Stu Hart

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Stu Hart
Wrestler Stu Hart wearing an amateur wrestling championship belt, sometime between 1933 and 1936.jpg
Hart, aged ca. 18, with an amateur wrestling championship belt.[a]
Birth name Stewart Edward Hart
Born (1915-05-03)May 3, 1915[2]
Saskatoon,[3] Saskatchewan, Canada
Died October 16, 2003(2003-10-16) (aged 88)
Calgary, Alberta, Canada
Spouse(s) Helen Smith (m. 1947; d. 2001)[^ 1][^ 2]
Children 12, including
Smith Hart
Bruce Hart
Keith Hart
Dean Hart
Bret Hart
Ross Hart
Diana Hart
Owen Hart
Family Hart
Donald Stewart, grandfather
Harry Smith, father-in-law
Professional wrestling career
Ring name(s) Stu Hart
Billed height 5 ft 11 in (1.80 m)[^ 3]
Billed weight 231 lb (105 kg)[^ 4]
Billed from Calgary, Alberta, Canada
Trained by Toots Mondt[4]
Debut 1943
Retired 1986[5]

Stewart Edward "Stu" Hart, CM[^ 5][^ 6][^ 7] (May 3, 1915 – October 16, 2003) was a Canadian amateur wrestler, professional wrestler, promoter and trainer. Hart founded Stampede Wrestling, a promotion based in Calgary, Alberta, and associated wrestling school "The Dungeon". The patriarch of the Hart wrestling family, Stu was the father of many wrestlers, most notably Bret and Owen Hart.

Hart has been referred to by multiple writers, including wrestling historian Dave Meltzer, as one of the most influential and important figures in pro wrestling history. His greatest contribution to the art was as a trainer.[^ 8][6] Along with Bret and Owen, Hart's trainees included future world champions Fritz Von Erich, Superstar Billy Graham, Chris Jericho, Edge, Christian, Mark Henry, Chris Benoit, and Jushin Thunder Liger.

Hart was also well known for his involvement in over thirty charities, for which he was given a position in the Order of Canada, the second highest honour for merit that can be given in Canada.

Early life[edit]

Hart as a baby in 1915

He was born in Saskatoon in 1915[^ 9] to Edward and Elizabeth Stewart Hart. He was mainly of Scots-Irish descent but also had Scottish and English ancestry.[7][8] His childhood was impoverished; as a boy, Stu Hart lived in a tent with his family on the prairie in Alberta, living off the land, milking cows[9] and and wild game that Stu took down with his slingshot.[10] In 1928, his father was arrested for failure to pay back taxes, while the Salvation Army sent Stu, his mother, and two sisters, Sylvester and Edrie to live in Edmonton.[^ 10] Due to his destitute childhood and youth Hart did not experience a dramatic shift in life quality or mentality during the great depression which affected most others around him in Edmonton.[11]

Amateur wrestling[edit]

During his time in Edmonton with his mother and sisters Hart began finding an interest in sports with wrestling and football being his favorites.[^ 11] He started weightlifting and training for wrestling when he was fourteen years old and quickly built a strong neck and impressive arms.[12] He began attending amateur wrestling classes when he joined the YMCA in Edmonton in 1929. Hart was trained in catch wrestling in his youth by other boys. Speaking of it, Stu said that his "head would be blue by the time they let go of him". Stu taught this 'shoot style' to all who trained under him in the 1980s and 1990s with the thought that teaching his students real submission moves would make their pro wrestling style sharper. By 1937 he won a gold medal in the welterweight class from the Amateur Athletic Union of Canada. His amateur career peaked in May 1940 when Hart won the Dominion Amateur Wrestling Championship in the light heavyweight category.[13] During the mid 30s Hart also coached wrestling at the University of Alberta.[^ 12][14][^ 13]

Other sport ventures and military service[edit]

Hart played football for the Edmonton Eskimos in the 1938 and 1939 seasons as a centre.[15] Hart also captained a popular baseball team called Hart's All Stars.[16] Hart enlisted in the Royal Canadian Navy and served as the Director of Athletics. Hart spent a much of his free time during World War II performing and organising different sports events to raise funds to the war effort.[^ 14]

Professional wrestling career[edit]

As a wrestler[edit]

Hart wrestling a Bengal tigress named Chi Chi.

