Homosexuality and religion
|Part of a series on|
|lesbian ∙ gay ∙ bisexual ∙ transgender|
The relationship between religion and homosexuality has varied greatly across time and place, within and between different religions and denominations, with regard to different forms of homosexuality and bisexuality. The present-day doctrines of the world's major religions and their denominations vary vastly in their attitudes toward these sexual orientations.
Among the religious denominations which generally reject these orientations, there are many different types of opposition, ranging from quietly discouraging homosexual activity, explicitly forbidding same-sex sexual practices among their adherents and actively opposing social acceptance of homosexuality, supporting criminal sanctions up to capital punishment, and even to condoning extra-judicial killings. Religious fundamentalism often correlates with anti-homosexual bias. Psychological research has connected religiosity with homophobic attitudes and physical antigay hostility, and has traced religious opposition to gay adoption to collectivistic values (loyalty, authority, purity) and low flexibility in existential issues, rather than to high prosocial inclinations for the weak. Attitudes toward homosexuality have been found to be determined not only by personal religious beliefs, but by the interaction of those beliefs with the predominant national religious context—even for people who are less religious or who do not share their local dominant religious context. Many argue that it is homosexual actions which are sinful, rather than same-sex attraction itself. To this end, some discourage labeling individuals according to sexual orientation. Several organizations assert that conversion therapy can help diminish same-sex attraction.
However, some adherents of many religions view homosexuality and bisexuality positively, and some denominations routinely bless same-sex marriages and support LGBT rights, a growing trend as much of the developed world enacts laws supporting LGBT rights.
Historically, some cultures and religions accommodated, institutionalized, or revered same-sex love and sexuality; such mythologies and traditions can be found around the world. The status of homosexuality in Hinduism is ambiguous. Hindu texts contain few specific references to same-sex relations, though some punish it. Ayoni sex, which includes oral and anal sex, was never viewed as a definite sin as in Christianity, nor a serious crime, and could be practiced in some cases. Sikh wedding ceremonies are non-gender specific, and so same-sex marriage is possible within Sikhism.
Regardless of their position on homosexuality, many people of faith look to both sacred texts and tradition for guidance on this issue. However, the authority of various traditions or scriptural passages and the correctness of translations and interpretations are continually disputed.
Specific religious groups
The Abrahamic religions of Judaism, Christianity and Islam, have traditionally forbidden sodomy, believing and teaching that such behavior is sinful. Today some denominations within these religions are accepting of homosexuality and inclusive of homosexual people, such as Reform Judaism, the United Church of Christ and the Metropolitan Community Church. Some Presbyterian and Anglican churches welcome members regardless of same-sex sexual practices, with some provinces allowing for the ordination and inclusion of gay and lesbian clerics, and affirmation of same-sex unions. Reform Judaism incorporates lesbian and gay rabbis and same-sex marriage liturgies, while Reconstructionist Judaism and Conservative Judaism in the US allows for lesbian and gay rabbis and same-sex unions.
The Torah (first five books of the Hebrew Bible) is the primary source for Jewish views on homosexuality. It states that: "[A man] shall not lie with another man as [he would] with a woman, it is a תועבה toeba ("abomination")" (Leviticus 18:22). (Like many similar commandments, the stated punishment for willful violation is the death penalty, although in practice rabbinic Judaism no longer believes it has the authority to implement death penalties.)
Orthodox Judaism views homosexual acts as sinful. In recent years, there has been approaches claiming only the sexual anal act is forbidden and considered abomination by the Torah, while the sexual orientation and even other sexual activities are not considered a sin. Conservative Judaism has engaged in an in-depth study of homosexuality since the 1990s with various rabbis presenting a wide array of responsa (papers with legal arguments) for communal consideration. The official position of the movement is to welcome homosexual Jews into their synagogues, and also campaign against any discrimination in civil law and public society, but also to uphold a ban on anal sex as a religious requirement.
Reform Judaism and Reconstructionist Judaism in North America and Liberal Judaism in the United Kingdom view homosexuality to be acceptable on the same basis as heterosexuality. Progressive Jewish authorities believe either that traditional laws against homosexuality are no longer binding or that they are subject to changes that reflect a new understanding of human sexuality. Some of these authorities rely on modern biblical scholarship suggesting that the prohibition in the Torah was intended to ban coercive or ritualized homosexual sex, such as those practices ascribed to Egyptian and Canaanite fertility cults and temple prostitution.
Christian denominations hold a variety of views on the issue of homosexual activity, ranging from outright condemnation to complete acceptance. Most Christian denominations welcome people attracted to the same sex, but teach that homosexual acts are sinful. These denominations include the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox church, the Oriental Orthodox churches, Confessional Lutheran denominations such as the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod and the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod, the United Methodist Church, and some other mainline denominations, such as the Reformed Church in America and the American Baptist Church, as well as Conservative Evangelical organizations and churches, such as the Evangelical Alliance, and fundamentalist groups and churches, such as the Southern Baptist Convention. Pentecostal churches such as the Assemblies of God, as well as Restorationist churches, like Jehovah's Witnesses and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, also take the position that homosexual sexual activity is sinful.
Liberal Christians are supportive of homosexuals. Some Christian denominations do not view monogamous same sex relationships as bad or evil. These include the United Church of Canada, the United Church of Christ, the Episcopal Church, the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.), the churches of the Old Catholic Union of Utrecht, the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Canada, the Church of Sweden, the Lutheran, reformed and united churches in Evangelical Church of Germany, the Church of Denmark, the Icelandic Church, the Church of Norway and the Protestant Church of the Netherlands. In particular, the Metropolitan Community Church, a denomination of 40,000 members, was founded specifically to serve the Christian LGBT community, and is devoted to being open and affirming to LGBT people. The United Church of Christ and the Alliance of Baptists also condone gay marriage, and some parts of the Anglican and Lutheran churches allow for the blessing of gay unions. Within the Anglican communion there are openly gay clergy; for example, Gene Robinson and Mary Glasspool are openly homosexual bishops in the US Episcopal Church and Eva Brunne in Lutheran Church of Sweden. The Episcopal Church's recent actions vis-a-vis homosexuality have brought about increased ethical debate and tension within the Church of England and worldwide Anglican churches. In the United States and many other nations, the religious people are becoming more affirming of same-sex relationships. Even those in denominations with official stances are liberalizing, though not as quickly as those in more affirming religious groups.
Passages from the Mosaic Covenant and its broader Old Testament context have been interpreted to mean that anyone who is engaging in homosexual practices should be punished with death (Leviticus 20:13; cf. Genesis 19:4–25; Judges 19:22–20:48; 2 Peter 2:6–10; Jude 7). HIV/AIDS has also been portrayed by some Christian fundamentalists such as Fred Phelps and Jerry Falwell as a punishment by God against homosexuals. In the 20th century, theologians like Karl Barth, Jürgen Moltmann, Hans Küng, John Robinson, Bishop David Jenkins, Don Cupitt, Bishop Jack Spong challenged traditional theological positions and understandings of the Bible; following these developments some have suggested that passages have been mistranslated, are taken out of context, or that they do not refer to what we understand as "homosexuality."
