List of massacres in the Czech Republic

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The following lists include the incidents that occurred in the territory of the present-day Czech Republic in which the killing of more than five non-combatant people (unarmed civilians, prisoners, or prisoners of war) took place.

Massacres before the Hussite Wars (up until the year 1419)[edit]

The following is a list of massacres and antisemitic pogroms that occurred in the territory of the present-day Czech Republic before the year 1419:

Name Date Location Deaths Notes
Prague 1096 Pogrom June 30, 1096 Prague Several hundred Part of the massacres committed during the First Crusade; the victims were Jewish; the precise number of victims is unknown.
Moravia 1096 Pogroms July 1096 several towns in Moravia Unknown Part of the massacres committed during the First Crusade; the victims were Jewish; the precise number of victims is unknown.
Prague 1161 Pogrom 1161 Prague 85 85 Jews were burned to death outside the city gate to Vysehrad after accusations of poisoning wells, water sources, and even the air within houses. Their ashes were thrown in the Moldau river and the city's Synagogue was destroyed.
Prague 1389 Pogrom April 18, 1389 Prague More than 3,000 The victims were Jewish. The massacre took place on Saturday before Easter in the absence of King Wenceslaus IV of Bohemia from the city. Most sources say more than 3,000 (of a Jewish community of 4,000) were killed (some sources estimate 400–500); Gaon Avigdor Karo (Abigedor Ḳara), a poet and scholar of the kaballah, composed an elegy to commemorate the tragedy which was incorporated into the Selichot or communal prayers recited during the Jewish High Holidays and on Jewish fast days.

Massacres during the Hussite Wars (1419 to 1436)[edit]

The following massacres and antisemitic pogroms occurred in the territory of the present-day Czech Republic during the Hussite Wars of 1419–1436. During these wars, many atrocities were committed by both Hussites and Catholics. Most Hussites were ethnic Czechs, but there were also German and Polish adherents of this movement. On the other side, most Catholics involved in this conflict were ethnic Germans, but Hungarian, Czech, and Polish Catholics were also killed during the fights and massacres. Jews who sided with the reformer Jan Hus were also victimized during this period. Many killings of the Hussite Wars took place outside the borders of today's Czech Republic; they are not included here.

Name Date Location Deaths Notes
Prague 1421 Pogrom 1421 Prague unknown The Jewish quarter of Prague was looted and many Jews were killed. The pogrom seems to have taken place early in 1421, as sources relate that it happened soon after the battle of Vysehrad which ended on November 1, 1420.[1]
Lipany 1434 Killing of Surrendered Hussite Soldiers 1434, May 30 Lipany about 700 After the defeat of the radical Hussites or Taborites in the battle of Lipany, about 700 ordinary soldiers who surrendered after promises of renewed military service were burned to death in nearby barns. Almost all of the victims were ethnic Czechs.

Massacres between 1436 and 1900[edit]

The following is a list of massacres and pogroms that occurred in the territory of the present-day Czech Republic between the years 1436 and 1900:

Name Date Location Deaths Notes
Prague 1483 Pogrom 1483 Prague unknown The victims were Jewish.[1]
Massacre in Běchovice June 17, 1848 Prague 7 (at least) were killed. At least 50 were injured; this massacre was part of the Revolutions of 1848 in the Austrian Empire.

Massacres between 1900 and 1939[edit]

The following is a list of massacres and pogroms that occurred in the territory of the present-day Czech Republic during the 20th century, but before World War II:

Name Date Location Deaths Notes
Massacre in Kadaň (Massaker von Kaaden) 4 March 1919 Kadaň 17 25 were killed (including those of about 70 injured who later died); part of the 4th of March general strike in World War I and its aftermath in the German provinces.
Massacre in Šternberk (Massaker von Sternberg) 4 March 1919 Šternberk 15 Part of the 4th of March general strike in World War I and its aftermath in the German provinces.
Frývaldov strike (Freiwaldau strike) 25 November 1931 Dolní Lipová 8 At least 13 more were injured; part of the Great Depression strike movement.

