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List of micronations

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Micronations, sometimes also referred to as model countries and new country projects, are small, self-proclaimed entities that claim to be independent sovereign states but which are not acknowledged as such by any recognised sovereign state, or by any supranational organization. They should not be confused with microstates, which are recognised independent states of a small size, nor should they be confused with unrecognised states, which are of more geopolitical significance because they exercise clear control of actual territory to the exclusion of widely recognized countries.

Motivations for the creation of micronations include theoretical experimentation, political protest, artistic expression, personal entertainment and the conduct of criminal activity.[1]: 4 

The following is a list of notable micronations.

List

Name Flag Country/region claimed Founded/
years active
Description
Aerican Empire Aerican Empire  Canada 1987 An eccentric tongue-in-cheek micronation. It claims various terrestrial and interplanetary territories.[1]: 102 
Aeterna Lucina  Australia 1978–1996 An Australian micronation founded by a self-proclaimed baron, who claimed properties he owned in New South Wales as its territory. Several associated businessmen were charged in 1990 with land and visa fraud.[2]
Principality of Aigues-Mortes  France 2010 A micronation that claims the French city of Aigues-Mortes. Together with local merchants and the touristic office of Aigues-Mortes they created the BPAM (Bourse princière d'Aigues-Mortes) to handle currency exchange with the local currency, the flamant.[3][4]
Akhzivland  Israel 1971 A micronation founded as a protest to the Israeli government for demolishing an illegally inhabited house. Founded by an Iranian-born Israeli named Eli Avivi and his wife. It was leased to him by the Israeli government for 99 years.[5][6] Its name is derived from the nearby ancient city ruin of Achziv. He died of pneumonia in 2018.[7]
Empire of Angyalistan  France 1999 A French micronation that claims the horizon and garbage patches in international waters.[8][9][10]
Aramoana  New Zealand 1980–1981 A small New Zealand community that declared itself independent to protest the building of an aluminium smelter on nearby land.[11]
Asgardia Space 2016 A micronation founded by Igor Ashurbeyli that aims to launch satellites into space in order to found a real nation recognised by the UN. The ultimate aim is to avoid the restrictions of the current space law framework.[12]
Atlantium Empire of Atlantium  Australia 1981 Based in Australia, it advocates for global governance: specifically, no borders and freedom of movement.[13]
Austenasia  United Kingdom 2008 A self-declared sovereign state based in the United Kingdom.[14]
Grand Duchy of Avram  Australia 1980s A non-territorial micronation founded by an eccentric self-proclaimed duke, John Rudge, who was later elected to the Tasmanian state parliament.[1]: 144 
Dominion of British West Florida  United States 2005 A micronation intending to revive the former British colony of the same name.[1]: 139 
Province of Bumbunga  Australia 1976–1999 An Australian secessionist micronation located on a farm at Bumbunga, South Australia from 1976.[15] As of 2018, founder Alec Brackstone was still claiming to be Governor-General of the province.[16]
Bunte Republik Neustadt  East Germany, then
 Germany
1990–1993 A micronation in the Äußere Neustadt quarter of Dresden now celebrated as an annual street festival.[17]
Celestia Space 1949 A micronation that comprises the entirety of the universe besides Earth. It was founded on 1 January 1949 by James T. Mangan to stop other countries from claiming outer space land.
Christiania  Denmark 1971 Christiania, also known as Freetown Christiania, is a self-proclaimed autonomous neighbourhood in the Danish capital of Copenhagen. The commune occupies the site of an old barracks and is home to almost 1,000 residents.[18]
Conch Republic  United States 1982 Founded by then-Mayor of Key West, Florida, Dennis Wardlow, it claims tongue-in-cheek independence from the United States in protest at a checkpoint established by the US Border Patrol.[1]: 130 
Elgaland-Vargaland  Sweden 1992 A conceptual art project by two Swedish artists, Carl Michael von Hausswolff and Leif Elggren, which defines itself as the borders of all nations.
Kingdom of Elleore  Denmark 1944 A tongue-in-cheek micronation founded by a group of school teachers as a summer camp on the island of Elleore, Denmark.[1]: 42 
Kingdom of EnenKio  United States 1994 Claims Wake Atoll,[19] a U.S. territory north of the Marshall Islands, and has been widely deemed a scam.[20]
Principality of Filettino  Italy 2011 Created by the mayor of Filettino in protest at the Italian government's austerity measure that reorganised the local government of towns with less than 1,000 residents.[21]
Grand Duchy of Flandrensis  Antarctica 2008 A micronation which claims some territories of Antarctica, founded by Niels Vermeersch.[22]
Sovereign State of Forvik  United Kingdom 2008 An islet in Shetland, Scotland, declared a Crown dependency by Stuart Hill as part of a Shetland secessionist agenda.[23]
Republic of Fredonia  Mexico (formerly) 1826–1827 The Fredonian Rebellion was the first, and short-lived, an attempt by Anglo settlers in Texas to secede from Mexico. Led by Haden Edwards, they seized control of the town of Nacogdoches and declared the Republic of Fredonia. Some historians regard the Fredonian Rebellion as the beginning of the Texas Revolution.