It was during his time in the Navy that Stu was introduced to professional wrestling.[^ 15] Around this time Hart also became close friends with Al Oeming, a future wrestler, nature conservationist, and fellow sailor, who would help him handle his own promotion.[^ 16][17] After recovering from a car accident, Stu competed in various exhibition matches to entertain the troops. In 1946, while receiving training from Toots Mondt, Hart debuted in New York City. Hart had on occasions wrestled animals such as tigers and grizzly bears.[^ 17][^ 18][^ 19]

As a promoter[edit]

Main article: Stampede Wrestling

In 1948, Hart established Klondike Wrestling in Edmonton and in 1952 he brought up the territory of another promoter in Alberta and renamed them to Big Time Wrestling.[18] The promotion would later change name to Wildcat Wrestling and lastly Stampede Wrestling, which was responsible for developing many wrestlers who would later become very successful in other promotions and territories, mainly in the WWF.[19][20][21] Hart would generally close the promotion down during summers and open it up again during the winter when the other territories were closed.[22][23] Hart would often let his sons Bruce and Keith handle the booking of the promotion later in his life.[24]

The televised version of Hart's Stampede Wrestling was one of Canada's longest running television programs, lasting over 30 years and remained one of Calgary's most popular sports programs eventually airing in over 50 countries worldwide.[^ 20]

As a trainer[edit]

Three years after founding Stampede Wrestling, Hart purchased a mansion in Patterson Heights, Calgary, The Hart House which is now considered a heritage site. Its basement, known as the Dungeon, provided training grounds for his wrestling pupils. There Hart trained all his eight sons and many others such as Junkyard Dog, Jushin Liger, Superstar Billy Graham and The British Bulldog.[^ 21][25]

Hart's training technique, called "stretching" consisted of Hart putting his trainees in painful submission holds and holding on for a substantial time to improve their pain endurance to prepare them for the life of professional wrestling.[26][^ 22][27] Hart's technique was well known and he would let anyone who wished to let him apply one of his holds do so if they came to his home. Hart's son Bret once spoke about a well-known case where he stretched a priest, stating that his father wasn't prejudiced, since "he stretched a rabbi once too."[28] Some of Hart's former students, including his son Bret, have mentioned that his stretching would sometimes result in broken blood vessels in the eyes.[29][30][31][32] Something which others have attempted to learn from him.[33]

Hart was said to have had a special liking for training football players since he enjoyed testing their strength.[34] Some have described his training as torture[35] and have accused Hart of being a sadist who enjoyed inflicting pain on people and was more interested in doing so than teach them pro wrestling.[36][37][38][39][40][^ 23][41][42][43][44] Many who were close to Hart in his life have denied these claims.[^ 24][45][^ 25]

Stu's son Ross has said that his father was always generous and compassionate with his children in person but added that he was different when training people, believing that there was no easy way to teach wrestling.[46]


Stu made several appearances on WWE television in the 1990s and early 2000s. The majority of said appearances involved his sons, Bret and Owen Hart. A recurring staple of these appearances in the 90s was that Stu and his wife Helen would be verbally attacked by one of the commentators, Jerry Lawler, who was in a long running feud with Bret during this point in time.[47][48][49]

At the 1993 Pay-Per-View event Survivor Series, Stu had a physical planned interaction outside of the ring with Shawn Michaels. Shawn was involved in a match with Stu's sons Bruce, Keith, Bret and Owen Hart. Shawn played the part of the antagonist, and when failing to succeed in winning the match, Shawn attacks Stu. Stu responded by knocking Shawn out with an elbow smash.[50] Shawn later stated that he was happy to take the hit as he considered it an honour.[51]

Stu also appeared in WCW at the Slamboree 1993: A Legends' Reunion event.[^ 26][^ 27]

Personal life[edit]

Hart was close friends with Luther Lindsay. Lindsay was one of the few men who bested him in the infamous "Hart Dungeon" and Hart reportedly carried a picture of him in his wallet until his death.[52] Hart was also a good friend of Jack Pfefer, who he asked to be the godfather of his son Ross,[53] as well as Calgary Mayor Rod Sykes.[54]

All of the wrestling belts that Hart used for his promotions were handmade by himself. Making championship belts was one of Hart's many domestic skills.[55]

Hart allegedly wrote the foreword to the controversial book Under the Mat[56] which was written by his youngest daughter, Diana Hart. His son Bret has questioned the legitimacy of it, and has stated that if Hart did write the foreword, his daughter probably didn't let him read the book beforehand.[57][^ 28]

A coach and mentor to countless young athletes, and a generous supporter of community life in Calgary, Hart, a loyal benefactor to more than thirty charitable and civic organizations, including the Shriners Hospital for Children and the Alberta Firefighters Toy Fund was appointed on November 15, 2000 to the Order of Canada.[58] He was honoured with an investiture on May 31, 2001 in Ottawa.[59][^ 29][^ 30]


Main article: Hart wrestling family

Hart married Greek Irish New Yorker Helen Smith (born February 16, 1924), the daughter of olympic marathon runner Harry Smith on December 31, 1947.[^ 31] Stu and Helen were married for over 53 years until Helen's death on November 4, 2001, at the age of 77.