Conservative denominations generally oppose same-sex sexual relations based on Old Testament and New Testament texts that describe human sexual relations as strictly heterosexual by God's design (Genesis 2:18–24; 1:26–28; Matthew 19:4–6; 1 Corinthians 7:1–40; Ephesians 5:22–33), which God declared "very good" (Genesis 1:26–31). As such, it is argued that sexual desires and actions that contradict God's design are deemed sinful and are condemned by God (e.g. "and with a male you [singular masculine] shall not lie [sexually] as with a female, that is an abomination," Leviticus 18:22; cf. Leviticus 20:13). Since love does not rejoice in unrighteousness or iniquity (cf. 1 Corinthians 13:6), and since homosexual desires and actions are believed to remain contrary to God's design and condemned by God as sinful / iniquity (e.g. in general, Romans 1:26–27; passively, 1 Corinthians 6:9; actively, including but not limited to pederasty, 1 Corinthians 6:9; 1 Timothy 1:9–11; considered sexually immoral, Galatians 5:19–21; Colossians 3:5–7; Ephesians 5:3), adherents of conservative denominations believe that genuine love for God and humanity is best expressed by following God rather than the world (Acts 5:29; cf. Jeremiah 23:1–40; Romans 12:9).
Where the Catholic view is founded on a natural law argument informed by scripture and proposed by Thomas Aquinas, the traditional conservative Protestant view is based on an interpretation of scripture alone. Protestant conservatives also see homosexual relationships as an impediment to heterosexual relationships. They interpret some Biblical passages to be commandments to be heterosexually married. Catholics, on the other hand, have accommodated unmarried people as priests, monks, nuns and single lay people for over a thousand years. A number of self-described gay and 'ex-gay' Christians have reported satisfaction in mixed-orientation marriages.
The Catholic Church teaches that those who are attracted to persons of the same sex are called to practice chastity, just like everyone else has to before they get married. The Catholic Church does not regard homosexual activity as an expression of the marital sacrament, which it teaches is only possible within a lifelong commitment of a marriage between a man and a woman. According to the Church's sexual ethics, homosexual activity falls short in the complementarity (male and female organs complement each other) and fecundity (openness to new life) of the sexual act.
The views of the Catholic Church, which discourages individuals from acting on sexual desires that they believe to be sinful, and harmful to themselves and others, both physically and mentally. As yet there is no evidence the church is willing to bend on this issue; until then the evidence cited here demonstrates the Catholic Church is unaccepting of homosexual behavior, regardless of what pew studies of parishioners individual views may suggest.
The teachings of the Catholic Church on same-sex attraction are summarized in the Catechism:
2357 Homosexuality refers to relations between men or between women who experience an exclusive or predominant sexual attraction toward persons of the same sex. It has taken a great variety of forms through the centuries and in different cultures. Its psychological genesis remains largely unexplained. Basing itself on Sacred Scripture, which presents homosexual acts as acts of grave depravity, tradition has always declared that 'homosexual acts are intrinsically disordered.' They are contrary to the natural law. They close the sexual act to the gift of life. They do not proceed from a genuine affective and sexual complementarity. Under no circumstances can they be approved.
2358 The number of men and women who have deep-seated homosexual tendencies is not negligible. This inclination, which is objectively disordered, constitutes for most of them a trial. They must be accepted with respect, compassion, and sensitivity. Every sign of unjust discrimination in their regard should be avoided. These persons are called to fulfill God's will in their lives and, if they are Christians, to unite to the sacrifice of the Lord's Cross the difficulties they may encounter from their condition.
2359 Homosexual persons are called to chastity. By the virtues of self-mastery that teach them inner freedom, at times by the support of disinterested friendship, by prayer and sacramental grace, they can and should gradually and resolutely approach Christian perfection.
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints teaches that no one should arouse sexual feelings outside of marriage, including those towards members of the same sex. The LDS church recognizes that feelings of same-sex attraction may not change or be overcome in this earth life, and expect all un-married members, gay or straight, to abstain from any and all sexual relations outside of heterosexual marriage. The LDS church maintains that feelings and inclinations toward the same sex (i.e., homosexual feelings or "temptations") are not inherently sinful, but engaging in homosexual behavior is in conflict with the "doctrinal principle, based on sacred scripture … that marriage between a man and a woman is essential to the Creator's plan for the eternal destiny of His children." Those who experience same-sex attraction should continually exercise self-control and reliance on the atonement of Jesus Christ in order to refrain from acting on such feelings. The LDS church strongly opposes same-sex marriage and teaches that marriage is only to be between a man and a woman, and that this is essential to God's eternal plan. Such issues are addressed on the LDS church website "Love One Another: A Discussion on Same-Sex Attraction".
Do you approach males among the worlds And leave what your Lord has created for you as mates? But you are a people transgressing.— Quran, Surah 26 (165-166), trans. Sahih International
All major Islamic schools disapprove of homosexuality. Islam views same-sex desires as an unnatural temptation, and sexual relations are seen as a transgression of the natural role and aim of sexual activity. Islamic teachings (in the hadith tradition) presume same-sex attraction, extol abstention and (in the Qur'an) condemn consummation.
The discourse on homosexuality in Islam is primarily concerned with activities between men. There are, however, a few hadith which mention homosexual behavior among women; the fuqaha’ are agreed that "there is no hadd punishment for lesbianism, because it is not zina. Rather a ta’zeer punishment must be imposed, because it is a sin…'" Although punishment for lesbianism is rarely mentioned in the histories, al-Tabari records an example of the casual execution of a pair of lesbian slavegirls in the harem of al-Hadi, in a collection of highly critical anecdotes pertaining to that Caliph's actions as ruler.
Bahá'í law limits permissible sexual relations to those between a man and a woman in marriage. Believers are expected to abstain from sex outside matrimony. Bahá'ís do not, however, attempt to impose their moral standards on those who have not accepted the Revelation of Bahá’u’lláh. The Bahá'í Faith takes no position on the sexual practices of those who are not adherents. While requiring uprightness in all matters of morality, whether sexual or otherwise, the Bahá’í teachings also take account of human frailty and call for tolerance and understanding in regard to human failings. In this context, to regard homosexuals with prejudice would be contrary to the spirit of the Bahá’í teachings.[circular reference]
Among the religions that originated in ancient and medieval India, including Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism, teachings regarding homosexuality are less clear than among the Abrahamic traditions, and religious authorities voice diverse opinions. In 2005, an authority figure of Sikhism condemned same-sex marriage and the practice of homosexuality. However, many people in Sikhism do not oppose gay marriage. Hinduism is diverse, with no supreme governing body, but the majority of swamis opposed same-sex relationships in a 2004 survey, and a minority supported them. Ancient religious texts such as the Vedas often refer to people of a third gender known as hijra, who are neither female nor male. Some see this third gender as an ancient parallel to modern western lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex identities.
Hinduism does not have a central text or central authority. Many Hindu sects have taken various positions on homosexuality, ranging from positive to neutral or antagonistic. Homosexuality is never directly forbidden in any Hindu religious texts. Referring to the nature of Samsara, the Rigveda, one of the four canonical sacred texts of Hinduism says 'Vikruti Evam Prakriti' (Perversity/diversity is what nature is all about, or, What seems unnatural is also natural). A "third gender" has been acknowledged within Hinduism since Vedic times. Several Hindu texts, such as Manu Smriti and Sushruta Samhita, assert that some people are born with either mixed male and female natures, or sexually neuter, as a matter of natural biology. In addition, each Hindu denomination had developed distinct rules regarding sexuality, as Hinduism is not unified and is decentralized in essence.
