List of mammals displaying homosexual behavior

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Giraffes in Kenya; giraffes have been called "especially gay" for often engaging in male-male sexual behavior more than male-female (heterosexual) sex.[1][2]

For these mammals, there is documented evidence of homosexual behavior of one or more of the following kinds: sexual behavior, courtship, affection, pair bonding, or parenting.

Bruce Bagemihl writes that the presence of same-sex sexual behavior was not officially observed on a large scale until the 1990s due to possible observer bias caused by social attitudes towards LGBT people making homosexuality in animals a taboo subject.[3][4] He devotes three chapters; Two Hundred Years at Looking at Homosexual Wildlife, Explaining (Away) Animal Homosexuality and Not For Breeding Only in his 1999 book Biological Exuberance to the "documentation of systematic prejudices" where he notes "the present ignorance of biology lies precisely in its single-minded attempt to find reproductive (or other) "explanations" for homosexuality, transgender, and non-procreative and alternative heterosexualities.[5] Petter Bøckman, academic adviser for the Against Nature? exhibit stated "[M]any researchers have described homosexuality as something altogether different from sex. They must realise that animals can have sex with who they will, when they will and without consideration to a researcher's ethical principles". Homosexual behavior is found amongst social birds and mammals, particularly the sea mammals and the primates.[4]

Animal sexual behavior takes many different forms, even within the same species and the motivations for and implications of their behaviors have yet to be fully understood. Bagemihl's research shows that homosexual behavior, not necessarily sexual activity, has been documented in about 500 species as of 1999, ranging from primates to gut worms.[3][6] Homosexuality in animals is controversial with some social conservatives because it asserts the naturalness of homosexuality in humans, while others counter that it has no implications and is nonsensical to equate animal behavior to morality.[7][8] On the other hand, social liberals and many gay people believe homosexuality is natural, and therefore find the existence of homosexual sex in animals unsurprising. Animal preference and motivation is always inferred from behavior. Thus homosexual behavior has been given a number of terms over the years. The correct usage of the term homosexual is that an animal exhibits homosexual behavior, however this article conforms to the usage by modern research[9][10][11][12] applying the term homosexuality to all sexual behavior (copulation, genital stimulation, mating games and sexual display behavior) between animals of the same sex.

This a list of some mammals that had been recorded engaging in homosexual behavior, which is part of a larger list of animals displaying homosexual behavior including birds, insects, fish etc.

Selected images[edit]