Free Territory of Freedomland Spratly Islands, disputed 1956–1974 Micronation established by Tomás Cloma covering the Spratly Islands in the South China Sea.[24]
Principality of Freedonia  United States 1997–2004 The Principality of Freedonia was a micronation based on libertarian principles.
Frestonia  United Kingdom 1977–1980s Residents of Freston Road in west London staged a "secession" from the United Kingdom as Frestonia. The residents were squatters, many of whom eventually set up a housing co-op in negotiation with Notting Hill Housing Trust, and included artists, musicians, writers, actors and activists.
Ganienkeh  United States 1974–1977 The 1970s saw a number of highly publicized confrontations between the U.S. government and Native Americans, such as the Oglala Lakotas' standoff at Wounded Knee and the Alcatraz occupation. Another clash occurred at Moss Lake in upstate New York. After the federal Indian Claims Commission refused to consider compensation to the Mohawk Nation, saying that its jurisdiction only covered western tribes, a group of Mohawk activists declared 600 acres near Moss Lake the sovereign Mohawk territory of Ganienkeh, and further laid claim to all of northeastern New York. After a firefight between the Mohawks and local vigilantes, the state government started eviction proceedings. When the federal courts refused to hear the matter, Assistant State Attorney General Mario Cuomo was dispatched to negotiate a settlement. In May 1977, the Mohawks accepted a smaller land grant and the crisis was ended.[25][26]
Glacier Republic  Chile/ Argentina border 2014 Founded by Greenpeace activists in a disputed border region of the Andes between Chile and Argentina, for the purpose of drawing attention to Chile's lack of environmental protection for glaciers.[27][28]
Global Country of World Peace  Netherlands,  United States 2000 "A country without borders for peace loving people everywhere" created by Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, with capitals at MERU, Netherlands and Maharishi Vedic City, Iowa.[29] Tony Nader was appointed leader by the Maharishi.
Hajdučka Republika  Bosnia and Herzegovina 2002 A protest project (based on Vran mountain, in Blidinje Nature Park, Bosnia and Herzegovina) started by a local because of inefficiency of problems with the local electricity supply.[30]
Kingdom of Hay-on-Wye  United Kingdom 1977–2005 Founded in 1977 by Richard Booth in what he describes as "a sincere attempt to "shake off the bureaucratic grip of a central government which showed little or no practical interest in re-vitalizing the clearly decaying market town". This declaration was regarded as a means of strengthening internal power, emphasizing support for local produce and local employment.[31][32]
Humanity Spratly Islands, disputed 1878–1963 A former micronation, occupying the Spratly Islands, which merged into the Republic of Morac-Songhrati-Meads in September 1963.[33][34]
Hutt River  Australia 1970–2020 A large farming area in Western Australia that unilaterally seceded from the Commonwealth and declared itself to be a sovereign nation. It was known as the Hutt River Province until 2007.[1]: 22 [35] In August 2020, after 50 years of existence, the micronation has announced it will be dissolved and the land sold to pay back taxes to the Australian Tax Office.[36][37]
Icaria  Greece 1912–1912 Icaria is a Greek island in the eastern Aegean. Tensions in the region were high during the early twentieth century. The Ottomans were in retreat everywhere, the newly independent nations of the Balkans were united against them, and Italy had in 1911 declared war, seizing Libya. In 1912, the Italians swept the Aegean of Ottoman warships and seized Rhodes. The inhabitants of Icaria took advantage of the war to declare themselves independent on 12 July 1912. The Balkan alliance declared war in July, reducing the Ottoman holdings in Europe to a tiny foothold. The island was quickly annexed by Greece that November.[25]
Jamtland  Sweden 1963 The region of Jamtland was self-governing from the 10th to 12th century. The micronation/movement (The United Republics of Jamtland, Herjeådalen and Ravund) was founded in 1963 in order to preserve and promote the Jamtlandic culture, language and way of life.[38] It has had three presidents,[39] hosts festivals, and boasts its own national anthem.[40]
Kugelmugel  Austria 1984–2015 A ball-shaped house, located in the Vienna Prater, and formed after a dispute with authorities over building permits.[1]: 82–83 
Ladonia  Sweden 1980 A micronation created by Swedish artist Lars Vilks as the home to sculptures created by him in the Kullaberg nature reserve in north-west Skåne.[1]: 136 [41]
Lagoan Isles  United Kingdom 2005 The creation of a self-styled Grand Duke Louis, who claims that three tiny islands in a Portsmouth pond are not owned by the local council, and so has declared them an independent state.[1]: 86 
L'Anse-Saint-Jean  Canada 1997 It achieved a certain notoriety when its citizens held a referendum on 21 January 1997 to turn the village into Le Royaume de L'Anse-Saint-Jean (The Kingdom of L'Anse Saint Jean), the continent's first "municipal monarchy".[42]
Liberland  Serbia (not claimed by Serbia) 2015 Claims an uninhabited parcel of disputed land on the western bank of the Danube known as Siga, between Croatia and Serbia. It was created by Czech politician and activist Vít Jedlička.
