Lund

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Lund
Lund Cathedral
Lund Cathedral
Coat of arms of Lund
Coat of arms
Motto: Idéernas stad (Eng: The city of ideas)
Lund is located in Sweden
Lund
Lund
Lund is located in Skåne
Lund
Lund
Coordinates: 55°42′14″N 13°11′42″E / 55.70389°N 13.19500°E / 55.70389; 13.19500Coordinates: 55°42′14″N 13°11′42″E / 55.70389°N 13.19500°E / 55.70389; 13.19500
Country Sweden
Province Scania
County Skåne County
Municipality Lund Municipality
Area[1]
 • Total 25.75 km2 (9.94 sq mi)
Population (2015)[2]
 • Total 87,244
 • Density 3,317/km2 (8,590/sq mi)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Website www.lund.se

Lund (Swedish pronunciation: [lɵnd]) is a city in the province of Scania, southern Sweden. The town had 87,244 inhabitants in 2015,[3] out of a municipal total of 118,150 in 2016.[4] It is the seat of Lund Municipality, Skåne County.

Lund is believed to have been founded around 990 (if so, under Danish King Harald Bluetooth's time[5], when Scania indeed was a natural part of Denmark. It soon became a major Christian centre of the Baltic Sea region, at a time when the area was still a frontier area for Christian mission, and within Scandinavia and especially Denmark through the Middle Ages. From 1103 it was the see of the Catholic Metropolitan Archdiocese of Lund, and the towering Lund Cathedral, built circa 1090–1145, still stands at the centre of the town. The City became according to the Treaty of Roskilde conquered by by the Swedish Crown 1658-1676 and again 1679-1719. First in 1720 became Lund (and Scania) a formal part of Sweden.[6][7]

The City of Lund has great traditions within education, and the well-known Lund University, established 1666, is today one of Scandinavia's largest institutions for education and research.[8][9][10] The university and its buildings dominate much of the centre of the city, and have led to Lund becoming a centre for high-tech industry in the south of Sweden. Numerous literary and intellectual figures have lived or studied in Lund, including the writer August Strindberg and the scientist and naturalist Carl Linnaeus. This is however not the first University in Lund, as Denmark's as well as Scandinavia's very first one, the Academy of Lund Studium generale was founded already here already in 1425.[11] But since this was located together with a Franciscan monastery, was it closed during the Danish Reformation, in 1536.[12][13]

History[edit]

An engraving of Lund in or around 1588. By Frans Hogenbergs in the pictorial work Civitates orbis terrarum (the cities of the world).

Lund is sometimes mentioned as the oldest town or city in present-day Sweden, although it has only been a formal Swedish city for 300 years of its at least thousand year long history. It's so old that its origins are unclear, but was presumably existing by the end of the Vikinger Age. Until the 1980s, the town was thought to have been founded around 1020 by either Sweyn I Forkbeard or his son Canute the Great of Denmark.[14] The area was then part of the kingdom of Denmark. But, recent archaeological discoveries suggest that the first settlement dated to circa 990, possibly the relocation of settlers at Uppåkra. The Uppåkra settlement dates back to the first century B.C.[15] and its remains are at the present site of the village of Uppåkra. King Sweyn I Forkbeard moved Lund to its present location, a distance of some five kilometres (3.1 miles). The new location of Lund, on a hill and across a ford, gave the new site considerable defensive advantages in comparison with Uppåkra, situated on the highest point of a large plain.

The city was made a see in 1048 and united with Dalby in 1060,[16] and in 1103 became the see of the Metropolitan Archdiocese of Lund, whose ecclesiastical province comprised Scandinavia and even Garðar on Greenland. The diocese of nearby Dalby was absorbed in 1066. Lund Cathedral was similarly founded in or shortly after 1103. In 1152, the Norwegian archdiocese of Nidaros was founded as a separate province of the church, independent of Lund. In 1164 Sweden also acquired an archbishop of its own, although he was nominally subordinate to the archbishop of Lund. It is still, as the diocese of Lund, a diocese in the Church of Sweden.

A street in the old part of the town

Lund Cathedral School (Katedralskolan) was founded in 1085 by the Danish king Canute the Saint. This is the oldest school in Scandinavia and one of the oldest in Northern Europe. Many prominent people were educated there, among them the actor Max von Sydow and several high-ranking politicians.

