List of mammals displaying homosexual behavior

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Giraffes in Kenya; giraffes have been called "especially gay" for often engaging in same-sex sexual behavior more than male-female (heterosexual) sex.[1][2]

For these mammals, there is documented evidence of homosexual behavior of one or more of the following kinds: sexual behavior, courtship, affection, pair bonding, or parenting.

Bruce Bagemihl writes that the presence of same-sex sexual behavior was not officially observed on a large scale until the 1990s due to possible observer bias caused by social attitudes towards LGBT people making homosexuality in animals a taboo subject.[3][4] He devotes three chapters; Two Hundred Years at Looking at Homosexual Wildlife, Explaining (Away) Animal Homosexuality and Not For Breeding Only in his 1999 book Biological Exuberance to the "documentation of systematic prejudices" where he notes "the present ignorance of biology lies precisely in its single-minded attempt to find reproductive (or other) "explanations" for homosexuality, transgender, and non-procreative and alternative heterosexualities.[5] Petter Bøckman, academic adviser for the Against Nature? exhibit stated "[M]any researchers have described homosexuality as something altogether different from sex. They must realise that animals can have sex with who they will, when they will and without consideration to a researcher's ethical principles". Homosexual behavior is found amongst social birds and mammals, particularly the sea mammals and the primates.[4]

Animal sexual behavior takes many different forms, even within the same species and the motivations for and implications of their behaviors have yet to be fully understood. Bagemihl's research shows that homosexual behavior, not necessarily sexual activity, has been documented in about 500 species as of 1999, ranging from primates to gut worms.[3][6] Homosexuality in animals is controversial with some social conservatives because it asserts the naturalness of homosexuality in humans, while others counter that it has no implications and is nonsensical to equate animal behavior to morality.[7][8] On the other hand, social liberals and many gay people believe homosexuality is natural, and therefore find the existence of homosexual sex in animals unsurprising. Animal preference and motivation is always inferred from behavior. Thus homosexual behavior has been given a number of terms over the years. The correct usage of the term homosexual is that an animal exhibits homosexual behavior, however this article conforms to the usage by modern research[9][10][11][12] applying the term homosexuality to all sexual behavior (copulation, genital stimulation, mating games and sexual display behavior) between animals of the same sex.

This list is part of a larger list of animals displaying homosexual behavior including birds, insects, fish etc.

Selected images[edit]

List[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Kick (2001)
  2. ^ Imaginova (2007f)
  3. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999)
  4. ^ a b c News-medical.net (2006)
  5. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 213
  6. ^ Harrold (1999)
  7. ^ Solimeo (2004)
  8. ^ Solimeo (2004b)
  9. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 122-166
  10. ^ Roughgarden (2004) pp.13-183
  11. ^ Vasey (1995) pages 173-204
  12. ^ Sommer & Vasey (2006)
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Bagemihl (1999) page 316
  14. ^ a b Imaginova (2007e)
  15. ^ a b Forger (6 December 1998), Volume 375, Issue 2 , Pages 333 – 343
  16. ^ Forger (1998)
  17. ^ Holekamp (2003)
  18. ^ a b Wilson (Sexing the Hyena)
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Bagemihl (1999) page 339
  20. ^ a b Imaginova (2007h)
  21. ^ a b c d Bagemihl (1999) page 413
  22. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 427
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Bagemihl (1999) page 449
  24. ^ Imaginova (2007b)
  25. ^ a b c d e Bagemihl (1999) page 391
  26. ^ a b c Bagemihl (1999) page 432
  27. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 405, 690
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h Bagemihl (1999) page 367
  29. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Bagemihl (1999) page 378
  30. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Bagemihl (1999) page 405
  31. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 209, 408, 690
  32. ^ a b c d Bagemihl (1999) page 441
  33. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 402
  34. ^ de Waal (2001)
  35. ^ Liggett (1997–2006)
  36. ^ Imaginova (2007j)
  37. ^ Imaginova (2007c)
  38. ^ a b c d e f g Bagemihl (1999) page 467
  39. ^ a b c d e f Bagemihl (1999) page 334
  40. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Bagemihl (1999) page 473
  41. ^ a b c d Bagemihl (1999) page 469
  42. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) pages 388,389
  43. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 81, 88
  44. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 81, 82, 89
  45. ^ Poiani (2010) page 52
  46. ^ a b Poiani (2010) page 51
  47. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 422–425
  48. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 457
  49. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 276–279
  50. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) page 475
  51. ^ a b c Bagemihl (1999) page 448
  52. ^ a b c d Bagemihl (1999) page 471
  53. ^ a b c d Bagemihl (1999) page 333
  54. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 310, 314
  55. ^ Poiani (2010) page 170
  56. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 376
  57. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 447–448
  58. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) pages 458–460
  59. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 218, 231, 317
  60. ^ a b c Bagemihl (1999) pages 324–330
  61. ^ Imaginova (2007d)
  62. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) pages 299–301
  63. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 280–284
  64. ^ a b c Bagemihl (1999) pages 461–464
  65. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 231, 436–440
  66. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) pages 293–298
  67. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 347
  68. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 412
  69. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 465-466
  70. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 81, 165, 205, 226, 231
  71. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) page 386
  72. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 430
  73. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 422-425
  74. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 455-457
  75. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) page 397-401
  76. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) page 336-338
  77. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 302–305.
  78. ^ Cooper
  79. ^ Eaton (1974)
  80. ^ Schaller, (1972)
  81. ^ Srivastav (2001)
  82. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 470–472
  83. ^ Imaginova (2007)
  84. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 409
  85. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 109, 469
  86. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 387–390
  87. ^ a b c Bagemihl (1999) pages 418–421
  88. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 663, 693, 714
  89. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 410–413
  90. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 472
  91. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 465–466
  92. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 284–288
  93. ^ a b c d Bagemihl (1999) page 328
  94. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 81, 82, 225–226, 232–240
  95. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 418-421
  96. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 394–396
  97. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 397–401
  98. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 451
  99. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 81
  100. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 440
  101. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 437–441
  102. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 453–455
  103. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 364–365
  104. ^ Roselli (2004), Vol. 145, No. 2, pages 478–483
  105. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 289–292
  106. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 330–335
  107. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) page 459
  108. ^ a b Poiani (2010) page 50
  109. ^ Jiang, T., Li, J., Sheeran, L. K., Zhu, Y., Sun, B., Xia, D., & Wang, X. (2013). "Homosexual mounting in wild male Tibetan Macaques (Macaca thibetana) at Huangshan, China" (PDF). Life Science Journal. 10 (1). 
  110. ^ Sommer (2006)
  111. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 340
  112. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 405–409
  113. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 366–368
  114. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 425–426
  115. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 370–374
  116. ^ Imaginova (2007g)
  117. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 231
  118. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pagepage 421
  119. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 397–400
  120. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 374–377
  121. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 288–290
  122. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 424


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Bibliography[edit]