54] The Kaduna State government run a football club called Kaduna United F.C. The club participated in playing Nigerian Professional Football League but are under relegation.[55] the state also host Kaduna Marathon .[56]

Entertainment and tourism[edit]

In Kaduna State an annual festival is organized by Ministry of Culture and Tourism (Kaduna State). The festival exposes folklore talent and through these process, to promote unity and encourage tourism and build culture in the State. It takes place every November or December.[57] Cultural activities include Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha performed by the Muslims in the state; the Tuk Ham; the Afan National Festival; the Christmas and Easter celebrations, by Christians, and the Kallan-Kowa celebrations. Kaduna has a museum and a park, the Kofar Gamji park and Zoo. Lord Lugard's Residence, is also a tourist attraction and it currently houses the state assembly.[57]


  • Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha: This celebration is scheduled on the 1st of Shawwal and the 10th of Dhu al-Hijjah respectively according to the Islamic Calendar for three days usually in Kaduna, Usually, Muslims all over the world celebrate the end of the Ramadan fasting period and the conclusion of the hajj (pilgrimage) rites. Most of the emirates in Kaduna State and other parts of the northern Emirates celebrate it with a colourful Hausa traditional dressing, horse decoration and Durbar.[57]
  • Christmas celebrations: This takes place in every 25/26 December in Kaduna State to celebrate the birth of Jesus Christ by Christians all over the state.[57]
  • Easter celebrations: It takes place every March/April to remember the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ by all Christians in Kaduna State.[57]
  • Afan National Festival: This is a celebration on every 1 January, in Kagoro. The festival has assumed an international standard with the sons and daughters of Agworok land coming together to discuss issues that required their attention and to show their extreme cultural heritage.[57]
  • Kalankuwa Cultural Festival: It is a purely cultural festival that is celebrated in northern part of the state. It is a celebration to give thanks for good farm crops and to celebrate the season. It is celebrated in November/December. Young men and women come together in a peaceful manner to entertain themselves. It is celebrated in Bomo Village, Samara, in Sabon Gari local government area.[57]

Other small festivals include the following:

  • Batadon Festival
  • Ayet Atyap annual cultural festival
  • Durbar Festival
  • Kaduna State Festival of Arts and Culture
  • Kafanchan Day
  • Kalankuwa Cultural Festival
  • Moro’a Cultural Festival
  • Ninzo Cultural Festival
  • Zunzuk Dance
  • Tuk-Ham Festival
  • Unum-Akulu Festival
Kamuku Park, a tourism attraction


Notable people[edit]



The state government is led by a democratical elected governor who works closely with members of the state's house of assembly. The capital city of the state is Kaduna[62]

Electoral system[edit]