Llanrwst  United Kingdom 1947 The Free Borough of Llanrwst was a special privilege granted to the Welsh town of Llanrwst by the Prince of Wales. Llanrwst is now a small town and community on the River Conwy in Conwy County Borough, Wales. The town consequently has its own coat of arms and flag, and this is the origin of the old local motto "Cymru, Lloegr a Llanrwst" (Wales, England and Llanrwst).
Lovely  United Kingdom 2004 A nation created by comedian Danny Wallace as part of his BBC series, How to Start Your Own Country.
Lundy  United Kingdom 1925-1929 After Martin Coles Harman, a British businessman, purchased the island of Lundy off the coast of Devon in 1925, he proclaimed himself the island's king, and had an 'official' currency minted for use on the island, the Lundy puffin, in 1929. After the currency began being used among coins and banknotes of the Pound sterling on the island, Harman was visited by the Devon County Constabulary and fined a total of £5. Nevertheless, in spite of their limited use, Lundy's currency is an unusual example of a micronation issuing currency that entered ordinary circulation, rather than merely being issued as commemorative coins.[43] A surviving element of the micronation continues to exist to this day, being postage stamps introduced during the same year as the coins, again in denominations of Lundy puffin. This private postal service remains in operation; approximately 350 stamp issues from the island have been produced to date, some of which are of considerable interest to philatelic collectors.[44]
Marlborough  Australia 1993–1993 A short lived micronation in Australia whose creator declared his farm an independent country to try to avoid eviction after bankruptcy. He was evicted less than a week later by police, was later prosecuted and has since abandoned any claim of independence.[45]
Dominion of Melchizedek 1986 The Dominion of Melchizedek (DoM) is a micronation known largely for facilitating large scale banking fraud in many parts of the world.[46]
Minerva  Fiji/ Tonga, disputed 1973–1982 An attempt to build an artificial island and form a new libertarian country. The new land was located on Minerva Reef, south of Fiji, but the island was seized and annexed by Tonga shortly afterward.[1]: 14 
Molossia  United States 1999 A micronation founded by Kevin Baugh, occupying his semi-rural residential acreage in Nevada. It is run humorously as a dictatorial banana republic.[47]
Morac-Songhrati-Meads Spratly Islands, disputed 1959 A micronation that claims to occupy the Spratly Islands. The territory is under de facto military control by China, Malaysia, the Philippines, Taiwan, and Vietnam, since the discovery of oil in 1968.[33]
M'Simbati Tanganyika (formerly) 1959–1980[48] An eccentric Englishman attempted to declare independent a square mile of territory he inhabited on the coast of Tanganyika which he had purchased in 1924. The flag consisted of red, blue and yellow vertical stripes with a small Union Flag in the canton.[49]
Murrawarri Republic  Australia 2013 A micronation that is the traditional homeland of an aboriginal nation. It declared its independence from Australia.
Neue Slowenische Kunst  Slovenia 1991 Since 1991, the NSK has claimed to be a sovereign state of sorts, a claim similar to that of micronations. 2017 saw NSK set up a pavilion at the Venice Biennale where Slavoj Žižek stated that "the uniqueness of NSK is this idea of the 'stateless state'".
New Atlantis  Jamaica 1964–1966 Floating barge created by Leicester Hemingway and claimed as a sovereign republic. It was destroyed by storms shortly after establishment.[50]
New Utopia Caribbean Sea (unclaimed) 1990s A proposed micronation based on libertarian principles to be built on platforms in the Caribbean Sea. It was founded by American entrepreneur Lazarus Long. The project's status as of 2006 is in question.[1]: 15 
North Dumpling  United States 1986 An island in Fishers Island, Southold, New York declared independent after its owner Dean Kamen was denied permission to build a wind turbine on the island.
Nova Roma International 1998 An international organ of Roman revivalists who claim to be a modern Roman nation and have the administrative structure of the ancient Roman Republic. Nova Roma explicitly states that they are not a micronation but a "civitas" or "res publica"; their organ, however, fits all the requirements for being classified as such.[51]
Nutopia N/A 1973 Introduced as a "conceptual nation" by John Lennon and Yoko Ono on April Fools' Day, Nutopia has no land, no borders and no passports or visas; anyone declaring their awareness of Nutopia's existence was allowed to join. It was founded partly as a way to satirize Lennon's immigration troubles at the time.[52][53]
Other World Kingdom  Czech Republic 1996–2008 An absolute monarchy/matriarchy which had strong BDSM themes, in which women ruled over all men. It was located in the Czech Republic.[citation needed]
Operation Atlantis  The Bahamas 1968–1973 A project started by Werner Stiefel in 1968 aiming to establish a new, libertarian nation in international waters.[54][55]
Outer Baldonia  Canada c. 1950–1973 A micronation on Outer Bald Tusket Island, Nova Scotia, used for seasonal fishing. It had an eccentric constitution and women were banned from the island.[citation needed]
Parva Domus  Uruguay 1878 A self-declared centenary micronation surrounded by Uruguay that has functioned, since 1878, as a social and recreational association that mimics the functioning of a real country. Since its foundation it has had over 800,000 different naturalized citizens.

