List of birds displaying homosexual behavior

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Two New York Central Park Zoo's male chinstrap penguins, similar to those pictured, became internationally known when they coupled and later were given an egg that needed hatching and care, which they successfully did.[1]

For these birds, there is documented evidence of homosexual or transgender behavior of one or more of the following kinds: sex, courtship, affection, pair bonding, or parenting, as noted in researcher and author Bruce Bagemihl's 1999 book Biological Exuberance: Animal Homosexuality and Natural Diversity.

According to Bagemihl, Animal sexual behavior takes many different forms, even within the same species and the motivations for and implications of their behaviors have yet to be fully understood. Bagemihl's research shows that homosexual behavior, not necessarily sex, has been documented in about 500 species as of 1999, ranging from primates to gut worms.[2][3] Homosexuality in animals is seen as controversial by social conservatives because it asserts the naturalness of homosexuality in humans, while others counter that it has no implications and is nonsensical to equate animal behavior to morality.[4][5] Animal preference and motivation is always inferred from behavior. Thus homosexual behavior has been given a number of terms over the years. The correct usage of the term homosexual is that an animal exhibits homosexual behavior, however this article conforms to the usage by modern research[6][7][8][9] applying the term homosexuality to all sexual behavior (copulation, genital stimulation, mating games and sexual display behavior) between animals of the same sex.

This list is part of a larger list of animals displaying homosexual behavior including mammals, insects, fish etc.

Selected images[edit]

Birds[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Smith (February 7, 2004)
  2. ^ Bagemihl (1999)
  3. ^ Harrold (1999)
  4. ^ Solimeo (2004)
  5. ^ Solimeo (2004b)
  6. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 122-166
  7. ^ Roughgarden (2004) pp.13-183
  8. ^ Vasey (1995) pages 173-204
  9. ^ Sommer & Vasey (2006)
  10. ^ Kick (2001)
  11. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) page 566-569
  12. ^ a b Imaginova (2007i)
  13. ^ a b Goudarzi (2006)
  14. ^ a b Imaginova (2007f)
  15. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) pages 644-7
  16. ^ a b c d 365 Gay.com (2005)
  17. ^ a b c d e Bagemihl (1999) pages 524-7
  18. ^ a b c Bagemihl (1999) pages 552-6
  19. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) pages 640-3
  20. ^ a b c d e Bagemihl (1999) pages 496-500
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Bagemihl (1999) pages 650-5
  22. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 81 & 89
  23. ^ a b c Bagemihl (1999) pages 583-6
  24. ^ a b c Bagemihl (1999) pages 632-5
  25. ^ Poiani (2010) page 47
  26. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) pages 575-7
  27. ^ a b c d e f Bagemihl (1999) pages 606-10
  28. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 511-3
  29. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 556-9
  30. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) pages 536-9
  31. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) pages 572-4
  32. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) pages 647-9
  33. ^ a b c d e Bagemihl (1999) pages 594-7
  34. ^ a b c d Bagemihl (1999) pages 491-5
  35. ^ a b c Bagemihl (1999) pages 602-5
  36. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 81
  37. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) pages 528-32
  38. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 569-71
  39. ^ a b c d Bagemihl (1999) pages 544-8
  40. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) pages 483-7
  41. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) pages 563-5
  42. ^ a b c d Bagemihl (1999) pages 514-7
  43. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) pages 591-3
  44. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 83
  45. ^ Smith (February 7, 2004)]
  46. ^ a b c d Bagemihl (1999) pages 501-5
  47. ^ a b c d Bagemihl (1999) pages 518-22
  48. ^ a b c Bagemihl (1999) page 621-6
  49. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) pages 539-43
  50. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) pages 506-8
  51. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 600
  52. ^ a b c Bagemihl (1999) pages 598-601
  53. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 613
  54. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 534, 535
  55. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) pages 533-536
  56. ^ Bagemihl (1999), page 479-482
  57. ^ Bagemihl (1999), page 522-524
  58. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) pages 509-10
  59. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 587-590
  60. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) pages 560-562
  61. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 548-552
  62. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) page 232
  63. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 487-491
  64. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 141-142, 577-579
  65. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 596
  66. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 486, 663
  67. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 634
  68. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) pages 611-614
  69. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 601
  70. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 614-616
  71. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) page 639
  72. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) pages 636-639
  73. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 616
  74. ^ Mating Call (1979)
  75. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 604
  76. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 635
  77. ^ Poiani (2010) page 49
  78. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 617-620
  79. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 580-3
  80. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 489
  81. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 82, 90
  82. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 206, 232
  83. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 81, 85, 101, 150, 156


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Bibliography[edit]