Hindu theories do not condemn lesbian relations and some third-gendered individuals were highly regarded. Hindu groups are historically not unified regarding the issue of homosexuality, each one having a distinct doctrinal view.
The Indian Kama Sutra, written around 150 BC, contains passages describing eunuchs or "third-sex" males performing oral sex on men. The text describes Kama as one of the three objectives to be achieved in life. Though it forbids the educated Brahmins, bureaucrats and wisemen from practicing Auparishtaka (oral sex).
Similarly, some medieval Hindu temples and artifacts openly depict both male homosexuality and lesbianism within their carvings, such as the temple walls at Khajuraho. Some infer from these images that at least part of the Hindu society and religion were previously more open to variations in human sexuality than they are at present.
Ayoni sex, which includes oral and anal sex, never came to be viewed as much of a sin like in Christianity nor a serious crime and could be practiced in some cases. Close friendship between people of same genders has also been seen as permissible in Hindu texts.
In some Hindu sects (specifically among the hijras), many divinities are androgynous. There are Hindu deities who are intersex (both male and female); who manifest in all three genders; who switch from male to female or from female to male; male deities with female moods and female deities with male moods; deities born from two males or from two females; deities born from a single male or single female; deities who avoid the opposite sex; deities with principal companions of the same sex, and so on.
Several Hindu priests have performed same-sex marriages, arguing that love is the result of attachments from previous births and that marriage, as a union of spirit, is transcendental to gender. Homophobia in the modern hindu culture is largely the result of anti-homosexualily laws made by the colonial British Government.
The most common formulation of Buddhist ethics are the Five Precepts and the Eightfold Path, one should neither be attached to nor crave sensual pleasure. The third of the Five Precepts is "To refrain from committing sexual misconduct." However, "sexual misconduct" is a broad term, and is subjected to interpretation relative to the social norms of the followers. The determination of whether or not same-gender relations is appropriate for a layperson is not considered a religious matter by many Buddhists.
According to the Pāli Canon & Āgama (the Early Buddhist scriptures), there is not any saying that same or opposite gender relations have anything to do with sexual misconduct, and some Theravada monks express that same-gender relations do not violate the rule to avoid sexual misconduct, which means not having sex with someone under age (thus protected by their parents or guardians), someone betrothed or married and who have taken vows of religious celibacy.
Some later traditions gradually began to add new restrictions on sexual misconduct, like non-vagina sex, though its situations seem involving coerced sex. This non-vagina sex as sexual misconduct view is not based on what Buddha's said, but from some later Abhidharma texts.
Buddhism is often characterized as distrustful of sensual enjoyment and sexuality in general. Traditionally, sex and lust are seen as hindering to spiritual progress in most schools of Buddhism; as such monks are expected to refrain from all sexual activity, and the Vinaya (the first book of the Tripitaka) specifically prohibits sexual intercourse, then further explain that anal, oral, and vaginal intercourse amount to sexual intercourse, which will result in permanent exclusion from Sangha. A notable exception in the history of Buddhism occurred in Japan during the Edo period, in which male homosexuality, or more specifically, love between young novices and older monks, was celebrated.
References to pandaka, a eunuch/impotence category that is sometimes interpreted to include homosexual males, can be found throughout the Pali canon as well as other Sanskrit scriptures. In the Chinese version of Sarvastivada Vinaya, the pandaka is mentioned as also trying to have sex with women, not just men. Leonard Zwilling refers extensively to Buddhaghosa's Samantapasadika, where pandaka are described as being filled with defiled passions and insatiable lusts, and are dominated by their libido. Some texts of the Abhidharma state that a pandaka cannot achieve enlightenment in their own lifetime, (but must wait for rebirth) and Asanga and Vasubandhu discussed if a pandaka was able to be enlightened or not. According to one scriptural story, Ananda—Buddha's cousin and disciple—was a pandaka in one of his many previous lives.
Some later classic Buddhist masters and texts disallow contact between monks/Bodhisattva and pandakas/women and classify non-vagina sex as sexual misconduct, including for lay followers.
The third of the five precepts of Buddhism states that one is to refrain from sexual misconduct; this precept has sometimes been interpreted to include homosexuality. The Dalai Lama of Tibetan Buddhism interprets sexual misconduct to include lesbian and gay sex, and indeed any sex other than penis-vagina intercourse, including oral sex, anal sex, and masturbation or other sexual activity with the hand; the only time sex is acceptable is when it performed for its purpose of procreation. When interviewed by Canadian TV news anchor Evan Solomon on CBC News: Sunday about whether or not homosexuality is acceptable in Buddhism, the Dalai Lama responded that "it is sexual misconduct." However, the Dalai Lama supports human rights for all, "regardless of sexual orientation."
In Thailand, some accounts propose that "homosexuality arises as a karmic consequence of violating Buddhist proscriptions against heterosexual misconduct. These karmic accounts describe homosexuality as a congenital condition which cannot be altered, at least in a homosexual person's current lifetime, and have been linked with calls for compassion and understanding from the non-homosexual populace." However, Buddhist leaders in Thailand have also condemned homosexuality, ousted monks accused of homosexual acts, and banned kathoey from ordination. In 2009, Senior monk Phra Maha Wudhijaya Vajiramedh introduced a "good manners" curriculum for novices in the monkhood, stating to the BBC that he was concerned by "the flamboyant behaviour of gay and transgender monks, who can often be seen wearing revealingly tight robes, carrying pink purses and having effeminately-shaped eyebrows."
A later popular Japanese legend attributed the introduction of monastic homosexuality to Japan to Shingon founder Kukai, although scholars now dismiss the veracity of this assertion, pointing out his strict adherence to the Vinaya. Nonetheless, the legend served to "affirm same sex relation between men and boys in seventeenth century Japan." However, Japanese Buddhist scholar and author of Wild Azaleas Kitamura Kigin argued that there was a tendency in monasteries to avoid heterosexuality and to encourage homosexuality.
Although Mahayana Buddhism has some texts against homosexuality (from later Abhidharma texts & Buddhist apocrypha), the majority of its teachings assert that all beings who correctly practice the dharma may reach enlightenment, since all possess an innate Buddha nature. Enlightenment being achievable even in a single life.
The capacity of Buddhism to reform itself and its great variety of distinct beliefs and schools, provide many liberal streams of Buddhism, which are accepting of all sexual orientations. Reformist Buddhism is predominant in the west and in some eastern cosmopolitan cities.
Sikhism has no written view on the matter, but in 2005, a Sikh religious authority described homosexuality as "against the Sikh religion and the Sikh code of conduct and totally against the laws of nature," and called on Sikhs to support laws against gay marriage. Many Sikhs are against this view, however, and state that the Sikh Scriptures promote equality and do not condemn homosexuality.
Marriage in Sikhism is seen as a union of souls. In Sikhism, the soul is seen as genderless, and the outward appearance of human beings (man, woman) is a temporary state. Same-sex marriage advocates refer to this fact.