It is one of the first micronations in history and the oldest still functioning.

Perloja  Lithuania 1918–1923 Established in the aftermath of World War I, the Republic of Perloja had its own court, police, prison, currency (Perloja litas), and an army of 300 men.[56]
Pontinha  Portugal 2007 The Principality of Pontinha is a seceding micronation on an islet, which is physically joined to Madeira island, Portugal.[57] King Carlos I of Portugal had sold the islet on October 9, 1903 to the Blandy family of Madeira, who were involved in Madeira wine. The money was needed by the king to develop the port of Funchal. It was purchased by the art teacher Renato de Barros in 2000 for £19,500 from the Blandy family. Self-titled Renato Barros I communicated on 30 November 2007, confirming the independence of the island from Portugal, which first occurred in 1903.
Poyais  Honduras 1822–1837 Invented by Scottish adventurer and South American independence hero Gregor MacGregor in the early 19th century. On the basis of a land grant made to him by the Anglophile native king of the Mosquito people in what is present-day Honduras, MacGregor wove one of history's most elaborate hoaxes, managing to charm the highest levels of London's political and financial establishment with tales of the bucolic, resource-rich country he claimed to rule as a benevolent sovereign prince, or "Cazique", when he arrived in the UK in 1822.[58]
Rainbow Creek  Australia 1979–1980s Founded by a farmer who "seceded" from Victoria State, Australia, over damage to farmlands caused by flooding he claimed was exacerbated due to incompetence of the state government water management agency.[1]: 145 
Rathnelly  Canada 1967 A Toronto neighbourhood declared itself an independent republic during the celebration of Canada's centennial on July 1, 1967.[59][60] The "Republic of Rathnelly" elected a queen and celebrates "Rathnelly Day" biennially.[61]
Redonda  Antigua and Barbuda (formerly unclaimed) 1865 A small uninhabited island in the Caribbean sea, now legally part of Antigua and Barbuda. In 1865, a citizen of Montserrat was supposedly permitted by Queen Victoria to claim the title of King of Redonda, as long as he did not incite any revolt against colonial authority.[1]: 108 
Islands of Refreshment  Tristan da Cunha (formerly unclaimed) 1811–1816 A micronation created by the first permanent inhabitants of Tristan da Cunha, including Jonathan Lambert, who established himself as monarch. Tristan da Cunha was officially annexed by the United Kingdom on August 14, 1816.[62][63]
Reunion  Reunion 1997 A micronation founded by Brazilian law students as a political simulation. Reunion has a very active political system. It has issued passports, minted coins and is considered one of the most important Lusophone micronations. The micronation has been portrayed by the media of dozens of countries, and has been the star of a front-page article of Reunion Island newspaper, which used It to trace a parallel between its independence and the idea of having independence from France.[64][65][66][67]
Romanov Empire  Kiribati,  Gambia (proposed) 2011 The Imperial Throne was founded by Russian businessman Anton Bakov as the "Russian Empire". By its constitution, it is a federal constitutional monarchy and the successor of the Empire founded by Peter I.[68][69]
Rose Island  Italy 1968–1969 An attempt to create a sovereign state on an offshore platform in international waters near the Italian city of Rimini. It was completed, but shortly afterward seized by the Italian government and destroyed with explosives.[1]
Saugeais  France 1947 An officially sanctioned tongue-in-cheek micronation located in eastern France, in the département of Doubs.[1]: 122–124 
Sealand Principality of Sealand  United Kingdom territorial waters 1967 A World War II military facility consisting of a man-made structure located off the English coast that was occupied and declared to be an independent state by Paddy Roy Bates.[1]: 8–13 
