Kaduna State

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Kaduna State
Flag of Kaduna State
Location of Kaduna State in Nigeria
Location of Kaduna State in Nigeria
Coordinates: 10°20′N 7°45′E / 10.333°N 7.750°E / 10.333; 7.750Coordinates: 10°20′N 7°45′E / 10.333°N 7.750°E / 10.333; 7.750
Country Nigeria
Date created27 May 1967
 • Governor[2]Mallam Nasir Ahmad el-Rufai (APC)
 • Deputy GovernorHadiza Sabuwa Balarabe
 • Senators
 • RepresentativesList
 • Chief JudgeMuhammad Lawal Bello
 • Total46,053 km2 (17,781 sq mi)
Area rank4th of 36
 (2006 census)1
 • Total6,113,503[1]
 • Rank3rd of 36
 • Year2007
 • Total$13.33 billion[3]
 • Per capita$1,666[3]
Time zoneUTC+01 (WAT)
ISO 3166 codeNG-KD
HDI (2016)0.404[4] · 25th of 36
^1 Preliminary results

Kaduna, usually referred to as Kaduna State to distinguish it from the city of Kaduna, is a state in Northwest Nigeria. Its capital is Kaduna. The state capital Kaduna was the former capital city of the British protectorate of Northern Nigeria region (1923-1966) after Zungeru (1903–1923) and Lokoja (1897–1903).


The word Kaduna is said to be a corruption of the Gbagyi word/name 'Odna' for a river.[5] Another version of the etymology of the name is a narrative linked to the Hausa word for crocodile - but this is contested by the Gbagyi people known to have lived in the area for centuries. Kaduna is also said to be a corruption of the Hausa word for “crocodiles[6]


The word Kaduna is said to be a corruption of a Gbagyi word/name for a river. Another version of the etymology of the name is a narrative linked to the Hausa word for crocodile - but this is contested by the Gbagyi people known to have lived in the area for centuries. It is indicative that the name, Kaduna, was taken up by Lord Frederick Lugard and his colonial colleagues when they moved the capital of the then Northern Region from Zungeru to Kaduna city in 1916. This move of the colonial office to Kaduna city started in 1912-1918/20 with the initial effort having been made in 1902 from Jebba to Zungeru.

At the start of British colonial rule in northern Nigeria the people groups who live in the area became 'Northern Nigerians'- a construct which continues even today. By 1967 these people groups again were carved into 'North Central State'; this was the case until 1975 that 'Kaduna State' was formerly created by the then military leader, Gen. Murtala Mohammed, with all distinct identities amalgamated into one state without a referendum. The state hence is the successor of the old Northern Region of Nigeria, which had its capital at Kaduna which is now the state capital to about 6.3 million people (Nigerian census figure, 2006).

In 1967, the old Northern Region was divided into six states in the north, leaving Kaduna as the capital of North-Central State, whose name was changed to Kaduna State in 1976. Meanwhile, Kaduna State was further divided in 1987, creating Katsina State. Under the governance of Kaduna are the ancient cities of Zaria, Kafanchan, and Nok, the area where Africa's earliest civilization is recorded to have been excavated. The most intriguing aspect of this area is that the colonial construction and its post-colonial successor called 'Nigeria' hardly documented the history or the method of how Kaduna state's people groups encompassed in these constructs define and identify themselves as such the people groups who populate the area have lived in near oblivion or obscurity as they often are thought of as Hausa people.

Zazzau is said to have been founded since 1536 and later was renamed after the prominent Queen Zaria known as Amina, the Hausa people of Zaria are said to be the old ancestral of the region.[7]


The state is located at the Northern part of Nigeria's High Plains. The vegetation cover is Sudan Savannah type, characterized by scattered short trees, shrubs and grasses. The soil is mostly loamy to sandy type. A substantial amount of clay is found also.


The current governor of Kaduna state is Nasir Ahmad el-Rufai. and his deputy Hadiza Sabuwa Balarabe[citation needed]

Local Government Areas[edit]

Kaduna State consists of twenty-three (23) Local Government Areas. They are: Birnin Gwari, Chikun, Giwa, Igabi, Ikara, Jaba, Jema'a, Kachia, Kaduna North, Kaduna South, Kagarko, Kajuru, Kaura, Kauru, Kubau, Kudan, Lere, Makarfi, Sabon Gari, Sanga, Soba, Zangon Kataf, and Zaria.


Ethnic groups[edit]

Kaduna State is populated by about 59 to 63 different ethnic groups, if not more, with the exactitude of the number requiring further verification through genuine field work [Hayab, 2014]. The question as in the last paragraph with the Hausa and Fulani as the dominant ethnic groups followed by at least 60 others. These groups include:

  1. Adara (dubbed Kadara)
  2. Akurmi (labelled Kurama by the Hausa)
  3. Anghan (dubbed Kamanton by the Hausa)
  4. Amo
  5. Aruruma (named Ruruma by the Hausa)
  6. Atachaat (dubbed Kachechere)
  7. Atyab (dubbed Kataf by the Hausa)
  8. Ayu
  9. Bajju (dubbed Kaje by the Hausa)
  10. Bakulu (Ikulu by the Hausa)
  11. Bhazar (named Koro)
  12. Bur (Sanga)
  13. Binawa
  14. Dingi
  15. Fantswam
  16. Fulfulde
  17. Gbagyi (Gwari in Hausa)
  18. Gure
  19. Gwandara
  20. Gwong (Kagoma in Hausa)
  21. Ham (dubbed Jaba in Hausa, which is a derogatory name)
  22. Hausa
  23. Jangi (dubbed Gwari by the Hausa)
  24. Kaibi
  25. Kahugu
  26. Kanufi
  27. Kigono
  28. Kinugu
  29. Kitimi
  30. Kiwafa
  31. Kiwollo
  32. Koro
  33. Kuvori (called Surubu)
  34. Kuturmi
  35. Lemoro * not sure
  36. Mada (Mardan) Mada must have migrated during colonial rule
  37. Nandu
  38. Nduyah
  39. Numana
  40. Nindem
  41. Ningeshe
  42. Ninkyop
  43. Ninzo
  44. Nyenkpa (Yeskwa)
  45. Oegworok
  46. Pikal
  47. Pitti
  48. Ribang
  49. Rishuwa
  50. Rumada
  51. Ruruma
  52. Rumayya
  53. Shemawa * Hausa name?
  54. Sholio (Dubbed Marwa)
  55. Siyawa (Bauchi state?)
  56. Takad, (Attakar)
  57. Tarri
  58. Tsam (Chawai)
  59. Tuku (Atuku by the Hausa)

Available records show that Christian mission activities in the area began formally in the 1900s with the establishment of Sudan Interior Mission (S.I.M.) in the Ham town of Har Kwain (Kwoi), hence today these people groups are Mainly Christians. Culturally, the people groups of the then southern Zaria who are now Southern Kaduna, with some exception it must be acknowledged, share a lot in the cultural practices of marriage rites, naming, burial, farming, social organisations, kinship, etc. Until full scale research is undertaken, the diversity of Kaduna state remains blurred as some ethnic groups are so small in population that they are often overshadowed by the larger groups who live near them.[8]


Religion in Kaduna State mainly is Christianity and Islam. The Muslims have their central mosque in kaduna metropolis known as Sultan Bello Mosque


Languages of Kaduna State listed by LGA:[9]

LGA Languages
Birnin Gwari Acipa, Eastern; Kamuku; Rogo; Shama-Sambuga; Gbagyi
Chikun Gbagyi
Giwa Gbagyi
Igabi Gbagyi
Ikara Kurama
Jaba Ashe; Duya
Jema'a Ashe; Berom; Cori; Duya; Gyong; Hyam; Jju; Kanufi; Mada; Nikyob-Nindem; Ninzo; Nungu; Nyankpa; Shamang; Tyap; Zhire; Numana
Kachia Adara; Doka; Gbagyi; Hyam; Iku-Gora-Ankwa; Ikulu; Jju; Kamantan; Koro Wachi; Kuturmi; Shamang; Tyap; Zhire
Kagarko Ashe; Duya; Gbagyi; Koro Wachi
Kajuru Adara; Ajiya; Kuce; Shuwa-Zamani; Gbagyi
Kaura Gwandara; Iten; Mada; Nungu
Kauru Atsam; Bina; Ikulu; Rigwe
Lere Amo; Bina; Janji; Lemoro; Lere; Sanga; Tugbiri-Niragu
Saminaka Abishi; Dungu; Jere; Kaivi; Kinuku; Kono; Kurama; Mala; Ruma; Sheni; Tumi; Tyap; Vono; Vori
Sanga Ahwai; Ayu; Bu; Hasha; Numana; Nungu; Sha; Toro
Soba Gbagyi
Zangon Kataf Ikulu

Other languages in Kaduna State are Bacama, Firan, Sambe.[9]


Kaduna is one of the education centres in Nigeria, with many tertiary institutions.

Universities and Institutes[edit]

Secondary schools and colleges[edit]


Kaduna State has over 1,000 primary healthcare facilities to cater to every resident - even in the most remote village or ward of the state. To further improve on healthcare delivery, in 2016, the Kaduna State Government partnered with the UK Department For International Development (DFID) to install over 1.3MW of Solar Systems in primary healthcare facilities across the state.[10]

Entertainment and Tourism[edit]

Kaduna has a museum and a park, the Kofar Gamji park and Zoo. Lord Lugard's Residence, is also a tourist attraction and it currently houses the state assembly.

Other Places of interest around the state include:

Annual Festivals include[11]

  • Afan Festival
  • Atyap Cultural Festival
  • Batadon Festival
  • Durbar Festival
  • Kaduna State Festival of Arts and Culture
  • Kalankuwa Cultural Festival
  • Moro’a Cultural Festival
  • Ninzo Cultural Festival
  • The Zunzuk Dance
  • Tuk-Ham Festival
  • Unum-Akulu Festival


  1. ^ "2006 PHC Priority Tables – NATIONAL POPULATION COMMISSION". population.gov.ng. Retrieved 2017-10-10.
  2. ^ See List of Governors of Kaduna State for a list of prior governors
  3. ^ a b "C-GIDD (Canback Global Income Distribution Database)". Canback Dangel. Retrieved 2008-08-20.
  4. ^ "National Human Development Report 2018" (PDF).
  5. ^ Shekwo, Joseph Amali (1979). Fundamentals of the Gbagyi Language. Zaria: Centre for Adult Education and Extension Services, Ahmadu Bello University.
  6. ^ "Kaduna | Location, History, & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2019-07-28.
  7. ^ "Zaria | Nigeria". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2016-11-05.
  8. ^ http://www.onlinenigeria.com/map.gif
  9. ^ a b "Nigeria". Ethnologue (22 ed.). Retrieved 2020-01-10.
  10. ^ "Energy | Kaduna State Government". www.kdsg.gov.ng. Retrieved 2017-05-02.
  11. ^ "Festivals in Kaduna State – Explore Nigeria". Retrieved 2019-07-28.


External links[edit]