Together he and Helen had and raised twelve children in the Hart mansion, Smith, Bruce, Keith, Wayne, Dean, Ellie, Georgia, Bret, Alison, Ross, Diana and Owen. Many of his children went on to become wrestlers or were otherwise involved in wrestling.[60] The couple have around thirty-six grandchildren and several great-grandchilden, including Teddy Annis's son Bradley, Tobi McIvor's three daughters Amanda, Jessica and Isabelle, Kristin Neidhart's sons Locklin and Maddox, Jade Hart's daughter Kyra, Alexandra Sabina's son Grayson and Mike Hart's two children Lakken and Ashwin. Tom and Michelle Billington's three children, Bronwyne, Marek and Amaris are also often included in the list of his grandchildren, therefore Bronwyne's daughter Miami is also often referred to as one of his great-grandchildren.[61]

In 1949, Hart and his wife Helen who was pregnant with their second child, Bruce were in a car accident on their way home from a wrestling match, Hart was unscathed, although he did break the car's steering wheel on impact, but his wife Helen suffered several injuries and had to be held in a hospital for a long time, this led to them leaving their oldest child, Smith, with Helen's parents Ellie and Harry Smith for two years.[62][63]

Hart's son Bret has stated that while his father was hard man he also had a very gentle side and would often be a very compassionate man and an indulgent parent to his 12 children.[^ 32]


In May 2003, Hart had a life-threatening bout of pneumonia, which saw him hospitalized at Rockyview General Hospital, but Hart recovered later that month and returned to his residence at Hart House.[64]

On October 3, 2003, Hart was readmitted to Rockyview General Hospital as a result of an elbow infection, and Hart then developed pneumonia again.[^ 33][^ 34][^ 35][^ 36] He also suffered from ailments associated with diabetes and arthritis. After a brief improvement in his health for a few days from October 11, he suffered a stroke on October 15,[65] and died the next day on October 16, at the age of 88.[66] Hart's funeral service was attended by approximately 1,000 people.[^ 37] He was cremated and the ashes were put in a cherrywood box later buried at Eden Brook Memorial Gardens in a plot with his wife Helen, who died two years earlier in 2001.[^ 38][^ 39]


Hart with a bust of himself.

Hart is regared by many as one of the most important people in the history of professional wrestling.[^ 40][67][^ 41] sports journalist and wrestling historian Dave Meltzer described Hart's importance to the art of professional wrestling as indispensable since his booking decisions and training of several key individuals effected the industry in significant ways. Meltzer describes people like Hulk Hogan and Jesse Ventura as people who were spawned by Harts actions and cities the Dynamite Kid, Junkyard Dog and Billy Robinson as some who would probably not have had the careers they did if not for Hart. He also mentions Chris Benoit and Brian Pillman as individulas who would most certainly never even have become wrestler were it not for Hart.[68]

On March 27, 2010, Hart was posthumously inducted into the WWE Hall of Fame.[^ 42]

In the Hart Legacy Wrestling promotion, which is controlled by Hart's relatives and their associates, there is a Stu Hart Heritage Title.[^ 43][^ 44]

There is an annual juvenile amateur wrestling tournament named after Hart. Specifically the Stu Hart Tournament of Champions held in Canada.[^ 45][^ 46][^ 47][^ 48][^ 49]

In the City of Saskatoon in the Blairmore Suburban Centre there is a road named Hart Road in Stu Hart's honor.[^ 50]

In 2005 a documentary directed by Blake Norton named Surviving the Dungeon: The Legacy of Stu Hart was released.[^ 51][^ 52][^ 53][^ 54][^ 55][^ 56]

As of 2005 Hart is part of a permanent exhibit at the Glenbow Museum.[^ 57]

A Scissored armbar wresting hold is sometimes referred as a "Stu-Lock" in Hart's honor.[69]

In wrestling[edit]

Wrestlers trained[edit]

Championships and accomplishments[edit]

Amateur Wrestling[edit]

  • Dominion Amateur Wrestling Championship in the Light Heavyweight category (1940)[81]

Pro Wrestling[edit]

Luchas de Apuestas record[edit]

Winner (wager) Loser (wager) Location Event Date Notes
Stu Hart (hair) Towering Inferno (mask) Calgary, Alberta Stampede February 6, 1976 [^ 82]