Massacres during World War II[edit]

The following is a list of massacres and pogroms that occurred in the territory of the present-day Czech Republic in the time of Nazi Occupation of Czechoslovakia, until the end of World War II on May 8, 1945. The only exception is the biggest single-day mass murder of Czech citizens in history, which was committed at the Theresienstadt family camp at Auschwitz II-Birkenau in modern-day Poland, on March 8–9, 1944. There were also single-day mass murders of Czech citizens in the Nazi concentration camps outside the Czech lands, such as in Maly Trostenets, 28 August 1942 (999 killed); Riga, 28 August 1942 (1001 killed); Mauthausen, 24 October 1942 (262 killed); Mauthausen, 10 April 1945 (235 killed) etc. If not stated otherwise, the victims were of Czech ethnicity.

Name Date Location Deaths Notes
17 November Raid against universities and colleges 17 November 1939 Prague 9 Nine student leaders were executed and about 1500 students were sent to concentration camps, where 35 were executed or died later; part of the German occupation of Czechoslovakia.
First Martial Law (First Heydrichiada) 28 September 1941 – 19 January 1942 Prague 247 killed outright The complete toll has been estimated at about 1500, including those executed and other deaths in concentration camps; the victims were of various ethnicities, mostly Czech Christians and Czech Jews; part of the German occupation of Czechoslovakia and the Holocaust.
First Martial Law (First Heydrichiada) 28 September 1941 – 19 November 1941 Brno 239 killed outright The complete death toll has been estimated at about 1000, including those executed and other deaths in concentration camps); the victims were Czech Christians and Czech Jews; part of German occupation of Czechoslovakia and the Holocaust.
Massacre in Lidice 10 June 1942 Lidice 181 172 men were shot in Lidice, nine more men from Lidice shot in Prague. Complete toll at least 318, with 52 women and 85 children from Lidice being killed in concentration camps, older sources claim 340; part of the German occupation of Czechoslovakia.
Massacre in Ležáky 24 June 1942 Ležáky 33 killed outright The complete toll has been estimated at about 44, including deaths in concentration camps; part of the German occupation of Czechoslovakia.
Liquidation of the Theresienstadt concentration camp 8–9 March 1944 Auschwitz-Birkenau 3,792 The victims were Czech Jews; approximately 144,000 Jews, most of then Czech citizens, were sent to Theresienstadt concentration camp; about a quarter of the inmates (33,000) died in Theresienstadt. When the camp was liquidated, inmates were sent to Poland; although the Polish killings were committed outside the territory of the Czech Republic, this was the largest mass murder of Czech citizens in history; part of the Holocaust; see also the History of the Jews in Czechoslovakia.
Massacre in Životice 6 August 1944 Životice 36 killed outright The complete toll was 44, including deaths in concentration camps; the victims were 35 ethnic Poles, 8 Czechs and one German; part of the German occupation of Czechoslovakia.
Transport of Death 24 January 1945 Brandýs nad Orlicí 18 The victims were of various ethnicities; part of the Nazi Death Marches of the Holocaust.[2]
Transport of Death 13–14 April 1945 Stod (Czech Republic) 241 The victims were of various ethnicities; part of the Nazi Death Marches of the Holocaust.
Massacre in Jablunkov 13 April 1945 Jablunkov 12 The victims were Polish prisoners murdered by the Gestapo; part of the German occupation of Czechoslovakia.
Transport of Death 15 April 1945 Nýřany about 100 The victims were of various ethnicities; part of the Nazi Death Marches of the Holocaust.
Murder in Gästehaus 17 April 1945 Kyjov 7 killed outright The complete death toll was 9, including two men subsequently shot on the street; part of the German occupation of Czechoslovakia.[3]
Massacre in Ploština 19 April 1945 Ploština 24 killed outright The complete death toll was 28, including subsequent executions; part of the German occupation of Czechoslovakia.
Massacre in Zákřov 20 April 1945 Zákřov 19 Part of the German occupation of Czechoslovakia.