List[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Kick (2001)
  2. ^ Imaginova (2007f)
  3. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999)
  4. ^ a b c News-medical.net (2006)
  5. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 213
  6. ^ Harrold (1999)
  7. ^ Solimeo (2004)
  8. ^ Solimeo (2004b)
  9. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 122-166
  10. ^ Roughgarden (2004) pp.13-183
  11. ^ Vasey (1995) pages 173-204
  12. ^ Sommer & Vasey (2006)
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Bagemihl (1999) page 316
  14. ^ a b Imaginova (2007e)
  15. ^ a b Forger (6 December 1998), Volume 375, Issue 2, Pages 333 – 343
  16. ^ Forger (1998)
  17. ^ Holekamp (2003)
  18. ^ a b Wilson (Sexing the Hyena)
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Bagemihl (1999) page 339
  20. ^ a b Imaginova (2007h)
  21. ^ a b c d Bagemihl (1999) page 413
  22. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 427
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Bagemihl (1999) page 449
  24. ^ Imaginova (2007b)
  25. ^ a b c d e Bagemihl (1999) page 391
  26. ^ a b c Bagemihl (1999) page 432
  27. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 405, 690
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h Bagemihl (1999) page 367
  29. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Bagemihl (1999) page 378
  30. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Bagemihl (1999) page 405
  31. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 209, 408, 690
  32. ^ a b c d Bagemihl (1999) page 441
  33. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 402
  34. ^ Norimasa Sugita (2016). "Homosexual Fellatio: Erect Penis Licking between Male Bonin Flying Foxes Pteropus pselaphon". PLoS One. 11 (11). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0166024. 
  35. ^ de Waal (2001)
  36. ^ Liggett (1997–2006)
  37. ^ Imaginova (2007j)
  38. ^ Imaginova (2007c)
  39. ^ a b c d e f g Bagemihl (1999) page 467
  40. ^ a b c d e f Bagemihl (1999) page 334
  41. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Bagemihl (1999) page 473
  42. ^ a b c d Bagemihl (1999) page 469
  43. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 427
  44. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) pages 388,389
  45. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 81, 88
  46. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 81, 82, 89
  47. ^ Poiani (2010) page 52
  48. ^ a b Poiani (2010) page 51
  49. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 422–425
  50. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 457
  51. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 276–279
  52. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) page 475
  53. ^ a b c Bagemihl (1999) page 448
  54. ^ a b c d Bagemihl (1999) page 471
  55. ^ a b c d Bagemihl (1999) page 333
  56. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 310, 314
  57. ^ Poiani (2010) page 170
  58. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 376
  59. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 447–448
  60. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) pages 458–460
  61. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 218, 231, 317
  62. ^ a b c Bagemihl (1999) pages 324–330
  63. ^ Imaginova (2007d)
  64. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) pages 299–301
  65. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 280–284
  66. ^ Juichi Yamagiwa (1987). "Intra- and inter-group interactions of an all-male group of virunga mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei)". Primates. 28 (1): 1–30. doi:10.1007/BF02382180. 
  67. ^ a b c Bagemihl (1999) pages 461–464
  68. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 231, 436–440
  69. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) pages 293–298
  70. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 347
  71. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 412
  72. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 465-466
  73. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 81, 165, 205, 226, 231
  74. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) page 386
  75. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 430
  76. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 422-425
  77. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 455-457
  78. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) page 397-401
  79. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) page 336-338
  80. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 302–305.
  81. ^ Cooper
  82. ^ Eaton (1974)
  83. ^ Schaller, (1972)
  84. ^ Srivastav (2001)
  85. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 470–472
  86. ^ Imaginova (2007)
  87. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 409
  88. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 109, 469
  89. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 387–390
  90. ^ a b c Bagemihl (1999) pages 418–421
  91. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 663, 693, 714
  92. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 410–413
  93. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 472
  94. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 465–466
  95. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 284–288
  96. ^ EA Fox (2001). "Homosexual behavior in wild Sumatran orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus abelii)". Am J Primatol. 55 (3): 177-81. doi:10.1002/ajp.1051. 
  97. ^ a b c d Bagemihl (1999) page 328
  98. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 81, 82, 225–226, 232–240
  99. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 418-421
  100. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 394–396
  101. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 397–401
  102. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 451
  103. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 81
  104. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 440
  105. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 437–441
  106. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 453–455
  107. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 364–365
  108. ^ Roselli (2004), Vol. 145, No. 2, pages 478–483
  109. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 289–292
  110. ^ Cite error: The named reference Biol._Exuberance:_Simran was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  111. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 330–335
  112. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) page 459
  113. ^ a b Poiani (2010) page 50
  114. ^ Jiang, T., Li, J., Sheeran, L. K., Zhu, Y., Sun, B., Xia, D., & Wang, X. (2013). "Homosexual mounting in wild male Tibetan Macaques (Macaca thibetana) at Huangshan, China" (PDF). Life Science Journal. 10 (1). 
  115. ^ Sommer (2006)
  116. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 340
  117. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 405–409
  118. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 366–368
  119. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 425–426
  120. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 370–374
  121. ^ Imaginova (2007g)
  122. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 231
  123. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pagepage 421
  124. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 397–400
  125. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 374–377
  126. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 288–290
  127. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 424


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Bibliography[edit]