List of mammals displaying homosexual behavior

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Giraffes in Kenya; giraffes have been called "especially gay" for engaging in male-male sexual behavior more often than male-female (heterosexual) sex.[1][2]

This is a list of mammals for which there is documented evidence of homosexual behavior. These animals have been observed practicing homosexual courtship, sexual behavior, affection, pair bonding, or parenting.

Bruce Bagemihl writes that the presence of same-sex sexual behavior was not officially observed on a large scale until the 1990s due to possible observer bias caused by social attitudes towards LGBT people, which made homosexuality in animals a taboo subject.[3][4] He devotes three chapters, "Two Hundred Years at Looking at Homosexual Wildlife", "Explaining (Away) Animal Homosexuality", and "Not For Breeding Only" in his 1999 book Biological Exuberance to the "documentation of systematic prejudices" where he notes "the present ignorance of biology lies precisely in its single-minded attempt to find reproductive (or other) "explanations" for homosexuality, transgender, and non-procreative and alternative heterosexualities.[5] Petter Bøckman, academic adviser for the Against Nature? exhibit, stated "[M]any researchers have described homosexuality as something altogether different from sex. They must realise that animals can have sex with who they will, when they will and without consideration to a researcher's ethical principles". Homosexual behavior is found amongst social birds and mammals, particularly the sea mammals and the primates.[4]

Animal sexual behavior takes many different forms, even within the same species and the motivations for and implications of their behaviors have yet to be fully understood. Bagemihl's research shows that homosexual behavior, not necessarily sexual activity, has been documented in about 500 species as of 1999, ranging from primates to gut worms.[3][6] Homosexuality in animals is controversial with some social conservatives because it asserts the naturalness of homosexuality in humans, while others counter that it has no implications and is nonsensical to equate animal behavior to morality.[7][8] Animal preference and motivation is inferred from behavior, thus homosexual behavior has been given a number of terms over the years. Modern research[9][10][11][12] applies the term homosexuality to all sexual behavior (copulation, genital stimulation, mating games and sexual display behavior) between animals of the same sex.

This is a list of some mammals that have been recorded engaging in homosexual behavior, which is part of a larger list of animals displaying homosexual behavior including birds, insects, fish, etc.

Selected images[edit]

List[edit]

See also[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

References[edit]