The City became according to the Treaty of Roskilde conquered by by the Swedish Crown 1658-1676 and again 1679-1719. First in 1720 became Lund (and Scania) a formal part of Sweden.[17][18]

In 1811 did the Klågerup riots occur not far from the city, a Scanian uprising against conscriptions to the Swedish Army and also in protest towards the Swedish Priesthood and Nobility in the county. At least forty rebels was killed by the Swedish military.[19]

Lund University, established in 1666, is Sweden's largest, with 42,000 full or part-time students, although not all live in Lund. The figure includes Lund Institute of Technology, which is to some extent independent of the old university. As late as the 1940s, Lund was a relatively small city with few large-scale industries, covering only about a quarter of the current urban area, and dominated by the cathedral and the university.[citation needed] Since then, the student population has increased about twelvefold; many industrial companies in the chemical, medical or electronics branches and, from the 1990s within information management, have set up establishments in the city; and the town's population, architecture and energy have been transformed.[citation needed]

Compared with many other Swedish cities, the urban heart of Lund is well preserved. A local law requires archaeological excavation in association with any properties in the city centre which are scheduled for demolition and redevelopment.[citation needed]

In 1943, during the Second World War Lund was accidentally bombed by British aircraft. No people were reportedly killed, though some were injured by glass fragments. The cause of the bombings has been debated, though the general thought is that the real target was Stettin. Some debate that it was intentional. Lund, together with some other Swedish cities, were bombed in 1944.[citation needed]

Geography[edit]

Kaspar Magnus Espman's map of Lund from 1784, showing the structure of the mediaeval centre.

Lund is located in Sweden's largest agricultural district, in the south-west of Scania, less than ten kilometres (6.2 miles) from the sandy shore of the Öresund Strait. Its location on the south-facing slope of the Romeleåsen horst leads to the city rising from the low-lying Höje River in the south to 86 metres (282 feet) above mean sea level in the north. From the top of the Sankt Hans Hill it is possible to see Copenhagen, the capital of Denmark. The nearest large Swedish city, Malmö, is about 15 kilometres (9.3 miles) to the south-west. Other Swedish cities are more distant: Gothenburg is 250 kilometres (160 miles) away, the capital Stockholm is 600 kilometres (370 miles) distant, and Umeå lies 1,200 kilometres (750 miles) to the north.

The central region of Lund largely retains its medieval street layout. A few buildings from the Middle Ages remain, including Lund Cathedral, Liberiet, St. Peter's Priory, the restaurant Stäket and Krognoshuset. Many of the buildings in the centre today were constructed in the late 1800s, including Katedralskolan, the Grand Hotel and the main building and library of Lund University.

City panorama with the towers of Lund Cathedral

City squares[edit]

Lund city contains a number of squares. The main city square, Stortorget contains the city hall and numerous shops. Mårtenstorget, located south-east of the main square, hosts a market during the daytime and is otherwise used for parking. In earlier times the square was used as a cattle market and was known as Oxtorget. Alongside the railway and associated station are Bantorget, Knut den Stores Torg and Clementstorg. The latter hosts a small market and is planned to be the central terminus of the tramway currently under construction.[20]

Parks[edit]

Lund's most central park is Lundagård, which, together with the adjoining University square forms the centre of the University. The park is dominated by historic buildings including Lund Cathedral, Lund University Main Building, and Kungshuset. The trees of the park are home to a large colony of rooks.

The much larger Lund city park is located south-west of the centre. The site was used for the Lund Exhibition in 1907 and subsequently developed into a public park between 1909 and 1911. The park contains planted gardens, a small lake, a children's playground and bandstands, as well as the swimming pool Högevalsbadet and the former buildings of Lund Observatory.

Other significant areas of parkland in the city include the Lund University botanic gardens and the articifial Sankt Hans Hill in the north of the city.

Climate[edit]

Lund, like the rest of southern Sweden, has an oceanic climate. The climate is relatively mild compared to other locations at similar latitudes, or even somewhat further south, mainly because of its proximity to the sea. Because of Lund's northerly latitude, daylight lasts as long as 17 hours at midsummer, and only around 7 hours in mid-winter.