Awards and honors[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ The belt Hart wears in the picture with his initials SED was handmade by Hart himself.[1]
  2. ^ Stu mainly trained Bret in amateur wrestling.[74]


  1. ^ Mavericks: Helen Hart Glenbow Museum
  2. ^ SPECIALIST: List of Deceased Wrestlers for 2001: Johnny Valentine, Terry Gordy, Chris Adams, Bertha Faye, Helen Hart Gallipoli, Thomas M. February 22, 2008 Pro Wrestling Torch, 2016-04-14
  3. ^ "Stu Hart's Hall of Fame profile" WWE, Retrieved April 14, 2011.
  4. ^ "Stu Hart's Hall of Fame profile" WWE, Retrieved April 14, 2011.
  5. ^ "Wrestling patriarch Stu Hart dies " CBC News, October 17, 2003.
  6. ^ SANDS, David (April 18, 2001). "Klein sends best wishes to Stu Hart". Slam! Wrestling. Canadian Online Explorer. Retrieved 2015-01-27.
  7. ^ Bell, Rick (June 1, 2001). "Nation salutes legendary Stu". Slam! Wrestling. Canadian Online Explorer. Retrieved 2015-01-27.
  8. ^ "Stu Hart". Photos and Bios. Professional Wrestling Online Museum. Retrieved 2016-05-30
  9. ^ "Stu Hart's Hall of Fame profile" WWE, Retrieved April 14, 2011.
  10. ^ KAUFMANN, Bill (October 17, 2003). "Stu Hart leaves lasting legacy". Slam! Wrestling. Canadian Online Explorer. Retrieved 2016-01-27.
  11. ^ "Who is Stu Hart?" Glenbow Museum
  12. ^ "Wrestling Bibliography Abstracts" alberta sports history library
  13. ^ GREG OLIVER (Dec 6, 1997). "The Stu Hart Interview: Part 2". Slam! Wrestling. Canadian Online Explorer. Retrieved 2015-01-27.
  14. ^ OLIVER, Greg (October 16, 2003). "Stu Hart, the wrestler, circa 1946". Slam! Wrestling. Canadian Online Explorer. Retrieved 2016-01-27.
  15. ^ OLIVER, Greg (October 16, 2003). "Stu Hart, the wrestler, circa 1946". Slam! Wrestling. Canadian Online Explorer. Retrieved 2016-01-27.
  16. ^ "Al Oeming: Nature lover and wrestler was larger than life".
  17. ^ Hart, Bret (April 17, 2004). "Positive heroes key for kids". Slam! Wrestling. Canadian Online Explorer. Retrieved 2016-03-05.
  18. ^ "Hart of a Tiger". Slam! Wrestling. Calgary Sun via Canadian Online Explorer. Retrieved 2016-02-11.
  19. ^ Mihaly, John (October 2009). "Hart Exhibition, on page 3". via WWE Magazine. Retrieved 2016-05-13.
  20. ^ "Stampede Wrestling gets pinned". CBC Television News. 1990-01-10.
  21. ^ "Billy Graham profile". on Online World of Wrestling
  22. ^ "Wrestler Bret Hart’s childhood memories". Dec 12, 2007 on CBC
  23. ^ Wood, Greg (7 November 1999). "The sadist, the loving father and a knockout end". The Independent. Retrieved 11 January 2014
  24. ^ Wood, Greg (7 November 1999). "The sadist, the loving father and a knockout end". The Independent. Retrieved 11 January 2014
  25. ^ "Bret Hart autobiography - My Real Life in the Cartoon World of Wrestling".
  26. ^ "WCW Slamboree 1993; Vader vs. Davey Boy Smith; Hollywood Blonds vs. Dos Hombres; Nick Bockwinkel vs. Dory Funk Jr.". May 26, 2008. Retrieved January 28, 2016
  27. ^ "Slamboree 1993". Retrieved January 28, 2016.
  28. ^ "Inlewd Book Review: Under The Mat: Inside Wrestling's Greatest Family".
  29. ^ "Wrestling patriarch Stu Hart dies " CBC News, October 17, 2003.
  30. ^ SANDS, David (April 18, 2001). "Klein sends best wishes to Stu Hart". Slam! Wrestling. Canadian Online Explorer. Retrieved 2015-01-27.
  31. ^ ? (January 30, 2016). "The Hart Family". Slam! Wrestling. Canadian Online Explorer. Retrieved 2016-01-31.
  32. ^ Hart, Bret (April 30, 2003). "Stu Hart, my dad, My Hero". Slam! Wrestling. Canadian Online Explorer. Retrieved 2016-03-27.
  33. ^ CAMERON MAXWELL (April 28, 2001). "Hart may need pacemaker surgery". Slam! Wrestling. Canadian Online Explorer. Retrieved 2015-01-27.
  34. ^ Blake Norton (April 27, 2001). "Stu Hart to undergo surgery". Slam! Wrestling. Canadian Online Explorer. Retrieved 2015-01-27.
  35. ^ Calgary Sun (April 23, 2001). "Hart-felt wishes inspire Stu". Slam! Wrestling. Canadian Online Explorer. Retrieved 2015-01-27.
  36. ^ KAUFMANN, Bill (October 17, 2003). "King of Harts dead". Slam! Wrestling. Canadian Online Explorer. Retrieved 2015-01-27.
  37. ^ GERRITSEN, Chris (October 24, 2003). "Tribute to the King of Harts"". Slam! Wrestling. Canadian Online Explorer. Retrieved 2016-01-27.
  38. ^ KAUFMANN, Bill (October 24, 2003). "Honouring Stu". Slam! Wrestling. Canadian Online Explorer.
