List of massacres in Greece

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Ancient Greece[edit]

Name Date Location Deaths Perpetrators Notes
Massacre of Argos 494 BC Argos 6,000 Sparta Argive survivors of the defeat at Sepeia burned alive in the sacred grove of Argos
Olynthus Massacre 479 BC Olynthus All inhabitants killed Persian Empire
Massacre of Plataea 431 BC Plataea 150 Plataea 150 Theban POWs executed
Fall of Plataea 427 BC Plataea 200 Sparta 200 Plataean and Athenian POWs executed
First massacre of Corcyran oligarchs 427 BC Corcyra Unknown Corcyran popular party Corcyran oligarchs executed by the popular party
Mytilenean revolt 427 BC Mytilene 1,000 Athens Ringleaders of the rebellion executed
Helot Massacre 425 BC Peloponnese 2,000 Sparta 2,000 Helot slaves executed by Sparta
Second massacre of Corcyran oligarchs 425 BC Corcyra Unknown Corcyran popular party Corcyran oligarchs executed by the popular party
Destruction of Scione 421 BC Scione All of Scione's men killed Athens Men killed, women and children enslaved
Massacre of Hysiae 417 BC Hysiae All male citizens of Hysiae killed Sparta
Destruction of Melos 416 BC Milos All Melian men killed Athens Women and children enslaved.
Massacre of Mycalessus 413 BC Mycalessus All inhabitants of Mycalessus killed Thracian mercenaries of Athens
Corcyra Massacre 361 BC Corcyra Unknown Athens A large number of Corcyrans killed
Battle of Thebes December 335 BC Thebes 6,000 Macedonian Army The city was completely destroyed and 30,000 were enslaved
Argos Massacre 315 BC Argos 500 Macedonian Army 500 Argive senators burned alive
Orchomenus Massacre 313 BC Orchomenus Unknown Oligarchs supported by Macedon
Messene Massacre 213 BC Messene 200 Demagogues supported by Macedon 200 magistrates and their supporters killed
Maroneia Massacre 184 BC Maroneia Unknown Macedonian Army A large number of Maronites killed
Aetolian massacre 167 BC Aetolia 550 Roman Army 550 Aetolian leaders killed by Roman soldiers.
Destruction of Corinth 146 BC Corinth All Corinthian men killed Roman Army Complete destruction of the city. Population partly massacred, partly enslaved.
Asiatic Vespers 88 BC Asia (Roman province) 80,000–150,000 Mithridates VI of Pontus Romans and Italians killed
Sack of Athens 86 BC Athens Unknown Roman Army Population partly massacred and large parts of the city burned down.
Massacre of Thessalonica April 390 Thessalonica 7,000 Roman Army

Roman Empire (Byzantium)[edit]

Name Date Location Deaths Perpetrators Notes
N/A 1171 Constantinople, Genoese quarter unknown Venetians Genoese. This was not the first time Venetian merchants had gotten out of hand. Given much freedom and power in their trade with the Empire, they had misused this freedom. In response, Emperor Manuel I cracked down on the Venetian merchants and this lead to the Byzantine-Venetian war.
Massacre of the Latins April 1182 Constantinople unknown Usurper Andronikos Komnenos and a mob of his supporters Massacre of Latins/Roman Catholics
Sack of Thessalonica (1185) 9–24 August 1185 Thessaloniki 7,000 Normans
Sack of Constantinople (1204) Fourth Crusade 1204 Constantinople unknown Latins/Catholics/Crusaders Orthodox Christians, Constantinopolitans
Frankokratia Latinokratia Venetokratia 1204-to varying centuries depending on location Roman Empire unknown Catholics/Latins Orthodox Christians, citizens of the Roman Empire
Venetian-Genoese War 1296 Constantinople unknown Genoese Venetian civilians

Ottoman Greece[edit]

Name Date Location Deaths Perpetrators Notes
Peloponnese massacres March 1770 Peloponnese, mainly Tripolitsa 3,000-10,000 (plus 20,000 refugees) Albanian irregulars After the failure of Orlov Revolt.
Preveza massacre October 1798 Preveza unknown Albanian Muslims Complete destruction, devastation of the city.

Greek Revolution (1821- 1832)[edit]

Name Date Location Deaths Perpetrators Notes
Constantinople massacre April–July 1821 Occurred in Constantinople, but contemporary pogrom activities spread in parts of present-day Greece (Kos, Rhodes)[1] unknown Ottoman government
Thessaloniki massacres May 1821 Thessaloniki unknown Ottoman government Governor Yusuf Bey ordered to kill any Greeks found in the streets.[citation needed]
Navarino massacre 19 August 1821 Pylos 3,000 Greek irregular forces
Samothrace massacre 1 September 1821 Samothrace 1,000[2] Ottoman army Complete destruction, devastation of the island.
Tripolitsa massacre 23 September 1821 Tripolis 6,000-15,000 Greek irregular forces
Chios massacre March 1822 Chios 20,000–52,000 Ottoman government
Naousa massacre 13 April 1822 Naousa 2,000 Ottoman army
Kasos massacre 7 June 1824 Kasos 7,000 Ottoman-Egyptian army
Destruction of Psara July 1824 Psara 7,000 Ottoman army
Third Siege of Missolonghi April 1826 Missolonghi 8,000 Ottoman/Egyptian army Missolonghi received the honorary title of Hiera Polis (Sacred City) by the Greek state.