Summers are warm and pleasant with average high temperatures of 23 °C (73 °F) and lows of around 14 °C (57 °F), but temperatures sometimes exceed 25 °C (77 °F) and occasional heat waves are common during the summer. Winters are cold, with temperatures steady between −1 to 3 °C (30 to 37 °F). Lund has arguably the mildest climate of the country in average highs. In terms of yearly means and average lows Falsterbo is marginally milder.

Rainfall is light to moderate throughout the year with an average of 169 wet days. Snowfall occurs sparingly, mainly from December to March, but snow cover does not typically remain for a long time, and some winters are virtually free of snow.

Climate data for Lund 2002-2015; precipitation 1961-1990; extremes since 1901
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 10.9
(51.6)
14.0
(57.2)
19.3
(66.7)
27.1
(80.8)
29.0
(84.2)
33.9
(93)
34.3
(93.7)
33.8
(92.8)
27.6
(81.7)
22.4
(72.3)
16.1
(61)
12.0
(53.6)
34.3
(93.7)
Average high °C (°F) 2.5
(36.5)
2.9
(37.2)
7.1
(44.8)
13.3
(55.9)
17.7
(63.9)
20.6
(69.1)
23.8
(74.8)
22.7
(72.9)
18.6
(65.5)
12.6
(54.7)
7.8
(46)
4.2
(39.6)
12.8
(55)
Daily mean °C (°F) 0.4
(32.7)
0.6
(33.1)
3.4
(38.1)
6.9
(44.4)
12.7
(54.9)
15.9
(60.6)
18.8
(65.8)
18.3
(64.9)
14.5
(58.1)
9.4
(48.9)
5.6
(42.1)
2.1
(35.8)
9.0
(48.2)
Average low °C (°F) −1.6
(29.1)
−1.6
(29.1)
−0.2
(31.6)
3.6
(38.5)
7.8
(46)
11.1
(52)
13.9
(57)
13.8
(56.8)
10.4
(50.7)
6.1
(43)
3.4
(38.1)
0.1
(32.2)
5.5
(41.9)
Record low °C (°F) −26.3
(−15.3)
−21.7
(−7.1)
−17.2
(1)
−8.9
(16)
−3.9
(25)
2.0
(35.6)
5.0
(41)
5.0
(41)
0.0
(32)
−8.5
(16.7)
−12.0
(10.4)
−19.4
(−2.9)
−26.3
(−15.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 54.4
(2.142)
33.1
(1.303)
45.0
(1.772)
40.3
(1.587)
44.5
(1.752)
55.5
(2.185)
69.7
(2.744)
64.6
(2.543)
64.2
(2.528)
60.4
(2.378)
68.9
(2.713)
65.3
(2.571)
665.8
(26.213)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 45 63 156 226 245 245 251 212 173 112 45 28 1,801
Source #1: SMHI Average Precipitation 1961-1990[21]
Source #2: SMHI Average Data 2002-2015[22]

Governance[edit]

The old Rådhus in Stortorget is used as offices by Lund Municipality.

Lund is governed by Lund Municipality. The municipality is responsible for the city of Lund, nearby settlements including Dalby, Södra Sandby and Veberöd, and the surrounding countryside. It reached its current form in 1974 following the absorption of a number of nearby municipalities. In 2014 the city itself was officially divided into 14 administrative divisions.[23]

The municipality is governed by a municipal assembly (kommunfullmäktige) of 65 members, who elect a municipal executive committee (kommunstyrelse) of 13 members.[24] Since December 2016 the chairman of the executive committee (kommunstyrelsens ordförande) has been Anders Almgren of the Swedish Social Democratic Party.

Demographics[edit]

As of 2015 the population of the city of Lund was 87 244. It has been increasing steadily over the last century as the city has grown. Of the inhabitants of the municipality, 18.8% were born outside Sweden.[25]

Population of Lund city 1960-2015 [26][27]
Year Population
1960 39 568
1965 45 043
1970 52 359
1975 55 047
1980 55 130
1990 62 909
1995 71 450
2000 73 840
2005 76 188
2010 82 476
2015 87 244

Education[edit]

Lund University[edit]

Lund University main building

The university dominates much of the centre of Lund. It was founded in 1666 following the transfer of Scania to Sweden under the Treaty of Roskilde and is the second-oldest university in Sweden after Uppsala University. Its traditional centre is in Lundagård park but stretches out towards the north east of the city where the large engineering faculty is located. Today Lund University is one of northern Europe's largest, with eight faculties, 41 000 students and over 2000 separate courses.[28] It is rated in the worlds top 100 universities[29] and is a member of the League of European Research Universities as well as the global Universitas 21 network.[30]

Other educational institutions[edit]

One of the buildings of Katedralskolan, Lund Cathedral school.