Seborga  Italy 1963 A town in the Italian region of Liguria that claims never to have been a part of the modern Italian state.[1]: 55 
Sedang  French Indochina (formerly) 1888–1890 Micronational entity established in the latter part of the 19th century by a French adventurer, Charles-Marie David de Mayréna, in part of what is present-day Vietnam.[70]
Snake Hill  Australia 2003 A family of Australian residents could no longer afford to pay taxes, and after litigation over a mortgage and being inspired by the Principality of Hutt River, they did legal research and came to the conclusion that forming a country would be completely legal under Australian law, and thus they declared independence on 2 September 2003.[71]
Talossa 1979/2005 A micronation founded as a bedroom kingdom by Milwaukee, Wisconsin resident Robert Ben Madison. Madison claims to have coined the term "micronation".[nb 1][1]: 101 
Tavolara  Italy 1836 A tiny kingdom claiming independence in the 19th and 20th centuries in Tavolara Island, off the northeast coast of Sardinia. Set up by the Bertoleoni family, sanctioned by Charles Albert, King of Sardinia, it claimed to be one of the smallest kingdoms in the world.
Principality of Trinidad  Brazil 1893–1895 The Principality of Trinidad was declared in 1893, when the American James Harden-Hickey claimed the uninhabited island Trindade and Martim Vaz in the South Atlantic and declared himself as James I, Prince of Trinidad.[citation needed] In July 1895, the British tried to take possession of this strategic position in the Atlantic, basing their claim on the 1700 visit by English astronomer Edmund Halley. However, Brazilian diplomatic efforts, pressed a successful claim to Brazilian sovereignty, based on the island's discovery in 1502 by Portuguese navigators. Harden-Hickey fell into deep depression and committed suicide on 9 February 1898.[citation needed]
Užupis  Lithuania 1997 Užupis is a neighborhood largely located in the Old Town of Vilnius, Lithuania. In 1997, the residents of the area declared a Republic of Užupis, with its own flag, currency, president, and constitution.[72]
Vikesland  Canada 2005–2018 A former micronation located in Manitoba, Canada that was founded for the purposes of a TV documentary about micronations. It claimed two properties in and near the City of Brandon.[1]: 90–93 
Wallachia  Czech Republic 1997 A tongue-in-cheek micronation founded in 1997 as an "elaborate practical joke", located in the northeast corner of the Czech Republic.
Westarctica  Antarctica 2001 The Grand Duchy of Westarctica is an Antarctic micronation established in 2001 that coincides with the territory known as Marie Byrd Land.[73]
Whangamōmona  New Zealand 1989 A tongue-in-cheek micronation created as a tourism booster, and based in the rural New Zealand town of the same name. Past elected presidents have included a goat.[1]: 34–37 
Wirtland Internet-Based 2008 Wirtland is an experiment into the legitimacy and self-sustainability of a country without its own soil, which transcends national borders without breaching or lessening the sovereignty of any involved.[74]
Wy  Australia 2004 Established by Paul Delprat during a dispute with the local council of Mosman municipality in Sydney over the construction of a driveway to his property.[75]
Sovereign Yidindji Government  Australia 2014 A micronation that is the traditional homeland of an aboriginal nation. It declared its independence from Australia.
Zaqistan  United States 2005 A small tract of land in Box Elder County, a remote part of Utah, on which its owner, Zaq Landsberg, has built monuments. It has also issued passports.[76]

See also

References

Informational notes

  1. ^ Prior to Madison's departure in 2005 the group split into a separate "Kingdom of Talossa" Archived 29 October 2019 at the Wayback Machine and "Republic of Talossa" Archived 28 November 2006 at the Wayback Machine.

Citations

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