In Sikh Scripture
The Sikh holy book, the Guru Granth Sahib, is the highest authority in the Sikhism, it is seen as the 11th and eternal Guru. It serves as a guide to Sikhs on how to live positive lives, and details what behavior is expected of all Sikhs. It is seemingly silent on the subject of homosexuality; however, married life is encouraged time and again in Guru Granth Sahib Ji. Whenever marriage is mentioned, it is always in reference to a man and a woman. Some Sikhs believe that Guru Granth Sahib Ji is the complete guide to life, and if a marriage between two of the same sexes is not mentioned, it is therefore not right. The counterargument to this is that man and woman are only mentioned in this way to give light to the relationship of the soul and the soul force as being one. This denies gender and sex as an issue. Thus, Sikhism is more concerned with ones attainment of enlightenment rather than habitual desires such as sexuality. True love is attained through the Guru and no man speaks on behalf of the Guru as the Granth is open to interpretation and misrepresentation.
There are five vices (habitual desires) outlined in the Guru Granth Sahib that one should try to control. One of these vices is lust, and some Sikhs believe that homosexual thoughts and behaviour are just manifestations of lust. However, Sikhs that are more accepting of homosexuality claim that this is equally applicable to heterosexuals. These same Sikhs believe that Guru Nanak's emphasis on universal equality and brotherhood is fundamentally in support of the human rights of homosexuals.
Views on homosexuality tend not to be a primary concern in Sikh teachings, as the universal goal of a Sikh is to have no hate or animosity to any person, regardless of race, caste, color, creed, gender, or sex
The Guru's silence on homosexuality has led to a history of ambivalence on the topic.
The man that lies with mankind as man lies with womankind, or as woman lies with mankind, is a man that is a Daeva [demon]; this man is a worshipper of the Daevas, a male paramour of the Daevas— Vendidad
The Vendidad, one of the later Zoroastrian texts composed in the Artificial Young Avestan language, has not been dated precisely. It is thought that some concepts of law, uncleanliness, dualism, and salvation were shared between the religions, and subsequent interactions between the religions are documented by events such as the release of the Jews from the Babylonian captivity by Zoroastrian Cyrus the Great in 537 BC, and the Biblical account of the Magi visiting the infant Jesus.
The Vendidad generally promotes procreation: "the man who has a wife is far above him who lives in continence; he who keeps a house is far above him who has none; he who has children is far above the childless man; he who has riches is far above him who has none." It details the penance for a worshipper who submits to sodomy under force as "Eight hundred stripes with the Aspahe-astra, eight hundred stripes with the Sraosho-charana." (equal to the penalty for breaking a contract with the value of an ox), and declares that for those participating voluntarily "For that deed there is nothing that can pay, nothing that can atone, nothing that can cleanse from it; it is a trespass for which there is no atonement, for ever and ever". However, those not practicing the Religion of Mazda were pardoned for past actions upon conversion. It has been argued that, in ancient times, those prohibitions against sodomy didn't apply to eunuchs.
However, many Zoroastrians, termed "reformists", eschew the teachings of the Vendidad as corruptions of Zoroaster's original message, claiming the rules do not conform with 'Good Words, Good Thoughts and Good Deeds', and therefore have no spiritual significance. Hence, many of these reformist Zoroastrians are openly accepting and supportive of the LGBT community and same-sex marriage.
East Asian religions
Confucianism, being primarily a social and political philosophy, focused little on sexuality; whether homosexual or heterosexual. However, the ideology did emphasize male friendships, and Louis Crompton has argued that the "closeness of the master-disciple bond it fostered may have subtly facilitated homosexuality". Homosexuality is not mentioned in the Analects of Confucius.
There is no single official position on homosexuality in Taoism, as the term Taoism is used to describe a number of disparate religious traditions.
In a similar way to Buddhism, Taoist schools sought throughout history to define what would be sexual misconduct. The precept against Sexual Misconduct is sex outside your marriage. The married spouses (夫婦) usually in Chinese suggest male with female, though the scripture itself does not explicitly say anything against same-gender relations. Many sorts of precepts mentioned in the Yunji Qiqian (雲笈七籤), The Mini Daoist Canon, does not explicitly say anything against same-gender relations as well.
Homosexuality is not unknown in Taoist history, such as during the Tang dynasty when Taoist nuns exchanged love poems. Attitudes about homosexuality within Taoism often reflect the values and sexual norms of broader Chinese society (see Homosexuality in China).
The Wiccan Charge of the Goddess, one of the most famous texts in Neopaganism, states in the words of the Goddess, "all acts of love and pleasure are my rituals". In traditional forms of Wicca, such as Gardnerian and Alexandrian Wicca, magic is often performed between a man and a woman, and the "Great Rite" is a sex ritual performed between a Priest and Priestess representing the God and Goddess; however, this is not generally seen as excluding homosexuals or magic between same-sex couples. Most groups still insist, however, that initiations be conferred from man to woman or woman to man.
The first ordained minister of a major religious sect in the U.S. or Canada to come out as gay was the UU Minister James Stoll in 1969. There have been UUA resolutions supporting people regardless of sexual orientation since 1970. Unitarian Universalism was the first denomination to accept openly transgender people as full members with eligibility to become clergy; in 1988 the first openly transgender person was ordained by the Unitarian Universalist Association.
The Unitarian Universalist Association has supported the marriage equality since 1996 and compared those who resisted such equality to the resistance to the abolition of slavery, women's suffrage, and the end of anti-miscegenation laws. Several congregations have undertaken a series of organizational, procedural and practical steps to become acknowledged as a "Welcoming Congregation": a congregation which has taken specific steps to welcome and integrate gay, lesbian, bisexual & transgender (GLBT) members. UU ministers perform same-sex unions and now same-sex marriages where legal (and sometimes when not, as a form of civil protest). On 29 June 1984, the Unitarian Universalists became the first major church "to approve religious blessings on homosexual unions." Unitarian Universalists have been in the forefront of the work to make same-sex marriages legal in their local states and provinces, as well as on the national level. Gay men and lesbians are also regularly ordained as ministers, and a number of gay and lesbian ministers have, themselves, now become legally married to their partners. In May 2004, Arlington Street Church, Boston was the site of the first state-sanctioned same-sex marriage in the United States. The official stance of the UUA is for the legalization of same-sex marriage—"Standing on the Side of Love." In 2004 UU Minister Rev. Debra Haffner of The Religious Institute on Sexual Morality, Justice, and Healing published An Open Letter on Religious Leaders on Marriage Equality to affirm same-sex marriage from a multi-faith perspective.
Humanism is a non-religious, non-theistic approach to life that supports full equality for LGBTQ individuals, including the right to marry. Humanism and Its Aspirations, a statement of humanist principles from the American Humanist Association, states that "humanists are concerned for the well being of all, are committed to diversity, and respect those of differing yet humane views...work to uphold the equal enjoyment of human rights and civil liberties in an open, secular society and maintain it is a civic duty to participate in the democratic process and a planetary duty to protect nature's integrity, diversity, and beauty in a secure, sustainable manner." The American Humanist Association provides a LGBT Humanist Pride award and has funded a LGBT-inclusive prom for Itawamba County Agricultural High School in Mississippi. The organisation LGBT Humanists UK "is a United Kingdom-based not-for-profit that campaigns for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) equality and human rights and promotes Humanism as an ethical worldview." It was formerly an independent group, but since 2012 has been a part of the charity Humanists UK. In 2009 they gave Stephen Fry an award "for his services to humanism and gay rights."