Katedralskolan, the cathedral school, founded in 1085, is the oldest school in Scandinavia. Today it is a gymnasium with about 1,400 students studying on five different programmes.[citation needed]

The Royal Swedish Physiographic Society is a learned society based in Lund.[citation needed]

Culture[edit]

Lund University Male Voice Choir at the Lund University main building on 1 May 2005

The culture in Lund is characterised by the university education and research, and the large student population and student traditions, such as a student theatre group since 1886.[31] A substantial part of the student night-life is located at student fraternities called 'Nations'.

Lund Cathedral, the Lutheran cathedral in Lund, is the seat of the bishop of Lund of the Church of Sweden. Lund also has a city theatre (though without a professional local ensemble of its own) and a number of other places for concerts and theatres.[citation needed]

Literature, theatre and cinema[edit]

Numerous prominent figures from the literary world lived and worked in Lund, often in association with the university and theatre. Prominent examples include Esias Tegnér, writer, poet and bishop, and August Strindberg, playwright, novelist and poet. A longer list is given below with other notable natives. The Lund novel is a genre in its own right, a bildungsroman in which a young student experiences life in Lund, Copenhagen and sometimes Österlen whilst maturing as an individual. The Lund novel is exemplified by the work of Fritiofsberg Nilsson Piraten and Frank Heller.[citation needed]

The spex are a form of student theatre particular to Nordic universities, with a strong tradition in Lund. They are parodistic musical plays, often setting well-known music to new lyrics and mixing up the historical and the present in unconventional intrigues. Comedians Hans Alfredson and Anders Jansson started their careers in the Lund spex.[citation needed]

The concluding scenes in Ingmar Bergman's classic film Wild Strawberries were set in, and were shot in, Lund.[citation needed]

With its International Architecture Film Festival in Lund, since 2009, Lund is a centre in Øresund for architecture and film.[citation needed]

Music[edit]

Lund has long been a regional centre for classical and church music. In particular, Lund is renowned for its vibrant amateur choir scene, with choirs such as Carolinae damkör, Domkyrkokören, Katedralkören, Lunds akademiska kör, Lund Chamber Choir (Swedish: Lunds Kammarkör), Lunds Studentsångförening, Lunds vokalensemble, and the Svanholm Singers. Since 2006, Lund has been the host of the biannual Lund International Choral Festival.[32] Classical orchestras based in the city include the Lund City Orchestra, the Academic Orchestra and Lund New Chamber Orchestra.

In more recent decades, Lund has also developed a lively pop and jazz scene. The cultural venue Mejeriet opened in 1987 in a former dairy building just outside the city park.[33] It has hosted concerts by both well-known and emerging bands. The pop singer and television presenter Måns Zelmerlöw was born and grew up in Lund. Artists associated with Lund include DJ and record producer Axwell, rock musician Kal P. Dal, rapper Timbuktu, indie pop group The Radio Dept., and singer and songwriter Amanda Jenssen.

Lundakarnevalen[edit]

Lund University observatory

The Lund carnival has been held every four years since the mid-nineteenth century: traditional accounts say it originated at a wedding in 1849 (the four-year intervals place the party in 2002, 2006, 2010, etc.). Arranged by the students of the university, from the 1950s onwards the event has grown in size and intensity (with some 5500 volunteers 2010), but it remains an amateur event. Midway between a music and stage fair, a city festival, and an outpouring of satire, parody and general madness. Some students dress up in costumes, often relating to and poking fun at current issues, and parade in wagons. Others perform humorous skits in the evenings. The carnival revues and other stage entertainments have launched a number of well-known entertainers and actors over the years.[citation needed]

Museums[edit]

The Bosmåla cottage is part of the open-air museum Kulturen, which hosts a collection of historical Skanian buildings.