  39. ^ CLEVETT, Jason (October 24, 2003). "Friends and family celebrate Stu". Slam! Wrestling. Canadian Online Explorer.
  40. ^ "Stu Hart". The Stories Behind the Stars. Professional Wrestling Online Museum. Retrieved 2016-05-30
  41. ^ Mavericks: Stu Hart Glenbow Museum
  42. ^ "Bret Hart hits the ring at WrestleMania". The Vancouver Sun.
  43. ^ Rhodes, Ted. Dec 4, 2015. "Hart family wrestlers to take to the ring in Hopes & Ropes charity match". Ottawa Citizen.
  44. ^ Dec 5, 2015. "Wrestlers from Calgary’s Hart family and Dungeon Discipline wrestling school are scheduled to take to the ring on Dec. 13 for the Hopes & Ropes charity match, put on by Hart Legacy". Edmonton Journal.
  45. ^ "Wetaskiwin wrestlers take part in prestigious meet".
  46. ^ "2014-2015-AAWA-Schedule".
  47. ^ "Stu Hart Tournament of Champions (Calgary, Alberta)". Ontario amateur wrestling
  48. ^ "Stu Hart Tournament of Champions results".
  49. ^ "Wrestlers show why they're the best in Japan".
  50. ^ "Blairmore Suburban Centre". City of Saskatoon [CA].
  51. ^ "Surviving the Dungeon: The Legacy of Stu Hart". Online World Of Wrestling. Retrieved 2016-03-27.
  52. ^ Elliott, Brian (November 4, 2009). ""Surviving The Dungeon filmmaker's legacy as much as Stu Hart's". Slam! Wrestling. Retrieved 2016-03-27.
  53. ^ Elliott, Brian (November 23, 2009). "Hart Dungeon DVD gives rough picture of Stu". Slam! Wrestling. Retrieved 2016-03-27.
  54. ^ Powell, Jason (Apr 30, 2010). "Stu Hart documentary featuring interviews with Hart family members and WWE star David Hart Smith now available free online". Retrieved 2016-03-27.
  55. ^ Glazer, Pulse (May 10, 2010). "WWE Hall of Famer Stu Hart's Documentary "Surviving the Dungeon"". Retrieved 2016-03-27.
  57. ^ Hunt, Stephen (September 11, 2005). "Hear from living mavericks". Calgary Herald. Retrieved 2016-04-13.
  58. ^ Ridgen, Melissa (October 22, 2003). "Stupendous Hart salute". Slam! Wrestling. Calgary Sun via Retrieved 2016-05-07.
  59. ^ "Stu Hart's Hall of Fame profile" WWE, Retrieved April 14, 2011.
  60. ^ "Bruce Hart Profile". Online World of Wrestling. Retrieved 2017-02-14
  61. ^ Clevett, Jason (May 6, 2003). "Wrestlers honoured to be on Stu's show". Slam! Wrestling. Retrieved 2017-02-16.
  63. ^ "Stu Hart Profile". Online World Of Wrestling. Retrieved February 20, 2010.
  64. ^ "Stu Hart Profile". Online World Of Wrestling. Retrieved February 20, 2010.
  65. ^ "Bruce Hart Profile". Online World of Wrestling. Retrieved 2017-02-14
  66. ^ "Stu Hart Profile". Online World Of Wrestling. Retrieved February 20, 2010.
  67. ^ Lunney, Doug (2000-01-15). "Benoit inspired by the Dynamite Kid, Crippler adopts idol's high-risk style". Slam! Wrestling. Winnipeg Sun via Canadian Online Explorer. Retrieved 2017-02-14
  68. ^ Haldar, Prityush (October 2, 2016). "Chris Jericho talks about learning from Stu Hart". Sportskeeda. Retrieved 2017-02-14
  69. ^ "Stu Hart Profile". Online World Of Wrestling. Retrieved February 20, 2010.
  70. ^ Smith, Caleb (April 30, 2014). "Tyler Mane's movie career all started with wrestling". Slam! Wrestling. Canadian Online Explorer. Retrieved 2016-05-15.
  71. ^ "Stu Hart Profile". Online World Of Wrestling. Retrieved February 20, 2010.
  72. ^ Clevett, Jason (2004-11-03). "The legend of Jushin "Thunder" Liger". Slam! Sports. Canadian Online Explorer. Retrieved 2010-02-02.
  73. ^ "Nikolai Volkoff WWE Hall of Fame Profile". WWE. Retrieved 2011-03-30.
  74. ^ "Ricky Fuji Puroresu Central profile". Retrieved 2017-02-15.
  75. ^ Altamura, Mike (August 16, 2001). "Jason Helton: Raising hell Down Under". Slam! Wrestling. Retrieved 2017-02-16.
  76. ^ "Northwest Tag Team Title (British Columbia)". Puroresu Dojo. 2003.
  77. ^ Pedicino, Joe; Solie, Gordon (hosts) (August 1, 1987). "Pro Wrestling This Week". Superstars of Wrestling. Atlanta, Georgia. Syndicated. WATL.
  78. ^ Caldwell, James (November 26, 2013). "News: Pro Wrestling Hall of Fame announces 2014 HOF class". Pro Wrestling Torch. Retrieved November 26, 2013.
  79. ^ "Stampede Wrestling Hall of Fame (1948–1990)". Puroresu Dojo. 2003.
  80. ^ "Stu Hart's Hall of Fame profile" WWE, Retrieved April 14, 2011.
  82. ^ "Hangman". Online World Of Wrestling. Retrieved 2016-05-06.
  83. ^ "Wrestling patriarch Stu Hart dies " CBC News, October 17, 2003.