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  3. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999)
  4. ^ a b News-medical.net (2006)
  5. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 213
  6. ^ Harrold (1999)
  7. ^ Solimeo (2004)
  8. ^ Solimeo (2004b)
  9. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 122-166
  10. ^ Roughgarden (2004) pp.13-183
  11. ^ Vasey (1995) pages 173-204
  12. ^ Sommer & Vasey (2006)
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Bagemihl (1999) page 316
  14. ^ a b Imaginova (2007e)
  15. ^ a b Forger (6 December 1998), Volume 375, Issue 2, Pages 333 – 343
  16. ^ Forger (1998)
  17. ^ Holekamp (2003)
  18. ^ a b Wilson (Sexing the Hyena)
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  20. ^ a b Imaginova (2007h)
  21. ^ a b c Bagemihl (1999) page 413
  22. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 427
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Bagemihl (1999) page 449
  24. ^ Imaginova (2007b)
  25. ^ a b c d Bagemihl (1999) page 391
  26. ^ a b c Bagemihl (1999) page 432
  27. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 405, 690
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h Bagemihl (1999) page 367
  29. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Bagemihl (1999) page 378
  30. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Bagemihl (1999) page 405
  31. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 209, 408, 690
  32. ^ a b c d Bagemihl (1999) page 441
  33. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 402
  34. ^ Norimasa Sugita (2016). "Homosexual Fellatio: Erect Penis Licking between Male Bonin Flying Foxes Pteropus pselaphon". PLoS One. 11 (11): e0166024. Bibcode:2016PLoSO..1166024S. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0166024. PMC 5100941. PMID 27824953.
  35. ^ de Waal (2001)
  36. ^ Liggett (1997–2006)
  37. ^ Imaginova (2007j)
  38. ^ Imaginova (2007c)
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  40. ^ a b c d e f Bagemihl (1999) page 334
  41. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Bagemihl (1999) page 473
  42. ^ a b c d Bagemihl (1999) page 469
  43. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) pages 388,389
  44. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 81, 88
  45. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 81, 82, 89
  46. ^ Poiani (2010) page 52
  47. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 276–279. Excerpt from the book: Common Chimpanzees engage in full mouth-to-mouth contact[...] Oral sex of various kinds also occurs in a number of species[, for example] cunnilingus in Common Chimpanzees[...] In [...] Common Chimpanzees, individuals often rub their anal and genital regions together[...] Other [...] forms of "manual" stimulation include [...] anal stimulation and penetration with fingers by male Common Chimpanzees.
  48. ^ a b Poiani (2010) page 51
  49. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 422–425
  50. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 457
  51. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) page 475
  52. ^ a b c d Bagemihl (1999) page 471
  53. ^ a b c d Bagemihl (1999) page 333
  54. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 310, 314
  55. ^ Poiani (2010) page 170
  56. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 376
  57. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 447–448
  58. ^ Thierry Lodé La guerre des sexes chez les animaux Eds O Jacob, Paris, 2006.ISBN 2-7381-1901-8
  59. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) pages 458–460
  60. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 218, 231, 317
  61. ^ Chengming Huang; et al. (2015). "Non-conceptive sexual behavior and its function in an unusually composed group of Francois langurs (Trachypithecus francoisi) in Guangxi, China" (PDF). Vietnamese Journal of Primatology. 2 (3): 29–38.
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  63. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) pages 299–301
  64. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 280–284
  65. ^ Juichi Yamagiwa (1987). "Intra- and inter-group interactions of an all-male group of virunga mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei)". Primates. 28 (1): 1–30. doi:10.1007/BF02382180. S2CID 24667667.
  66. ^ a b c Bagemihl (1999) pages 461–464
  67. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 231, 436–440
  68. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) pages 293–298
  69. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 347
  70. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 412
  71. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 465-466
  72. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 81, 165, 205, 226, 231
  73. ^ Stephanie H. Stack; Lyle Krannichfeld; Brandi Romano (2024). "An observation of sexual behavior between two male humpback whales". Marine Mammal Science. doi:10.1111/mms.13119.
  74. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) page 386
  75. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 430
  76. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 422-425
  77. ^ Feige, Stacey, et al. "Heterosexual and homosexual behaviour and vocalisations in captive female koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus)[dead link]." Applied Animal Behaviour Science 103.1-2 (2007): 131-145.
  78. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 455-457
  79. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) page 397-401
  80. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) page 336-338
  81. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 302–305.
  82. ^ Cooper
  83. ^ Eaton (1974)
  84. ^ Schaller, (1972)
  85. ^ Srivastav (2001)
  86. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 470–472
  87. ^ Imaginova (2007)
  88. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 409
  89. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) page 448
  90. ^ Jia, Z. Y., et al. "Effects of number of homosexual partners on copulating date in female captive masked palm civets (Paguma larvata), and fluctuation of urine estrogen during breeding season." Acta Zoologica Sinica 48 (2002): 610-616.
  91. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 109, 469
  92. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 387–390
  93. ^ a b c Bagemihl (1999) pages 418–421
  94. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 663, 693, 714
  95. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 410–413
  96. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 472
  97. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 465–466
  98. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 284–288
  99. ^ EA Fox (2001). "Homosexual behavior in wild Sumatran orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus abelii)". Am J Primatol. 55 (3): 177–81. doi:10.1002/ajp.1051. PMID 11746281. S2CID 21561581.
  100. ^ a b c d Bagemihl (1999) page 328
  101. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 81, 82, 225–226, 232–240
  102. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 418-421
  103. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 394–396
  104. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 397–401
  105. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 451
  106. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 81
  107. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 440
  108. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 437–441
  109. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 453–455
  110. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 364–365
  111. ^ Roselli (2004), Vol. 145, No. 2, pages 478–483
  112. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 289–292
  113. ^ Pengzhen Huang; Xin He; Endi Zhang; Min Chen (2017). "Do same-sex mounts function as dominance assertion in male golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana)?". Am J Primatol. 79 (5): e22636. doi:10.1002/ajp.22636. PMID 28103402. S2CID 3875410.
  114. ^ Laura Busia; et al. (2018). "Homosexual Behavior Between Male Spider Monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi)" (PDF). Arch Sex Behav. 47 (4): 857–861. doi:10.1007/s10508-018-1177-8. PMID 29536259. S2CID 3855790.
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  116. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) page 459
  117. ^ Jiang, T., Li, J., Sheeran, L. K., Zhu, Y., Sun, B., Xia, D., & Wang, X. (2013). "Homosexual mounting in wild male Tibetan Macaques (Macaca thibetana) at Huangshan, China" (PDF). Life Science Journal. 10 (1).{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  118. ^ Sommer (2006)
  119. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 340
  120. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 405–409
  121. ^ Julie A. Teichroeb; et al. (2023). "Non-Reproductive Sexual Behavior in Wild White-Thighed Colobus Monkeys (Colobus vellerosus)". Archives of Sexual Behavior. doi:10.1007/s10508-023-02561-2. PMID 36849676. S2CID 257231173.
  122. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 366–368
  123. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 425–426
  124. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 370–374
  125. ^ Imaginova (2007g)
  126. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 231
  127. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 421
  128. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 397–400
  129. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 374–377
  130. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 288–290
  131. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 424
  132. ^ Poiani (2010) page 50