Humanists UK Chief Executive Andrew Copson, who is gay, once wrote that "humanists have always been champions of LGBT rights" and cited his organisation's many years campaigning for decriminalisation and LGBT equality in the UK, including legal same-sex marriages. He pointed out the large number of LGBT people in the movement, including Stephen Fry, Christian Jessen, and Peter Tatchell, as well as historical associations with humanism like the writer Virginia Woolf and E M Forster. In a statement following the Orlando nightclub shooting for the International Humanist and Ethical Union, of which Copson is also President, he went further, saying "Humanism is the ultimate, long-standing and unfaltering ally of LGBTI people everywhere".
In Candomblé, homosexuality is usually accepted and explained by the sex of one's orisha. Homosexuality would be more probable in a man with a female orisha, a woman with a male orisha, or any of them with an androgynous orisha (such as Olokun).
Religious groups and public policy
This section does not cite any sources. (May 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Opposition to same-sex marriage and LGBT rights is often associated with conservative religious views. The American Family Association and other religious groups have promoted boycotts of corporations whose policies support the LGBT community.
In conservative Islamic nations, laws generally prohibit same-sex sexual behaviour, and interpretation of Sharia Law on male homosexuality carries the death penalty. This has been condemned as a violation of human rights by human rights organisation Amnesty International and by the writers of the Yogyakarta principles. With the signature of the US in 2009, the proposed UN declaration on LGBT rights has now been signed by every European secular state and all western nations, as well as other countries—67 members of the UN in total. An opposing statement put forward by Muslim nations was signed by 57 member states, mostly in Africa and Asia. 68 out of the total 192 countries have not yet signed either statement. In 2011 the United Nations Human Rights Council passed a landmark resolution initiated by South Africa supporting LGBT rights (See Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity at the United Nations)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Homosexuality and religion.|
- McDermott, Ryon C.; Schwartz, Jonathan P.; Lindley, Lori D.; Proietti, Josiah S. (2014). "Exploring men's homophobia: Associations with religious fundamentalism and gender role conflict domains". Psychology of Men & Masculinity. 15 (2): 191–200. doi:10.1037/a0032788.
- Whitley, B. E. Jr (2009). "Religiosity and attitudes toward lesbians and gay men: A meta-analysis". The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion. 19: 21–38. doi:10.1080/10508610802471104. S2CID 144916048.
- Blogowska, J.; Saroglou, V.; Lambert, C. (2013). "Religious prosociality and aggression: It's real". Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion. 52 (3): 524–536. doi:10.1111/jssr.12048.
- Deak, C.; Saroglou, V. (2015). "Opposing abortion, gay adoption, euthanasia, and suicide: Compassionate openness or self-centered moral rigorism?". Archive for the Psychology of Religion. 37: 267–294. doi:10.1163/15736121-12341309. S2CID 28960401.
- Adamczyk, Amy (2017). Cross-National Public Opinion about Homosexuality: Examining Attitudes across the Globe. University of California Press. pp. 17–18. ISBN 9780520963597.
- "Code of Ethics, American Association of Christian Counselors" (PDF). www.aacc.net. American Association of Christian Counselors. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 February 2015. Retrieved 1 May 2015.
- Boswell, John (2005). "Christianity, social tolerance, and homosexuality". University Of Chicago Press.
- Dynes, Wayne; Donaldson, Stephen (1992). "Asian homosexuality". Routledge.
- Carpenter, Edward (1914). "Intermediate Types among Primitive Types: A Study in Social Evolution". New York: Mitchell Kennerley.
- J. Gordon Melton, Martin Baumann, p. 1344, Religions of the World: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices, 2nd Edition
- Jeffrey S. Siker, p. 126, Homosexuality and Religion: An Encyclopedia
- "Gay Sikh | WaheguruNet".
- Bishop Soto tells NACDLGM: 'Homosexuality is Sinful' catholic.org, accessed 29 September 2008
- Help topics[permanent dead link] Assemblies of God (USA), accessed 6 July 2009
- "Conservative Rabbis Allow Ordained Gays, Same-Sex Unions". Retrieved 22 August 2015.
- "Liberals recognise committed same-sex partnerships". Retrieved 22 August 2015.
- Greenberg, Steven (23 February 2004). Wrestling with God and Men: Homosexuality in the Jewish Tradition. Univ of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 9780299190934.
- "Human Sexuality". The United Methodist Church. Archived from the original on 1 July 2012. Retrieved 16 May 2008.
- "Catechism of the Catholic Church".
- "Catechism of the Catholic Church – Part 3 Section 2 Chapter 2 Article 6". Retrieved 22 August 2015.
- "Holy Synod – Encyclicals – Synodal Affirmations on Marriage, Family, Sexuality, and the Sanctity of Life". Retrieved 22 August 2015.
- http://saintsjoachimandanne.net/spiritual-blogging/item/53-is-the-armenian-church-against-homosexuality Archived 18 January 2017 at the Wayback Machine?
- "Sexuality". Retrieved 22 August 2015.
- "Frequently Asked Questions – LCMS Views". Retrieved 22 August 2015.
- "WELS – Homosexuality". Retrieved 22 August 2015.
- "WELS – God allowing homosexuality?". Retrieved 22 August 2015.
- "Stances of Faiths on LGBT Issues: African Methodist Episcopal Church". The Human Rights Campaign. Archived from the original on 21 November 2009. Retrieved 25 November 2009.
- "The Christian Life – Christian Conduct". Free Methodist Church. Archived from the original on 13 May 2008. Retrieved 16 May 2008.
- "British Methodists reject blessing of same-sex relationships". The United Methodist Church. Archived from the original on 14 September 2016. Retrieved 16 May 2007.
- "Summaries of General Synod Discussions and Actions on Homosexuality and the Rights of Homosexuals". Reformed Church in America. Archived from the original on 16 July 2012. Retrieved 21 November 2009.
- "We Are American Baptists". American Baptist Churches USA. Archived from the original on 2 September 2009. Retrieved 21 November 2009.
- "Evangelical Alliance (UK): Faith, Hope and Homosexuality" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 October 2011. Retrieved 30 November 2018.
- "Southern Baptist Convention". Archived from the original on 3 October 2013. Retrieved 22 August 2015.
- Statement on Homosexuality Archived 25 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine
- "EPC". Archived from the original on 21 September 2010. Retrieved 22 August 2015.
- "Homosexuality" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 November 2011.
- "Homosexuality – How Can I Avoid It?". Awake!: 28–30. February 2007.
- "Interview With Elder Dallin H. Oaks and Elder Lance B. Wickman: "Same-Gender At". www.mormonnewsroom.org. Retrieved 22 August 2015.
- NYTimes.com "United Church of Christ Backs Same-Sex Marriage"
- Schnabel, Landon (1 January 2016). "Gender and homosexuality attitudes across religious groups from the 1970s to 2014: Similarity, distinction, and adaptation". Social Science Research. 55: 31–47. doi:10.1016/j.ssresearch.2015.09.012. PMID 26680286.
- Bass, Ellen and Kate Kaufman. Free Your Mind: The Book for Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Youth and their Allies. New York: HarperPerennial, 1996.
- See generally Religioustolerance.org and subpages therein.