Lund hosts the largest open-air museum of Scania, Kulturen. Kulturen is the second oldest dedicated open-air museum in the world and consists of more than 30 buildings, as well as large collections on Scanian art, crafts, local archaeology and history. The museum was founded in 1892 by Georg Karlin. Today the museum often hosts different exhibitions and its visitors can experience how Swedish people lived and worked throughout the centuries.[34]

Several museums are attached to the university. The Lund University Historical Museum is based in the Lundagård park and hosts exhibitions related to the history of the university, city and cathedral. The Museum of Sketches for Public Art is a unique museum of sketches and drawings of artworks during their development. The Lund University Zoological Museum is the oldest and largest in the country.[citation needed]

Sports[edit]

The Sparbanken Skåne Arena is a large sports hall adjoining the city park in Lund. Until 2014 it was known as the Färs och Frosta Sparbank Arena.

Lund is not a notable centre for sports except for handball, where it has two teams in the men's top league: H 43 and LUGI HF and two teams in the women's top league: H43/Lundagård and LUGI. Lund hosted matches from the 2011 Handball World Championship in the Färs och Frosta Sparbank Arena.[citation needed]

It also has a chess team, Lunds ASK, that for decades has been among the top teams in Sweden.[citation needed]

Lund is also the birthplace of the online football manager game Hattrick. Lund also has a Division 1 football club called Lunds BK. In Lund you will also find Lugi Rugbyklubb, one of Sweden's few rugby clubs.[citation needed]

Transport[edit]

Adelgatan (Nobility Street), Lund

Major roads[edit]

Lund has been connected to the motorway network since 1953 when the E22 was opened between Lund and Malmö. The E22 was the first motorway in Sweden, and was originally built around the edge of the town; however following the expansion of the suburbs out to the east in the latter half of the 20th century it now passes through the city. The E22 forms the main north-south trunk route through Lund. The largest east-west road is the multi-lane northern ring road which also passes through the city limits. There are also other connections to most major roads in the area, for example the E6 via Riksväg 16, and the Länsväg 108 which connects to the E65.

Cycling[edit]

Lund has been praised for its cycling infrastructure.[35] There are 4,800 bike parking spaces in the town, including a multi-storey facility at the railway station, over 260 km (162 mi) of cyclepaths and cycle lanes, and 43% of journeys within the city take place by bicycle.[36] There has been no increase in car usage for the past 10 years.[citation needed]

Railways[edit]

Lund railway station

Lund is a railway junction and is well served by rail traffic. The main railway station, Lund Central, is Sweden's third busiest railway station, with around 37 000 passengers per day as of 2013.[37] Another, smaller station serves the suburb of Gunnesbo in the north-west of the city. Lund has been on the Southern Main Line, which connects Malmö and Stockholm, since it opened in 1856. The West Coast Line to Gothenburg branches off the Southern Main Line just north of Lund Central station. Thus there are direct services to all of Sweden's three largest cities, as well as to Copenhagen and Helsingør via the Öresund Bridge. Rail services to Denmark, and within Scania and neighbouring counties, are mainly provided by the Øresundståg. These trains are operated jointly by Skånetrafiken in Scania and the Danish State Railways in Denmark. Longer distance services, notably to Stockholm, are provided by SJ. Local traffic is served by the Pågatåg electric multiple units, which provide stopping services within Scania.

Buses[edit]

The bus network in Lund is licensed to the Nettbuss Stadsbussarna company, overseen by Skånetrafiken.[38] The city buses connect around 120 bus stops with 9 bus lines served by a fleet of 48 MAN and Mercedes-Benz Citaro[citation needed] running on compressed natural gas. The Mercedes buses were taken out of service in 2013 when "Netbuss Stadsbussarna" took over, but have made a short comeback due to an increased number of departures in the new timetable. More MAN buses have been ordered and are expected to be delivered in October.[when?]

Tramway[edit]

Plans to initiate a tram network to achieve faster and higher-capacity public transport between Lund Central Station and many of the largest work-places in the city were approved in 2015.[39][40] The initial tram line, under construction as of 2016, is due to open to traffic in 2019.[41] It will connect Lund Central station with the hospital, Lund University, the MAX IV synchrotron light source, and, the European Spallation Source. There are also longer-term plans to extend this network to the suburban towns of Dalby, Staffanstorp and Södra Sandby.