Killing in the Mikulov clay pit 20(?) April 1945 Mikulov 21 This was the mass murder of Hungarian Jewish prisoners working in a clay pit; part of the Holocaust.
Court-martial in Medlánky 21 April 1945 Brno-Medlánky 15 Part of the German occupation of Czechoslovakia.
Massacre in Prlov 23 April 1945 Prlov 19 killed outright The complete death toll was 23, including subsequent executions; part of the German occupation of Czechoslovakia.
Massacre near Salaš 29 April 1945 Bunč 21 Part of the German occupation of Czechoslovakia.
Massacre near Suchý 30 April 1945 Suchý 10 Part of the German occupation of Czechoslovakia.
Massacre in Letovice May (?) 1945 Letovice 19 The bodies of 19 murdered German Gestapo prisoners of war were discovered on 15 May, 1945; part of the German occupation of Czechoslovakia.
Last execution in Theresienstadt 2 May 1945 Theresienstadt 52 At the request of Karl Hermann Frank, the "most dangerous" political prisoners were murdered; the majority of the victims were Czech communists; part of the German occupation of Czechoslovakia and the Holocaust.
Execution in Lazce 2 May 1945 Olomouc-Lazce 23 21 participants or hostages captured during the uprising in Přerov and 2 local members of the resistance were killed; part of the German occupation of Czechoslovakia.
Execution in Fort XIII 2 May 1945 Olomouc-Nová ulice 17 Captured participants of the uprising in Přerov and hostages were murdered; part of the German occupation of Czechoslovakia.
Transport of Death May 3–6, 1945 Olbramovice 82 The victims were of various ethnicities; part of the Nazi Death Marches of the Holocaust.
Death March May 4–6, 1945 Podbořany-Kaštice 268 killed outright The complete death toll was about 600, including those killed outright and those who died on the way from Johanngeorgenstadt to Lovosice); the victims were of various ethnicities; part of the Nazi Death Marches of the Holocaust.
Massacre in Javoříčko 5 May 1945 Javoříčko 38 Part of German occupation of Czechoslovakia.
Brandýs Tragedy 5 May 1945 Brandýs nad Orlicí 15 Part of the German occupation of Czechoslovakia.[4]
Death March of Volary 6 May 1945 Volary 95–217 All of the victims were women, most of them Hungarian Jews. When the march departed from Helmbrechts concentration camp in Germany on 13 April 1945, it comprised 1167 women, 577 of them Jewish and 590 non-Jewish, including 25 German Christian women, all of whom survived.[5] The complete death toll seems to be at least 217 (including about 123 who were killed or perished in Germany before the march passed the border on April 14 near Aš/Asch); 59 of the victims were shot and 158 perished from exhaustion; part of the Nazi Death Marches of the Holocaust.
Massacre in Velké Meziříčí 6 May 1945 Velké Meziříčí 58 killed outright The complete death toll was 60, including subsequent executions; part of German occupation of Czechoslovakia.
Massacre in Leskovice 6 May 1945 Leskovice 18 The complete death toll was 26, including 8 insurgents executed or killed in a fight on the previous day; the German SS commander responsible for the massacre of civilians was Walter Hauck; part of German occupation of Czechoslovakia.[6]
Massacre in Prague, Úsobská street 6 May 1945 Prague 51 Part of the Prague uprising.
Massacre in Psáry 6 May 1945 Psáry 13 Part of the Prague uprising.
Massacre near Lednice 7 May 1945 A village near Lednice (German: Eisgrub) 22 Both perpetrators and victims were German. 22 German soldiers were shot as alleged deserters without any trial; the killing was personally ordered by Marshal Ferdinand Schörner.[7]
Kolín massacre 7 May 1945 Kolín 16 Part of the German occupation of Czechoslovakia.
Massacre in Třešť 7 May 1945 Třešť 34 Part of the German occupation of Czechoslovakia.
Massacre in Velké Popovice 7 May 1945 Velké Popovice 29 Part of the German occupation of Czechoslovakia.
Massacre in Lahovice 7 May 1945 Prague-Lahovice 21 Part of the Prague uprising.
Massacre in Masarykovo nádraží 8 May 1945 Prague 53 Part of the Prague uprising.
Massacre in Trhová Kamenice 8 May 1945 Trhová Kamenice 13 Part of the German occupation of Czechoslovakia.
Malín tragedy 8 May 1945 Kutná Hora-Malín 11 Part of the German occupation of Czechoslovakia.

