List of mammals displaying homosexual behavior

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Giraffes in Kenya; giraffes have been called "especially gay" for often engaging in male-male sexual behavior more than male-female (heterosexual) sex.[1][2]

For these mammals, there is documented evidence of homosexual behavior of one or more of the following kinds: sexual behavior, courtship, affection, pair bonding, or parenting.

Bruce Bagemihl writes that the presence of same-sex sexual behavior was not officially observed on a large scale until the 1990s due to possible observer bias caused by social attitudes towards LGBT people, which made homosexuality in animals a taboo subject.[3][4] He devotes three chapters; Two Hundred Years at Looking at Homosexual Wildlife, Explaining (Away) Animal Homosexuality, and Not For Breeding Only in his 1999 book Biological Exuberance to the "documentation of systematic prejudices" where he notes "the present ignorance of biology lies precisely in its single-minded attempt to find reproductive (or other) "explanations" for homosexuality, transgender, and non-procreative and alternative heterosexualities.[5] Petter Bøckman, academic adviser for the Against Nature? exhibit stated "[M]any researchers have described homosexuality as something altogether different from sex. They must realise that animals can have sex with who they will, when they will and without consideration to a researcher's ethical principles". Homosexual behavior is found amongst social birds and mammals, particularly the sea mammals and the primates.[4]

Animal sexual behavior takes many different forms, even within the same species and the motivations for and implications of their behaviors have yet to be fully understood. Bagemihl's research shows that homosexual behavior, not necessarily sexual activity, has been documented in about 500 species as of 1999, ranging from primates to gut worms.[3][6] Homosexuality in animals is controversial with some social conservatives because it asserts the naturalness of homosexuality in humans, while others counter that it has no implications and is nonsensical to equate animal behavior to morality.[7][8] On the other hand, social liberals and many gay people believe homosexuality is natural, and therefore find the existence of homosexual sex in animals unsurprising. Animal preference and motivation is always inferred from behavior. Thus homosexual behavior has been given a number of terms over the years. Modern research[9][10][11][12] applies the term homosexuality to all sexual behavior (copulation, genital stimulation, mating games and sexual display behavior) between animals of the same sex.

This a list of some mammals that had been recorded engaging in homosexual behavior, which is part of a larger list of animals displaying homosexual behavior including birds, insects, fish, etc.

Selected images[edit]