- "Homosexuality and the Bible, Rev. Clay Witt, Holy Redeemer M.C.C., 1995". Archived from the original on 2 August 2012.
- Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod: Resources on Sexuality: Articles, Audios, and Documents (2013); Theological Implications of the 2009 ELCA Decisions (2010); To Develop a Plan for Ministry to Homosexuals and Their Families (1999); Human Sexuality: A Theological Perspective (1981)
- Fellowship of Confessing Anglicans: The Jerusalem Declaration (2008) Archived 16 July 2016 at the Wayback Machine; The Complete Jerusalem Declaration (2008) Archived 16 July 2016 at the Wayback Machine
- Assemblies of God: Homosexuality, Marriage, and Sexual Identity (2014) Archived 23 November 2011 at the Wayback Machine
- American Baptist Churches USA: Identity Statement (2005); Responses / Actions Pertaining to Homosexuality
- Southern Baptist Convention: Homosexuality and the Bible Archived 23 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine; Resources on Homosexuality
- Church of the Nazarene: A Pastoral Perspective on Homosexuality Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine
- Presbyterian Church in America: 1999 Resolution regarding Homosexual Agenda Archived 23 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine; Assembly Actions on the Matter of Homosexuality (1996) Archived 23 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine; RPCES Report of the Study Committee on Homosexuality (1980) Archived 23 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine
- Evangelical Presbyterian Churches: The Sanctity of Marriage; Position Paper on Homosexuality
- Roman Catholic Church: Catechism of the Catholic Church, §§ 2357–2359; Catholic Answers, "Homosexuality" Archived 23 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine
- Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America: Understanding Homosexuality: An Orthodox Christian Perspective
- Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America: "Questions on Sexual Issues," The Stand of the Orthodox Church on Controversial Issues
- Orthodox Church in America: The Homosexual Christian (2012)
- Coptic Orthodox Patriarchate: The Coptic Orthodox Church's View on Homosexuality
- BDAG, "μαλακός, ή, όν."
- BDAG, "ἀρσενοκοίτης, ου, ὁ."
- Schumacher, Robin (6 October 2012). "Does Paul Condemn Homosexuality in 1 Corinthians and 1 Timothy?". The Christian Post. Archived from the original on 11 October 2013. Retrieved 1 July 2015.
- BDAG, "ἀκαθαρσία, ας, ἡ."
- Catechism of the Catholic Church vatican.va, accessed 13 June 2009
- Sheri L. Dew, "It Is Not Good for Man or Woman to Be Alone", Ensign, November 2001.
- Moore, Carrie A. (30 March 2007). "Gay LDS men detail challenges". Deseret Morning News.
- "No Easy Victory". Christianity Today. 11 March 2002.
- Cooper, Anderson (5 April 2007). "Sex and Salvation". Anderson Cooper 360°.
- Catechism of the Catholic Church 2359.
- Catechism of the Catholic Church 2348.
- "Anal Sex Safety and Health Concerns". WebMD.
- "Ranking religions on acceptance of homosexuality and reactions to SCOTUS ruling". 30 June 2015.
- "Catechism of the Catholic Church - The sixth commandment". www.vatican.va.
- "Chastity", churchofjesuschrist.org
- "The Divine Institution of Marriage". www.mormonnewsroom.org. 13 August 2008. Retrieved 22 August 2015.
- "First Presidency Statement on Same-Gender Marriage". www.mormonnewsroom.org. 20 October 2004. Retrieved 22 August 2015.
- "God Loveth His Children", 2007.
- LDS Church (1992) Understanding and Helping Those Who Have Homosexual Problems: Suggestions for Ecclesiastical Leaders Salt Lake City, Utah: LDS Church.
- "The Family". Retrieved 22 August 2015.
- "7 countries still put people to death for same-sex acts". ILGA. Archived from the original on 29 October 2009. Retrieved 24 July 2010.
- See, for example, this website Archived 28 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine
- "Homosexuality in the Light of Islam" Archived 6 December 2006 at the Wayback Machine, 20 September 2003
- "The punishment for lesbianism - Islam Question & Answer". islamqa.info.
- Bosworth, C.E. (1989). The History of al-Tabari Vol. 30: The 'Abbasid Caliphate in Equilibrium: The Caliphates of Musa al-Hadi and Harun al-Rashid A.D. 785-809/A.H. 169-193. SUNY Press. ISBN 9780887065644.
- "A selection of extracts from the Bahá'í writings on family life and marriage". www.bahai.org.
- "Office of Community Administration, ed. (9 July 2015), Compilation: Concerning issues related to homosexuality (PDF), National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United States" (PDF).
- "Homosexuality and the Baháʼí Faith". 26 January 2020 – via Wikipedia.
- "World Sikh group against gay marriage bill". CBC News. 29 March 2005.
- Malik, Rajiv (October–December 2004). "Discussions on Dharma". Hinduism Today Magazine. Archived from the original on 26 July 2011.
- 'Expose the Hindu Taliban!' by Ashok Row Kavi
- Manu Smriti, 3.49
- Lariviere. Naradasmriti, (Part One). Philadelphia, 1989.
- Vanita & Kidwai 2001, p. 25
- Mahabharata, book 5, Chapter 191-5.
- GradeSaver. "Vatsyayana Biography - List of Works, Study Guides & Essays". Retrieved 22 August 2015.
- Kama Sutra, Chapter 9, "Of the Auparishtaka or Mouth Congress". Text online Archived 13 March 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
- Pattanaik, Devdutt (2001). Homosexuality in Ancient India, Debonair 2000 or 2001. Essay available online Archived 22 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine from GayBombay.org.
- Ruth Vanita, Saleem Kidwai, p. 47 Same-Sex Love in India: Readings in Indian Literature
- FM. Krishna Kumari, p. 151 Sermons from Stones: Contribution of Andhras to Art, Culture, and Thought
- Gay couple hold Hindu wedding Tuesday, 29 May 2001, 11:29 GMT, BBC News
- As Tide Turns on Same-Sex Marriage, Churches Lag Behind Archived 6 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine New America Media, News Feature, Sandip Roy
- Higgins, Winton. "Buddhist Sexual Ethics". BuddhaNet Magazine. Retrieved 15 January 2007.
- GLBT in World Religions, Sermon by Rev. Gabriele Parks, along with Phil Manos and Bill Weber. Tpuuf.org Archived 23 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine
- "Cunda Kammaraputta Sutta" [To Cunda the Silversmith]. Translated from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu. Access to Insight. 1997. AN 10.176. Retrieved 14 March 2011.
Abandoning sensual misconduct, he abstains from sensual misconduct. He does not get sexually involved with those who are protected by their mothers, their fathers, their brothers, their sisters, their relatives, or their Dhamma; those with husbands, those who entail punishments, or even those crowned with flowers by another manCS1 maint: others (link)
- 優婆塞經 Archived 18 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine(Upāsaka Sutra from Madhyam āgama):復次，舍梨子！白衣聖弟子離邪婬、斷邪婬，彼或有父所護，或母所護，或父母所護，或兄弟所護，或姉妹所護，或婦父母所護，或親親所護，或同姓所護，或為他婦女，有鞭罰恐怖，及有名雇債至華鬘親，不犯如是女。彼於邪淫淨除其心，白衣聖弟子善護行，此第三法
- Ajahn Punnadhammo. "Same Sex Marriage".