First Balkan War[edit]

Name Date Location Deaths Perpetrators Notes
Servia massacre 10 October 1912 Servia, Greece 117 Ottoman Army

Second Balkan War[edit]

Name Date Location Deaths Perpetrators Notes
Serres Massacre 1913 Serres 200[3][4] Greek irregulars[5] against Bulgarian civilians
Doxato Massacre 30 June 1913 Doxato 500[4] Turkish irregulars[6][5]

World War II[edit]

Name Date Location Deaths Perpetrators Notes
Massacre of Kondomari 2 June 1941 Crete 60 German paratroopers
Alikianos executions 2 June 1941 and 1 August 1941 Western Crete 180+ German paratroopers
Razing of Kandanos 3 June 1941 Western Crete 180 German Army troops
Doxato massacre 28–29 September 1941 Doxato 200+ Bulgarian Royal Army
Domenikon massacre 16–17 February 1943 Domenikon 150 Italian Royal Army
Feneos executions March 1943-June 1944 Feneos unknown mainly OPLA The local monastery functioned as a concentration camp.
Holocaust of Viannos 14–16 June 1943 Viannos and Ierapetra regions 500+ German Army troops
Massacre of the Acqui Division 21 September 1943 Kefalonia, Greece 5,000 German Army troops Dramatized in the film Captain Corelli's Mandolin.
Kommeno massacre 16 August 1943 Kommeno 317 German Army troops
Paramythia executions 19–29 September 1943 Paramythia 201 Cham Albanian paramilitary/German Army troops
Massacre of Kalavryta 13 December 1943 Kalavryta 1,200+ German Army troops
5/42 Evzone Regiment dissolution 17 April 1944 Phocis, Central Greece 200+ ELAS troops Colonel Dimitrios Psarros executed also.
Pyrgoi (former Katranitsa) massacre 20 April 1944 Pyrgoi 346 German Army troops
Executions of Kaisariani 1 May 1944 Kaisariani 200 German Army troops
Distomo massacre 10 June 1944 Distomo 218 German SS troops
Massacre of Pikermi 21 July 1944 Pikermi 54 German Army troops
Massacre of Mousiotitsa 25 July 1943 Mousiotitsa 153 German SS troops
Executions of Kokkinia 17 August 1944 Kokkinia 300+ German Army troops/Security Battalions
Holocaust of Kedros 22 August 1944 Amari Valley 164 German Army troops
The Massacre of Chortiatis 2 September 1944 Chortiatis 146 German Army troops Perpetrated by Friedrich Schubert
Executions of Meligalas 16 September 1944 Meligalas c.1,000 ELAS troops
Executions of ULEN/Peristeri December 1944 (Dekemvriana) Athens 3,000+ (unknown exactly) OPLA, other minor communist groups

Post-war[edit]

Name Date Location Deaths Perpetrators Notes
Athens Polytechnic uprising November 1973 Athens 24, many injured Greek military junta Data based on the Work of Leonidas Kallivretakis from "“Πολυτεχνείο ’73: Το ζήτημα των θυμάτων: Νεκροί και τραυματίες,” Πολυτεχνείο ’73: ρεπορτάζ με την Ιστορία, vol. 2, Αθήνα: Eκδόσεις Φιλιππότη, 2004, pp. 38-55." More info (in Greek) can be found in http://helios-eie.ekt.gr/EIE/handle/10442/8782

References[edit]

  1. ^ Clair, William St. (2008). That Greece might still be free (New ed., rev., corr., and with additional ill. and updated bibliography. ed.). Cambridge: Open Book Publ. pp. 4–5. ISBN 9781906924003. 
  2. ^ Charles Vellay, L'irrédentisme hellénique, 1913, 329 pages. page 131: [1]
  3. ^ Palairet, Michael (2016). Macedonia: A Voyage through History (Vol. 2, From the Fifteenth Century to the Present). Cambridge Scholars Publishing. ISBN 9781443888493. 
  4. ^ a b Kramer, Alan (2008). Dynamic of Destruction: Culture and Mass Killing in the First World War. OUP Oxford. ISBN 9780191580116. 
  5. ^ a b The Nation and Athenæum. Nation Publishing Company Limited. 1914. 
  6. ^ Report of the International Commission to Inquire into the Causes and Conduct of the Balkan Wars, published by the Endowment Washington, D.C. 1914, p. 83 "While emphasizing the heavy responsibility which falls on the Bulgarian officers for this catastrophe, we do not hesitate to conclude that the massacre at Doxato was a Turkish and not a Bulgarian atrocity."