Massacres after World War II up until Communist Takeover on February 25, 1948[edit]

The following is a list of massacres that occurred in the territory of the present-day Czech Republic between May 9, 1945 and February 25, 1948 (the day of the communist takeover):

Name Date Location Deaths Notes
Killing of Germans in Bartolomějská ulice 8 May 1945 Prague, Old Town 9 9 Germans were slain in the Old Town of Prague, (Barthomoläusgasse/Bartolomějská ulice no. 9) in the afternoon of May 8. Three of them of them were soldiers of the Wehrmacht; part of the aftermath of thePrague uprising.[8]
Massacre of Germans in Bořislavka 9 May 1945 Prague-Bořislavka 41 Part of the aftermath of the Prague uprising; the killing of these Germans was ordered by an unidentified person wearing the uniform of a Soviet officer.[9]
Burning of Lejčkov 9 May 1945 Dolní Hořice-Lejčkov 24 Part of the German occupation of Czechoslovakia; this massacre was committed by German troops after the German surrender.[10]
Massacre in Běloves 9 May 1945 Náchod 9 Part of the German occupation of Czechoslovakia; this massacre was committed by Waffen-SS troops one whole day after the German surrender came into force.
Liquidation of soldiers of the Vlasov army after May 9, 1945 Prague about 200 The victims were Russians. On the morning of May 9, 1945 Soviet Red Army troops conquered Prague. Very soon afterwards, about 200 members of the Nazi German collaborationist Russian Liberation Army or Vlasov Army, who had remained in the city, were shot by the Soviets as traitors to Russia.[9] The complete death toll among the "Vlasovci" was much higher, with many of them being killed elsewhere.
Killings in Prague's Strahov Stadium May/June 1945 Prague-Strahov several hundred After May 8, 1945 several thousand Germans were interned in Prague's largest stadium for several weeks under extreme conditions. There were repeated executions without trial[9] and high mortality due to a lack of food and shelter; according to the report of a German physician, a total of 25,000 people were arrested there.[11] In the beginning most of the inmates were disarmed German soldiers, after the middle of May most were civilians. The stadium had an average occupancy of about 9,000 persons and several hundred were killed or perished.[12] The stadium was used as a camp at least until June 19, 1945.[13] Part of the expulsion of Germans from Czechoslovakia.
Massacre in Lanškroun May 17–21, 1945 Lanškroun (German: Landskron) at least 51 The victims were Germans; part of the expulsion of Germans from Czechoslovakia.
Massacre in Německý Šicndorf 19 May 1945 Dobronín (German: Dobrenz) 13–15 or more The victims were Germans, slain with hoes and shovels; part of the expulsion of Germans from Czechoslovakia. The mass grave was examined by Czech police in 2010; they found at least 13 human bodies. Survivors claimed that there had been several dozen victims; in May 2011 Czech police found another mass grave nearby.[14]
Hanke Lager Massacres 27 May – 12 June 1945 Ostrava (German: Mährisch Ostrau) 231 The victims were German civilians from Ostrava and the surrounding area; most were killed by hanging, several were tortured to death. Massacres happened on 27 May (6 killed), 28 May (18 killed), 29 May (17), 30 May (28) 1 June (12), 3 June (14), 4 June (23), 8 June (18), 9 June (26), 12 June (32). After that the guards were exchanged by Czech authorities and only 5 more people died until 3 July. All victims are known by full name, the event is well documented by Czech historians whose post-1990 findings confirm earlier Sudeten German information.[15]
Killings in Ivančice May / June 1945 Ivančice (German: Eibenschütz) 30–35 The "Josef Hybeš" Czech partisan group, under the command of A. Řepka, killed 30 to 35 Germans and alleged Czech collaborators of Nazi Germany. 18 of them were executed after the trial of a "revolutionary people's court" on May 10, 1945;[16] 10 names are documented by a German source, 17 names from Czech documents.[17]
Brno Death March from May 30 to June 1945 Brno (German: Brünn) and villages south of the city estimated range from 647 to about 4,140 According to Czech historians, 649 Germans were killed or perished on Czech (Moravian) soil and another estimated 1,050 died in Austria aa a consequences of the death march.[18] Austrian researchers claimed 1,950 victims of the march itself, 2,000 victims in the Pohořelice camp and another 190 victims in surrounding villages. In total 4,140 German victims from Brno.[19] plus 1,062 who died in Austria.[20]
Executions in Nový Bor 2 June 1945 Nový Bor 7 The victims were Germans; the complete death toll was 8, including one German bystander killed during the executions; the families of the victims were forced to move behind nearby German borders; part of the expulsion of Germans from Czechoslovakia[21]
Massacres in Tocov 2, 3 and 5 June 1945 Tocov (German: Totzau) 31 The victims were Germans; three massacres took place: on June 2, 5 were killed), during the night of June 2 to June 3, 6 were killed) and on June 5, 20 were shot. part of the expulsion of Germans from Czechoslovakia; the event was examined in 1999 by German and Czech prosecutors, who confirmed the facts and identified the perpetrators.[22]
Massacre in Postoloprty 3–7 June 1945 Postoloprty (German: Postelberg) at least 730 The victims were German men and boys; 822 men from Postoloprty were reported missing after June 7, 1945; in 1947 a total of 763 bodies were found in Postoloprty; part of the expulsion of Germans from Czechoslovakia, but some of the mass graves were attributed to the earlier Nazi Death Marches of the Holocaust.
Massacre in Podbořany 7 June 1945 Podbořany (German: Podersam) 68 The victims were male German civilians; part of the expulsion of Germans from Czechoslovakia. The names of all of the victims and most of the perpetrators are known and so are the sites of two mass graves with 32 and 36 bodies, which were investigated by Czechoslovak authorities in 1947. The event is well documented by Czech and German authors, among them Ota Filip.[23]
Massacre in Švédské Šance June 18–19, 1945 Přerov (German: Prerau) 265 The victims were ethnic Germans from Slovakia; one Slovakian woman and her boy were spared, the German father was shot; part of the expulsion of Germans from Czechoslovakia.
Massacre at Buková hora 30 June 1945 Teplice nad Metují 23 The victims were Germans; women, children, and old men were marched to the border to be expelled; as Polish authorities refused thementry, the Germans were killed; part of the expulsion of Germans from Czechoslovakia[24]
Ústí massacre 31 July 1945 Ústí nad Labem (German: Aussig) 43–2800 The victims were Germans; the official Czechoslovak investigation confirmed 43 people had been killed, but the actual number is estimated at least 100; part of the expulsion of Germans from Czechoslovakia. Before 1990, Sudeten German organisations were claiming 600–2800 victims, or sometimes "thousands."[25]