The governor of each state is selected using a modified two-round system. To be elected in the first round, a candidate must receive the plurality of the vote and over 25% of the vote in at least two -third of the State local government Areas. If no candidate passes threshold, a second round will be held between the top candidate and the next candidate to have received a plurality of votes in the highest number of local government Areas.[63]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "2006 PHC Priority Tables – NATIONAL POPULATION COMMISSION". population.gov.ng. Archived from the original on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 10 October 2017.
  2. ^ See List of governors of Kaduna State for a list of prior governors
  3. ^ "Kaduna State: Subdivision". www.citypopulation.de. Retrieved 7 February 2024.
  4. ^ a b Okeowo, Gabriel; Fatoba, Iyanuoluwa, eds. (13 October 2022). "State of States 2022 Edition" (PDF). Budgit.org. BudgIT. Retrieved 7 March 2023.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: date and year (link)
  5. ^ "Sub-national HDI – Area Database – Global Data Lab". hdi.globaldatalab.org. Archived from the original on 23 September 2018. Retrieved 13 September 2018.
  6. ^ a b c d e "Kaduna | Location, History, & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica. Archived from the original on 19 April 2019. Retrieved 28 July 2019.
  7. ^ Breunig, Peter. 2014. Nok: African Sculpture in Archaeological Context: p. 21.
  8. ^ Fagg, Bernard. 1969. Recent work in west Africa: New light on the Nok culture. World Archaeology 1(1): 41–50.
  9. ^ a b "Overview of Kaduna State economy 2002–2008 | Eldis". www.eldis.org. Archived from the original on 25 March 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  10. ^ a b "Economy • Kaduna State Bureau of Statistics". Kaduna State Bureau of Statistics. Archived from the original on 26 March 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  11. ^ "El-Rufai vows to restore Kaduna to its past glory". Vanguard News. 5 February 2021. Archived from the original on 16 February 2021. Retrieved 12 March 2021.
  12. ^ "The "Miss World Riots": Continued Impunity for Killings in Kaduna". Human Rights Watch. 23 July 2003. Archived from the original on 8 May 2020. Retrieved 7 April 2014.
  13. ^ Shekwo, Joseph Amali (1979). Fundamentals of the Gbagyi Language. Zaria: Centre for Adult Education and Extension Services, Ahmadu Bello University.
  14. ^ Smith, Bonnie G. (2008). The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195148909.
  15. ^ "Zaria | Nigeria". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 6 November 2016. Retrieved 5 November 2016.
  16. ^ M.G, Smith (1960). Government in Zazzau: A study of Government in the Hausa Chiefdom of the Zaria in Northern Nigeria from 1800-1950. Oxford University Press for the International African Institute. ISBN 978-0197242018.
  17. ^ "History Of Kaduna State". Nigeria Zip Codes. 29 May 2019. Retrieved 15 May 2023.
  18. ^ "Kalli hotunan bikin cika shekara 100 da kafa Kaduna". BBC Hausa (in Hausa). 17 December 2017. Archived from the original on 9 March 2021. Retrieved 8 December 2021.
  19. ^ "Gunmen kill 36 in attacks in northern Nigeria". Al Jazeera English. 25 February 2021. Retrieved 26 February 2021.
  20. ^ Olukoya, Sam (12 March 2021). "Gunmen abduct 39 students from school in northwest Nigeria". AP News. Retrieved 15 July 2023.
  21. ^ "Bandits raid Varsity kidnapped 23 students and killed 5 of them". Vanguard Nigeria. 22 April 2021. Retrieved 5 May 2021.
  22. ^ "Gunmen kidnap students in northwest Nigeria, school official says". France 24. 5 July 2021. Archived from the original on 5 July 2021. Retrieved 5 July 2021.
  23. ^ "Two flights 'escape' as '200 terrorists' attack Kaduna airport, one dead". Vanguard News. 27 March 2022. Archived from the original on 27 March 2022. Retrieved 27 March 2022.
  24. ^ "Many Feared Killed, Others Kidnapped As Bandits Attack Abuja-Kaduna Train". Channels Television. 29 March 2022. Retrieved 23 February 2022.
  25. ^ Obiezu, Timothy (17 April 2023). "33 Killed in Attack by Gunmen in Northwest Nigeria". Voice of America. Retrieved 6 November 2023.
  26. ^ Alabi, Abduganiyu; Afolabi, Ayodele (7 June 2023). "Bandits kill two, abduct 30 after communities missed deadline on levies". guardian.ng. Retrieved 18 March 2024.
  27. ^ Carter, Sarah; Reals, Tucker (8 March 2024). "Witnesses in Nigeria say hundreds of children kidnapped in second mass-abduction in less than a week". CBS News. Retrieved 8 March 2024.
  28. ^ Ewokor, Chris (11 March 2024). "Nigeria kidnap crisis: Schoolboy recounts daring escape from bandits". BBC. Retrieved 18 March 2024.
  29. ^ "Kaduna | state, Nigeria". Encyclopedia Britannica. Archived from the original on 13 June 2020. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
  30. ^ Yusuf, Saleh (2015). Kaduna: Physical and Human environment.
  31. ^ "World Bank Open Data". World Bank Open Data. Retrieved 15 May 2023.
  32. ^ "Kaduna residents in flood prone areas say nowhere to go". Vanguard News. 6 September 2021. Archived from the original on 2 October 2021. Retrieved 2 October 2021.
  33. ^ "Kaduna Climate, Weather By Month, Average Temperature (Nigeria) - Weather Spark". weatherspark.com. Retrieved 25 November 2022.
  34. ^ "Meet Hadiza Balarabe, the first female deputy governor of Kaduna State". Within Nigeria. 12 March 2019. Archived from the original on 15 February 2020. Retrieved 15 February 2020.
  35. ^ "StackPath". leadership.ng. 12 March 2019. Archived from the original on 15 February 2020. Retrieved 15 February 2020.
  36. ^ "El-Rufai vows to restore Kaduna to its past glory". Vanguard News. 5 February 2021. Archived from the original on 5 February 2021. Retrieved 6 February 2021.
  37. ^ "The Executive Chairman". Kudan Local Government Area. 6 May 2021. Retrieved 23 January 2024.
  38. ^ "Overview of Kaduna State economy 2002–2008 | Eldis". www.eldis.org. Archived from the original on 25 March 2020. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
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