  1. ^ (McCoy 2007, pp. 15)
  2. ^ (Meltzer 2004, pp. 96)
  3. ^ (Toombs 2002, pp. Foreword)
  4. ^ (van Herk 2002, pp. ?)
  5. ^ (Pope 2005, pp. 218)
  6. ^ (Hornbaker/Snuka 2012, pp. ?)
  7. ^ (Lister 2005, pp. 252)
  8. ^ (McCoy 2007, pp. 16)
  9. ^ (Hart, Martha 2004, pp. 30)
  10. ^ (Hart, Diana 2001, pp. 11)
  11. ^ (Erb 2002, pp. 49)
  12. ^ (Marshall 2016, pp. ?)
  13. ^ (Berger 2010, pp. 57)
  14. ^ (McCoy 2007, pp. 24)
  15. ^ (Mlazgar/Stoffel 2007, pp. 58)
  16. ^ (McCoy 2007, pp. 25)
  17. ^ (Lentz III 2015, pp. 262)
  18. ^ (Waddell/Taras 2016, pp. 296)
  19. ^ (Martin 2001, pp. 68)
  20. ^ (Pope 2005, pp. 218)
  21. ^ (Solomon 2015, pp. ?)
  22. ^ (Toombs 2016, pp. ?)
  23. ^ (Hart, Bruce 2011, pp. ??)
  24. ^ (Pope 2005, pp. 213)
  25. ^ (Sullivan 2011, pp. 92)
  26. ^ (Meltzer 2004, pp. 96)
  27. ^ (Backlund 2015)
  28. ^ (Hart, Bret 2007, pp. 11)
  29. ^ (Davies 2002, pp. 15)
  30. ^ (Johnson 2012, pp. ?)
  31. ^ (Meltzer 2004, pp. 96)
  32. ^ (McCoy 2007, pp. 53)
  33. ^ (Thunderheart 2014, pp. 14)
  34. ^ (Klein 2012, pp. 25)
  35. ^ (Hart, Martha 2004, pp. 29)
  36. ^ (Klein 2012, pp. 25)
  37. ^ (Snowden 2012, pp. ?)
  38. ^ (Matysik 2005, pp. 48)
  39. ^ (Erb 2002, pp. 136)
  40. ^ (Graham 2007, pp. ?)
  41. ^ (Kerekes 1994, pp. 18–20)
  42. ^ (Muchnick 2009, pp. ?)
  43. ^ (Jericho 2008, pp. ?)
  44. ^ (Randazzo 2008, pp. 47)
  45. ^ (Erb 2002, pp. 137)
  46. ^ (Meltzer 2004, pp. 96)
  47. ^ (Hart, Martha 2004, pp. 20)
  48. ^ (McCoy 2007, pp. 236)
  49. ^ (Hart, Bret 2007, pp. 329)
  50. ^ (Undelson 2013, pp. 301)
  51. ^ (Hart, Bret 2007, pp. 334)
  52. ^ (McCoy 2007, pp. 66)
  53. ^ (Hornbaker 2007, pp. 252)
  54. ^ (Marshall 2016, pp. ?)
  55. ^ (McCoy 2007, pp. 15)
  56. ^ (Hart, Diana 2001, pp. 1)
  57. ^ (Hart, Bret 2007, pp. 531)
  58. ^ (McCoy 2007, pp. 272)
  59. ^ (Hart, Bruce 2011, pp. ?)
  60. ^ (Wall 2012, pp. 276)
  61. ^ (Hart, Bret 2007, pp. 169)
  62. ^ (Byfield 2002, pp. 236)
  63. ^ (McCoy 2007, pp. 37)
  64. ^ (Hart, Bret 2007, pp. 541)
  65. ^ (Hart, Bret 2007, pp. 545)
  66. ^ (Hart, Bret 2007, pp. 545)
  67. ^ (Keith 2008, pp. 26)
  68. ^ (Meltzer 2004, pp. 10)
  69. ^ (Dixon 2013, pp. 149)
  70. ^ (Davies 2002, pp. 19)
  71. ^ (Hornbaker/Snuka 2012, pp. ?)
  72. ^ (Davies 2002, pp. 19)
  73. ^ (Hart, Jimmy 2004, pp. 124)
  74. ^ (Hart, Bret 2000)
  75. ^ (Toombs 2016, pp. ??)
  76. ^ (Hornbaker/Snuka 2012, pp. ?)
  77. ^ (Martin 2001, pp. 69)
  78. ^ (Hornbaker/Snuka 2012, pp. ?)
  79. ^ (Zawadzki 2001, pp. 175)
  80. ^ (Dixon 2013, pp. 22)
  81. ^ (Berger 2010, pp. 57)
  82. ^ (Hart, Bret 2007, pp. 333)