Massacres during the Time of Communist Rule (1948–1989)[edit]

The following is a list of massacres that occurred in the territory of the present-day Czech Republic between 1948 and 1989:

Name Date Location Deaths Notes
Slánsky Trial 3 December 1952 Prague 11 Eleven leading members of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia were executed by hanging and three more were sentenced to life imprisonment after an openly antisemitic eight day show trial inspired by Stalin; 11 of the 14 defendants were of Jewish origin; all 14 defendants were rehabilitated between 1960 and 1963 after internal Czechoslovak investigations (published only much later).
Jeseník tragedy 27 February 1967 Jeseník 8 Mentally ill Josef Svoboda killed his whole family with an ax and then committed suicide.[26]
Fight for the Czech Radio station 21 August 1968 Prague-Vinohrady 9 (16) During the attempt of unarmed demonstrators to defend the Czech radio station building against Soviet invaders, 4 men were shot dead and 5 men were hit and killed by a Soviet military truck; the same day at the same place 4 men died due to the explosion of a Soviet tank which was set ablaze by demonstrators, and another 3 people died after the fire spread to surrounding buildings; in other parts of Prague, 2 people were shot dead and 2 people were crushed by Soviet tanks;[27]; part of the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia.
Occupation of Liberec 21 August 1968 Liberec 9 In the early hours of the Soviet invasion, 4 people were shot dead by Soviet troops in the main square and 24 were injured, 2 of whom died later; a few hours after this, a Soviet tank rammed the arcade at the square[28] causing the immediate death of 2 people and injured 9 (1 died later);[27][29]; part of the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia.
Truck attack at the tram stop 10 July 1973 Prague 8 The truck-murderer Olga Hepnarová killed 3 people immediately and injured 17. of whom 5 died later.[30]

Massacres after 1989[edit]