The lay man is told to abstain from sex with "unsuitable partners" defined as girls under age, women betrothed or married and women who have taken vows of religious celibacy. This is clear, sound advice and seems to suggest that sexual misconduct is that which would disrupt existing family or love relationships. This is consonant with the general Buddhist principle that that which causes suffering for oneself or others is unethical behaviour. ("Unskillful behaviour" would be closer to the original.) There is no good reason to assume that homosexual relations which do not violate this principle should be treated differently.
- Somdet Phra Buddhaghosacariya (1993). Uposatha Sila The Eight-Precept Observance.There are four factors of the third precept (kamesu micchacara)
- agamaniya vatthu — that which should not be visited (the 20 groups of women).
- asmim sevana-cittam — the intention to have intercourse with anyone included in the above-mentioned groups.
- sevanap-payogo — the effort at sexual intercourse.
- maggena maggappatipatti — sexual contact through that adhivasanam effort.
- Bhikkhu Bodhi (1981). Going for Refuge & Taking the Precepts (The Five Precepts). Buddhist Publication Society.
- Ajahn Punnadhammo. "Same Sex Marriage".
- harvey, peter (2000). An Introduction to Buddhist Ethics. Cambridge University Press. pp. 421–. ISBN 9780511800801.
- Huifeng. "Re: Gay Marriage: What Would Buddha Do?". Dharma Wheel. Retrieved 13 January 2017.
- 《Great Treatise on the Perfection of Wisdom》（Sanskrit: Mahā-prajñāpāramitā-śāstra; 中文: 大智度論）卷13：非道之處，則非女根，女心不樂，強以非理，故名邪婬。（The wrong orifice is not through the female organ, the lady does not like this, and so forcing it [upon her] is inappropriate, therefore it is said to be "sexual misconduct）
- Thubten Chodron. Dealing With Life's Issues (PDF).
The Pali scriptures make no mention of homosexuality being unwise sexual conduct. For monastics, all sexual intercourse is a root downfall. It doesn't specify the gender of one's partner. Vasubandhu, a teacher who came several centuries after the Buddha, discouraged homosexuality. Personally speaking, I think what's most important is the motivation behind how we use our sexuality. In other words, if people use their sexuality unkindly or unwisely, it doesn't matter if it is directed to someone of their own sex or the opposite sex.
- José Ignacio Cabezón. "Thinking through Texts: Toward a Critical Buddhist Theology of Sexuality". Retrieved 17 February 2017.
Now the obvious historical question then becomes this: If the early doctrine of sexual misconduct is so simple and elegant, when and why did it get so complex and restrictive – that is, when do we find the transition to “organ/orifice mode”? The answer to the “when” question is simple. We don’t find any examples of the more elaborate formulation of sexual misconduct before the third century CE.
- Jackson, Peter Anthony (December 1995). "Thai Buddhist accounts of male homosexuality and AIDS in the 1980s". The Australian Journal of Anthropology. 6 (3): 140–53. doi:10.1111/j.1835-9310.1995.tb00276.x. PMID 12291560.
- See, for example, the Pandakavatthu section of the Mahavagga. 1:61, 68, 69; Vinaya: Mahavagga, 1:71, 76. Additionally, "The Story of the Prohibition of the Ordination of Pandaka" justifies the ban by giving an example of a monk with an insatiable desire to be sexually penetrated by men, thus bringing shame upon the Buddhist community. Vinaya, Vol. 4, pp. 141–142.
- Leupp, Gary P. (1995). Male Colors, the Construction of Homosexuality in Tokugawa Japan. Berkeley: The University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-585-10603-8.
- Paisarn Likhitpreechakul, Paisarn (2012). "Semen, Viagra and Pandaka: Ancient Endocrinology and Modern Day Discrimination". Journal of the Oxford Centre for Buddhist Studies. 3.
- Zwilling, Leonard (1992). "Homosexuality As Seen In Indian Buddhist Texts". In Cabezon, Jose Ignacio (ed.). Buddhism, Sexuality & Gender. State University of New York. pp. 203–214.
- 十誦律(the Chinese version of sarvāstivāda-vinaya)：是時，跋難陀釋子，與不能男出家(this paragraph mentioned the pandaka)。是人，夜捫摸諸比丘，諸比丘驅出(this paragraph mentioned trying to have sex with bhikkhu, namely men)。到比丘尼邊式叉摩尼沙彌沙彌尼邊，皆捫摸諸比丘尼學戒尼，諸沙彌沙彌尼盡驅出(and this paragraph mentioned trying to have sex with bhikkhunī, namely women)
- Cutler/Newland The Great Treatise On The Stages Of The Path To Enlightenment p.220
- Canada Tibet Committee. "Canada Tibet Committee - Library - WTN - Archive - Old". Retrieved 22 August 2015.
- Lotus Sutra: Leon Hurvitz, trans., Scripture of the Lotus Blossom of the Fine Dharma (New York: Columbia University Press, 1976), p. 209
- Milinda Panha, 100 BC. p. 310.
- Lattin, Don (11 June 1997). "Dalai Lama Speaks on Gay Sex - He says it's wrong for Buddhists but not for society". San Francisco Chronicle. – Conkin, Dennis (19 June 1997). "Dalai Lama urges 'respect, compassion, and full human rights for all,' including gays". Archived from the original on 23 April 2006. Retrieved 20 April 2006. – Nichols, Jack (13 May 1997). "Dalai Lama says 'oral and anal sex' not acceptable". Archived from the original on 21 February 1999.
- The Huffington Post, 07/13/09, Gay Marriage: What Would Buddha Do?, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/james-shaheen/gay-marriage-what-would-b_b_230855.html
- "The Buddhist religion and homosexuality". Religioustolerance.org.
- "'Etiquette guide' for Thai monks". BBC News. 27 April 2009. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
- Leupp, Gary (1995). Male Colors: The Construction of Homosexuality in Tokugawa Japan. p. 31
- Faure, Bernard (1998). The Red Thread: Buddhist approaches to sexuality p. 209
- Schalow, Paul Gordon. "Kukai and the Tradition of Male Love in Japanese Buddhism," in Cabezon, Jose Ignacio, Ed., Buddhism, Sexuality & Gender, State University of New York. p. 215.
- West, Donald James; Green, Richard (1997). Sociolegal Control of Homosexuality: Multi-nation Comparison. Springer. p. 68. ISBN 978-0-306-45532-2.
According to one legend, homosexuality was introduced into Japan in the ninth century by Shingon Buddhist monk, Kukai
- Kumagusu, Miinakata; Ihara Saikaku (1996). Stephen D. Miller (ed.). Partings at Dawn: An Anthology of Japanese Gay Literature. trans. Paul Gordon Schalow (2nd ed.). San Francisco: Gay Sunshine Press. p. 103. ISBN 978-0-940567-18-4.
The Buddha preached that Mount Imose (a metaphor for the love of women) was a place to be avoided, and thus priests of the dharma first entered this way as an outlet for their feelings, since their hearts were, after all, made of neither stone nor wood.
- Padma, Sree. Barber, Anthony W. Buddhism in the Krishna River Valley of Andhra. 2008. pp. 152
- Reeves 2008, p. 5
- World Sikh group against gay marriage bill, CBC News, Tuesday, 29 March 2005.