Erb, Marsha (2002). Stu Hart: Lord of the ring. ECW Press. ISBN 1-55022-508-1. 

Bob Backlund (2015). The All-American Kid: Lessons and Stories on Life from Wrestling Legend Bob Backlund. Sports Publishing. ISBN 1613216955. 

Hart, Bret (2007). Hitman: My Real Life in the Cartoon World of Wrestling. Random House Canada (Canada), Grand Central Publishing (US). 592pp. ISBN 9780307355676.  ISBN 978-0-307-35567-6 (Canada) ISBN 978-0-446-53972-2 (US)

Hart, Bret; Lefko, Perry (March 2000). Bret "Hitman" Hart: The Best There Is, the Best There Was, the Best There Ever Will Be. Balmur/Stoddart Publishing. ISBN 0-7737-6095-4. 

Davies, Ross (2002). Bret Hart (Wrestling Greats). Rosen Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0823934942. 

Greg Klein (2012). The King of New Orleans: How the Junkyard Dog Became Professional Wrestling's First Black Superhero. ECW Press. ISBN 1770410309. 

Chris Jericho (2008). A Lion's Tale: Around the World in Spandex. Orion. ISBN 978-0752884462. 

Hart, Diana; McLellan, Kirstie (2001). Under the Mat: Inside Wrestling's Greatest Family. Fenn. ISBN 1-55168-256-7. 

Hart, Bruce (2011). Straight from the Hart. ECW Press. pp. 272pp. ISBN 978-1-55022-939-4. 

Hart, Jimmy (2004). The Mouth of the South: The Jimmy Hart Story. Ebury Press. ISBN 978-1550225952. 

Billy Graham (2007). WWE Legends - Superstar Billy Graham: Tangled Ropes. Gallery Books. ISBN 1416524401. 

Hart, Martha; Francis, Eric (2004). Broken Harts: The Life and Death of Owen Hart. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-1-59077-036-8. 

Larry Matysik (2005). Wrestling at the Chase: The Inside Story of Sam Muchnick and the Legends of Professional Wrestling. ECW Press. ISBN 978-1550226843. 

Marshall, Andy (2016). Thin Power: How former Calgary Mayor Rod Sykes stamped his brand on the city . . . And scorched some sacred cows. FriesenPress. ASIN B01IQ54CUE. 