List[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Kick (2001)
  2. ^ Imaginova (2007f)
  3. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999)
  4. ^ a b c News-medical.net (2006)
  5. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 213
  6. ^ Harrold (1999)
  7. ^ Solimeo (2004)
  8. ^ Solimeo (2004b)
  9. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 122-166
  10. ^ Roughgarden (2004) pp.13-183
  11. ^ Vasey (1995) pages 173-204
  12. ^ Sommer & Vasey (2006)
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Bagemihl (1999) page 316
  14. ^ a b Imaginova (2007e)
  15. ^ a b Forger (6 December 1998), Volume 375, Issue 2, Pages 333 – 343
  16. ^ Forger (1998)
  17. ^ Holekamp (2003)
  18. ^ a b Wilson (Sexing the Hyena)
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Bagemihl (1999) page 339
  20. ^ a b Imaginova (2007h)
  21. ^ a b c d Bagemihl (1999) page 413
  22. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 427
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Bagemihl (1999) page 449
  24. ^ Imaginova (2007b)
  25. ^ a b c d e Bagemihl (1999) page 391
  26. ^ a b c Bagemihl (1999) page 432
  27. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 405, 690
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h Bagemihl (1999) page 367
  29. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Bagemihl (1999) page 378
  30. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Bagemihl (1999) page 405
  31. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 209, 408, 690
  32. ^ a b c d Bagemihl (1999) page 441
  33. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 402
  34. ^ Norimasa Sugita (2016). "Homosexual Fellatio: Erect Penis Licking between Male Bonin Flying Foxes Pteropus pselaphon". PLoS One. 11 (11): e0166024. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0166024. PMC 5100941. PMID 27824953.
  35. ^ de Waal (2001)
  36. ^ Liggett (1997–2006)
  37. ^ Imaginova (2007j)
  38. ^ Imaginova (2007c)
  39. ^ a b c d e f g Bagemihl (1999) page 467
  40. ^ a b c d e f Bagemihl (1999) page 334
  41. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Bagemihl (1999) page 473
  42. ^ a b c d Bagemihl (1999) page 469
  43. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) pages 388,389
  44. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 81, 88
  45. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 81, 82, 89
  46. ^ Poiani (2010) page 52
  47. ^ a b Poiani (2010) page 51
  48. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 422–425
  49. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 457
  50. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 276–279
  51. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) page 475
  52. ^ a b c Bagemihl (1999) page 448
  53. ^ a b c d Bagemihl (1999) page 471
  54. ^ a b c d Bagemihl (1999) page 333
  55. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 310, 314
  56. ^ Poiani (2010) page 170
  57. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 376
  58. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 447–448
  59. ^ Thierry Lodé La guerre des sexes chez les animaux Eds O Jacob, Paris, 2006.ISBN 2-7381-1901-8
  60. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) pages 458–460
  61. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 218, 231, 317
  62. ^ Chengming Huang; et al. (2015). "Non-conceptive sexual behavior and its function in an unusually composed group of Francois langurs (Trachypithecus francoisi) in Guangxi, China" (PDF). Vietnamese Journal of Primatology. 2 (3): 29–38.
  63. ^ a b c Bagemihl (1999) pages 324–330
  64. ^ Imaginova (2007d)
  65. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) pages 299–301
  66. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 280–284
  67. ^ Juichi Yamagiwa (1987). "Intra- and inter-group interactions of an all-male group of virunga mountain gorillas (Gorilla gorilla beringei)". Primates. 28 (1): 1–30. doi:10.1007/BF02382180.
  68. ^ a b c Bagemihl (1999) pages 461–464
  69. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 231, 436–440
  70. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) pages 293–298
  71. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 347
  72. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 412
  73. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 465-466
  74. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 81, 165, 205, 226, 231
  75. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) page 386
  76. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 430
  77. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 422-425
  78. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 455-457
  79. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) page 397-401
  80. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) page 336-338
  81. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 302–305.
  82. ^ Cooper
  83. ^ Eaton (1974)
  84. ^ Schaller, (1972)
  85. ^ Srivastav (2001)
  86. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 470–472
  87. ^ Imaginova (2007)
  88. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 409
  89. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 109, 469
  90. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 387–390
  91. ^ a b c Bagemihl (1999) pages 418–421
  92. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 663, 693, 714
  93. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 410–413
  94. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 472
  95. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 465–466
  96. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 284–288
  97. ^ EA Fox (2001). "Homosexual behavior in wild Sumatran orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus abelii)". Am J Primatol. 55 (3): 177–81. doi:10.1002/ajp.1051. PMID 11746281.
  98. ^ a b c d Bagemihl (1999) page 328
  99. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 81, 82, 225–226, 232–240
  100. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 418-421
  101. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 394–396
  102. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 397–401
  103. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 451
  104. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 81
  105. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 440
  106. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 437–441
  107. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 453–455
  108. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 364–365
  109. ^ Roselli (2004), Vol. 145, No. 2, pages 478–483
  110. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 289–292
  111. ^ Pengzhen Huang; Xin He; Endi Zhang; Min Chen (2017). "Do same-sex mounts function as dominance assertion in male golden snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana)?". Am J Primatol. 79 (5): e22636. doi:10.1002/ajp.22636. PMID 28103402.
  112. ^ Laura Busia; et al. (2018). "Homosexual Behavior Between Male Spider Monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi)" (PDF). Arch Sex Behav. 47 (4): 857–861. doi:10.1007/s10508-018-1177-8. PMID 29536259.
  113. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 330–335
  114. ^ a b Bagemihl (1999) page 459
  115. ^ a b Poiani (2010) page 50
  116. ^ Jiang, T., Li, J., Sheeran, L. K., Zhu, Y., Sun, B., Xia, D., & Wang, X. (2013). "Homosexual mounting in wild male Tibetan Macaques (Macaca thibetana) at Huangshan, China" (PDF). Life Science Journal. 10 (1).CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  117. ^ Sommer (2006)
  118. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 340
  119. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 405–409
  120. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 366–368
  121. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 425–426
  122. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 370–374
  123. ^ Imaginova (2007g)
  124. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 231
  125. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 421
  126. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 397–400
  127. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 374–377
  128. ^ Bagemihl (1999) pages 288–290
  129. ^ Bagemihl (1999) page 424


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