Name Date Location Deaths Notes
Uherský Brod shooting 24 February 2015 Uherský Brod 9 Mentally ill Zdeněk Kovář shot the guests in a restaurant and then committed suicide.[31]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b David J. Podiebrad (ed.): Alterthümer der Prager Josefstadt, israelitischer Friedhof, Alt-Neu-Schule und andere Synagogen, 3rd edition, Prague 1870, p. 140
  2. ^ "Společný Hrob Vězňů z Transportu z Osvětimi". Římskokatolická farnost Brandýs nad Orlicí. Společenství farníků farnost Brandýs nad Orlicí. Retrieved 1 April 2016.
  3. ^ Dunděra, Jiří (7 May 2010). "Poslední dny války na Kyjovsku" (PDF). Kyjovské noviny. 5: 4. Retrieved 1 April 2016.
  4. ^ Hubený, Jaroslav (1 May 2015). "Padni komu padni. Tak píše příběhy roku 1945 Jiří Padevět". iDNES.cz. Retrieved 1 April 2016.
  5. ^ Detailed information is given on the website of Yad Vashem, see here.
  6. ^ "Válka končila, na Pelhřimovsku se ale schylovalo k masakrům". Česká televize (in Czech). ČT24. 3 May 2015. Retrieved 21 April 2017.
  7. ^ Der laute Kamerad [The Noisy Comrade]: SPIEGEL, 9 February 1955, p. 17
  8. ^ Staněk, Tomáš (2002), p. 94; report to Czecholslovak Ministry of the Interior of Sept 23, 1945.
  9. ^ a b c Staněk, Tomáš (2002), p. 95.
  10. ^ "Památník Lejčkov [Lejckov Memorial]". Táborský klub. Klub českého pohraničí Táborsko. Retrieved 8 May 2016.
  11. ^ Dokumente zur Austreibung der Sudetendeutschen [Documents on the Expulsion of the Sudeten Germans], Munich 1950, report no.75 (Dr. Hans Wagner), p. 174
  12. ^ Dokumente on the Expulsion... (1950), report no. 290 (Dr.-ing. Kurt Schmidt), p. 426
  13. ^ Staněk, Tomáš (2002), p. 97.
  14. ^ Hans-Jörg Schmidt: 1945 – Massaker an Deutchen aufgeklärt [in German]. Die Welt, 26.1.2012.
  15. ^ see e.g. Mečislav Borák: Přispěvky k déjinám a součastnosti Ostravy a Ostravska 18 (Contribution to the History and Presence of Ostrava City and Region 18), in: Archiv města Ostravy (vydavatel) [archive of the City of Ostrava (editor)]. Tilia publishing house 1997, p. 1-26. German version see here.
  16. ^ Staněk, Tomáš: Verfolgung 1945. Munich (2002), p. 86.
  17. ^ http://sudetenland.cz/tag/ivancice/ [2018/09/09]
  18. ^ Staněk Tomáš (2002), p. 120
  19. ^ HERTL, Hanns (2001). Němci ven! Die Deutschen raus! Brněnský pochod smrti 1945. Praha: Podlesí. ISBN 80-7272-031-7.
  20. ^ [Staněk Tomáš: Poválečné "excesy" v českých zemích v roce 1945 a jejich vyšetřování, Praha 2005. In: Brněnský pochod smrti - Kateřina Tučková: Mé brněnské Sudety, s. 31-45]
  21. ^ Tichý, Jan (24 February 2010). "V Boru není ´pomník´, ale symbolický hrob!". Neviditelny pes (in Czech). Lidovky.cz. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
  22. ^ [https://www.focus.de/politik/deutschland/justiz-toedliche-rache_aid_176074.html Christian Sturm: Tödliche Rache [Lethal Revenge], in Focus-Magazin]], 8 March 1999 (in German)
  23. ^ Ota Filip: Verschwinden Sie von hier! [Get away from here!], in: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 9. Juni 1997 (in German)
  24. ^ Ježek, Jan. "Na Bukové hoře". Krajinou a přírodou východních Čech. Retrieved 13 March 2016.
  25. ^ "Výbuch muničního skladiště v Krásném Březně a masakr německého obyvatelstva 31. července 1945". Dějiny města Ústí nad Labem. Statutární město Ústí nad Labem oficiální stránky / úřední. Retrieved 17 September 2016.
  26. ^ Krňávek, Petr (11 July 2013). "Jesenická tragédie: sedm mrtvých rukou jediného vraha". deník.cz. Retrieved 1 February 2016.
  27. ^ a b "Chronologie událostí 20. a 21. srpna 1968". The Institute for the Study of Totalitarian Regimes. Retrieved 17 September 2016.
  28. ^ "Liberec, Czech Republic – August 21, 2018: People Are Looking At The Famous Vaclav Touzimsky Photography Where Soviet Occupation T Editorial Photography – Image of europe, occupation: 124890507". www.dreamstime.com. Retrieved 2019-01-29.
  29. ^ Mikulička, Jan (21 August 2015). "Sovětští vojáci zabili v roce 1968 devět Liberečanů, nejvíc po Praze". iDnes.cz. Retrieved 17 September 2016.
  30. ^ "Olga Hepnarová – Tragédie Na Zastávce". Policie-CR.cz. Retrieved 1 February 2016.
  31. ^ "Czech shooting: Gunman kills eight in Uhersky Brod". BBC. 24 February 2015. Retrieved 8 February 2016.

See also[edit]