Toombs (Piper), Roddy; Picarello, Robert (2002). In the Pit With Piper. Berkley Publishing. ISBN 978-0-425-18721-0. 

Ariel Teal Toombs; Colt Baird Toombs (4 October 2016). Rowdy: The Roddy Piper Story. Random House of Canada. ISBN 978-0-345-81623-8. 

History books

Berger, Richard (2010). A Fool for Old School ... Wrestling, That is. Richard Berger & Barking Spider Productions. ISBN 0981249809. 

Hornbaker, T.; Snuka, J. (2012). Legends of Pro Wrestling: 150 Years of Headlocks, Body Slams, and Piledrivers. Skyhorse Publishing Company, Incorporated. ISBN 9781613213148. 

Martin, James (2001). Calgary: The Unknown City. Arsenal Pulp Press. ISBN 978-1551521114. 

Byfield, Ted (2002). Alberta in the 20th century: The sixties revolution & the fall of Social Credit. United Western Communications. ASIN B00A96P3R0. 

Wall, Karen L. (2012). Game Plan: A Social History of Sports in Alberta. University of Alberta Press. ISBN 978-0888645944. 

Hornbaker, Tim (2007). National Wrestling Alliance: The Untold Story of the Monopoly That Strangled Pro Wrestling. ECW Press. ISBN 978-1550227413. 

Ben Undelson (2013). Fiction. A Nostalgic Guide to Growing up with the WWF. ISBN 978-1-304-10190-7. 

James Dixon (2013). The 3CW Encyclopedia. ISBN 978-1291394658. 

Sullivan, Kevin (2011). The WWE Championship: A Look Back at the Rich History of the WWE Championship. World Wrestling Entertainment. ISBN 1439193215. 

McCoy, Heath (2007). Pain and Passion: The History of Stampede Wrestling. ECW Press. ISBN 978-1-55022-787-1. 

van Herk, Aritha (2002). Mavericks: An Incorrigable History Of Alberta. Penguin Canada. ISBN 978-0140286021. 


Zawadzki, Edward (2001). The Ultimate Canadian Sports Trivia Book. Dundurn Press. ISBN 978-0-88882-237-6. 

Matthew Randazzo V (2008). Ring of Hell: The Story of Chris Benoit & the Fall of the Pro Wrestling Industry. Phoenix Books. ISBN 978-1597775793. 

Irvin Muchnick (2009). Chris and Nancy: The True Story of the Benoit Murder-Suicide and Pro Wrestling's Cocktail Of Death. ECW Press. ISBN 978-1550229028. 

Keith, Scott (2008). Dungeon of Death. Citadel. ISBN 978-0806530680. 

David Kerekes (1994). Headpress: Journal of Sex, Religion, Death, magazine #9. Headpress. 

Jonathan Snowden (2012). Shooters: The Toughest Men in Professional Wrestling. ECW Press. ISBN 978-1770410404. 

Rodd Thunderheart (2014). See Through Love. FriesenPress. ISBN 1460238753. 

Steven Johnson; Greg Oliver; J J Dillion (foreword); Mike Mooneyham (Contributor) (2012). The Pro Wrestling Hall of Fame: Heroes and Icons. Ebury Press. ISBN 978-1770410374. 

Meltzer, Dave (2004). Tributes II: Remembering More of the World's Greatest Professional Wrestlers. Sports Publishing LLC. ISBN 1-58261-817-8. 

Mlazgar, Brian; Stoffel, Holden (2007). Saskatchewan Sports: Lives Past and Present. University of Regina Press. ISBN 0889771677. 

Pope, Kristian (2005). Tuff Stuff Professional Wrestling Field Guide: Legend and Lore. Krause Publishing. ISBN 978-0896892675. 

Lister, John. Slamthology: Collected Wrestling Writings 1991-2004. jnlister. ISBN 1-4116-5329-7. 

Lentz III, Harris M. (2015). Obituaries in the Performing Arts, 2014. McFarland. ISBN 0786476664. 

Waddell, Christopher; Taras, David (2016). How Canadians Communicate V: Sports. Athabasca University Press. ISBN 978-1771990073. 

Solomon, Brian (2015). Pro Wrestling FAQ: All Thats Left to Know About the Worlds Most Entertaining Spectacle. Backbeat Books. ISBN 978-1617135996. 


Further reading[edit]


  • Hart, Julie (2013). Hart Strings. Tightrope Books. ISBN 978-1926639635. 
  • Billington, Tom; Coleman, Alison (2001). Pure Dynamite: The Price You Pay for Wrestling Stardom. Winding Stair Press. ISBN 1-55366-084-6. 



External links[edit]