- "Sikhism and same Sex Marriages". sarbat.net. p. 1. Archived from the original on 14 August 2010. Retrieved 3 September 2010.
- "Sikhism, Yoga and Sexuality" (PDF). Project Naad. 2 September 2010. p. 33. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 October 2010. Retrieved 2 September 2010.
- "Homosexuality and Sikhism - SikhiWiki, free Sikh encyclopedia". www.sikhiwiki.org. Retrieved 7 February 2017.
- "AVESTA: VENDIDAD (English): Fargard 4. Contracts and offenses". www.avesta.org.
- "AVESTA: VENDIDAD (English): Chapter 8: Funerals and purification, unlawful sex". www.avesta.org.
- Donaldson, Stephen; Dynes, Wayne (1992). Homosexuality in the Ancient World. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9780815305460.
- "VENDIDAD - The Law Against Demons".
- Wawrytko, Sandra (1993). Homosexuality and Chinese and Japanese Religions in "Homosexuality and World Religions", edited by Arlene Swidler. Trinity Press International, 1993.
- Crompton, Louis. Homosexuality and Civilization. Harvard University Press. p. 221
- Jeffrey S. Siker, Homosexuality and Religion: an encyclopedia. page 210. 2007. ISBN 0-313-33088-3
- 太上老君戒經 [Supreme Laozi's Precepts]. Zhengtong daozang 正統道藏 [Zhengtong-era Daoist Canon]. c. 1445.
- Chinese Taoism Association (1994). 道教大辭典 [The Great Dictionary of Taoism]. ISBN 7-5080-0112-5./B.054
- 雲笈七籤.說戒部 [Yunji Qiqian. Precepts]. 正統道藏 [Zhengtong-era Daoist Canon]. Volumes 38-40.
- Homosexuality in China on glbtq.com.
- "Alternative Sexuality". Tangled Moon Coven. 8 August 2006. Retrieved 30 December 2006.
- "Sex, Wicca and the Great Rite". The Blade & Chalice. Spring 1993 (3).
- LaVey, Anton Szandor (1969). The Satanic Bible. New York: Avon Books. p. 66. ISBN 978-0-380-01539-9. OCLC 26042819. Retrieved 22 April 2010.
- "UUP Sermon: "My Greatly Human Hometown Minister"". Archived from the original on 17 February 2005. Retrieved 22 August 2015.
- "Unitarian Universalist LGBTQ History & Facts". UUA.org. 16 May 2013. Retrieved 22 August 2015.
- "Office of Bisexual, Gay, Lesbian, and Transgender Concerns". Archived from the original on 13 August 2010.
- "Transexuality, transgenderism, and gender identity". www.religioustolerance.org.
- "UUA.org". Archived from the original on 16 July 2006.
- "UUSM - Services & Sermons". 18 March 2005. Archived from the original on 18 March 2005.
- "Homosexual rights - International Humanist and Ethical Union". archive.is. 17 July 2013. Archived from the original on 17 July 2013.
- "LGBTQ Humanists - About the LGBTQ Humanist Council". LGBTQ Humanists. Retrieved 22 August 2015.
- "Humanists Tell Supreme Court: Marriage Equality is the Right Choice". American Humanist Association. 27 February 2013. Retrieved 22 August 2015.
- "Resources for Celebrants". Retrieved 22 August 2015.
- "Humanist Manifesto III". American Humanist Association. Retrieved 22 August 2015.
- "LGBTQ Humanists - Dan Savage, Greta Christina Among Humanist Awardees at AHA Annual Conference". LGBTQ Humanists. Archived from the original on 25 July 2015. Retrieved 22 August 2015.
- "Second Chance Prom in Mississippi Great Success, Humanists Say". Retrieved 22 August 2015.
- "Stephen Fry wins gay humanist award". PinkNews. 16 November 2009. Retrieved 22 August 2015.
- "Gay and Lesbian Humanist Association". Archived from the original on 25 July 2015. Retrieved 22 August 2015.
- Copson, Andrew (21 June 2015). "Comment: Humanists have always been champions of LGBT rights". Pink News. Retrieved 14 June 2018.
- Copson, Andrew (13 June 2016). "Humanism is the ultimate, long-standing and unfaltering ally of LGBTI people everywhere". International Humanist and Ethical Union. Retrieved 14 June 2018.
- Santos, Milton Silva dos (3 June 2008). "Sexo, gênero e homossexualidade: o que diz o povo-de-santo paulista?". Horizonte - Revista de Estudos de Teologia e Ciências da Religião. PUC Minas: 145–156. Retrieved 18 November 2017.
- Moon, Sun Myung. "The Family Federation for Cosmic Peace and Unification and the Cosmic Era of the Blessed Family". unification.net. Retrieved 30 November 2015.
- "The Unification Church and Homosexuality". www.ReligiousTolerance.org. Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance. Retrieved 30 November 2015.
- John Boswell, Christianity, Social Tolerance, and Homosexuality: Gay People in Western Europe from the Beginning of the Christian Era to the Fourteenth Century, University Of Chicago Press, 1st ed. 1980 ISBN 0-226-06710-6, paperback November 2005 ISBN 0-226-06711-4
- Dane S. Claussen, ed. Sex, Religion, Media, Rowman & Littlefield, 2002. ISBN 0-7425-1558-3
- Etengoff, C. & Daiute, C., (2015). Clinicians’ perspectives of religious families’ and gay men’s negotiation of sexual orientation disclosure and prejudice, Journal of Homosexuality, 62(3), 394-426.
- Etengoff, C. & Daiute, C. (2014). Family Members’ Uses of Religion in Post–Coming-Out Conflicts With Their Gay Relative. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality. 6(1), 33-43. doi: 10.1037/a0035198
- Johnson, P. and Vanderbeck, R.M. (2014) Law, Religion and Homosexuality, Abingdon: Routledge.
- Mathew Kuefler (editor), The Boswell Thesis : Essays on Christianity, Social Tolerance, and Homosexuality, University Of Chicago Press, November 2005 ISBN 0-226-45741-9
- Macnutt, Francis (2006) "Can Homosexuality Be Healed?" publisher 'Chosen Books', ISBN 0-8007-9409-5
- Stephen O. Murray and Will Roscoe (eds.), "Islamic Homosexualities: culture, history, and literature" NYU Press New York 1997
- Reeves, Gene (2008). The Lotus Sutra: A Contemporary Translation of a Buddhist Classic. Wisdom Publications. pp. 296–297. ISBN 978-0-86171-571-8.
- Arlene Swidler: Homosexuality and World Religions. Valley Forge 1993. ISBN 1-56338-051-X
- Vanita, Ruth; Kidwai, Saleem (2001). Same-sex love in India: readings from literature and history. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-312-29324-6.
- Wafer, Jim (1991) "The Taste of Blood: Spirit Possession in Brazilian Candomblé" UPP Philadelphia
- Wafer, Jim (1997) "Muhammad and Male Homosexuality" in "Islamic Homosexualities: culture, history, and literature" by Stephen O. Murray and Will Roscoe (eds.), NYU Press New York
- Wafer, Jim (1997) "The Symbolism of Male Love in Islamic Mysthical Literature" in "Islamic Homosexualities: culture, history, and literature" by Stephen O. Murray and Will Roscoe (eds.), NYU Press New York 1997