Airports[edit]

Lund is located about 26 kilometres (16 mi) from Malmö Airport, which is mainly used for domestic flights. The much larger Copenhagen Airport offers a much larger selection of international destinations, and is about 33 minutes by train from Lund. There also used to be a very small airstrip, Hasslanda Flygfält, to the south of Lund, mainly used for private and charter flights. The airstrip closed in 2008.

Economy[edit]

The main factory building of Tetra Pak, located in the south of Lund.

Lund is a regional centre for high tech companies, several of which are based in the north-east of the city. Companies with offices in Lund include Sony Mobile Communications, Ericsson, and Microsoft. The Swedish telecommunications company Doro has its head office in Lund. Gambro, one of the key companies in the development of the artificial kidney, was founded in Lund in 1964 and retains a significant presence in the city.[42] Alfa Laval, the international manufacturer of heat exchangers and separators, have a factory in Lund. Other important industries include pharmaceuticals, biotechnology e.g. Active Biotech, and publishing and library services.

Skåne University Hospital and Lund University are major employers, with extensive research facilities. In particular, the Lund Institute of Technology has connections with high-tech industry in the city. A science park, Ideon Science Park, was founded in 1983 as a collaboration between Lund University, Lund Municipality and Wihlborgs Fastigheter AB.[43] As of 2016 it hosts about 350 companies, employing 2700 people. Many of these are high tech companies that have ties to the university.

The 2010s have seen the development of two major research facilities in Lund, both in collaboration with the university. MAX IV is the world's most powerful synchrotron light source and a Swedish national facility.[44] It was inaugurated on 21 June 2016. The European Spallation Source (ESS) is a pulsed neutron source under construction on a site just north of MAX IV. ESS is expected to directly employ about 450 people when it is completed in around 2023.[45]

Tetra Pak was founded in Lund in 1951 by Ruben Rausing.[46] Their principal product is packages and equipment for asepting packaging of food, principally using plastic-coated cardboard. As of January 2015 Tetra Pak employed around 3500 staff at their headquarters in Lund.[47]

The pharmaceutical company Astra Zeneca used to have a large presence in Lund but their offices closed in 2010. The site was re-developed as a research park named Medicon Village.[48] As of 2016 over 1200 people work in more than 100 organisations based at Medicon Village.[49]

Notable natives and residents[edit]

Literary residents[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Localities 2010, area, population and density in localities 2005 and 2010 and change in area and population". Statistics Sweden. 29 May 2012. Archived from the original on 17 December 2012. 
  2. ^ Hedeklint, Karin. "Localities and urban areas 2015" (PDF). Statistics Sweden. Retrieved 26 May 2017. 
  3. ^ http://www.statistikdatabasen.scb.se/pxweb/sv/ssd/START__MI__MI0810__MI0810A/LandarealTatort/?rxid=631792da-2b21-4d04-81a5-2f3b4bebfc69
  4. ^ http://www.scb.se/hitta-statistik/statistik-efter-amne/befolkning/befolkningens-sammansattning/befolkningsstatistik/pong/tabell-och-diagram/kvartals--och-halvarsstatistik--kommun-lan-och-riket/kvartal-3-2016/
  5. ^ See Jellinge Stones, the larger one is dated to approximately 985
  6. ^ 3 juli 1720 - Riksarkivet - Sök i arkiven. Sok.riksarkivet.se. Retrieved on 2015-06-24.
  7. ^ Fredstraktat, tillige med dend: over bemelte Freds-tractat forfattede ... - Google Břger. Books.google.dk. Retrieved on 2015-06-24.
  8. ^ Lund University, The Solander Program Website
  9. ^ Universities in the Øresund Region, Øresund Entrepreneurship Academy Website
  10. ^ "Start - Lunds universitet". 
  11. ^ http://www.lum.lu.se/upp-och-ner-for-teologin-i-lund/
  12. ^ http://www.lum.lu.se/upp-och-ner-for-teologin-i-lund/
  13. ^ http://www.netleksikon.dk/a/ak/akademiet_i_lund.shtml
  14. ^ Cohen, Sidney (1977). "The Earliest Scandinavian Towns". The Medieval City. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press: 313–325. 
  15. ^ "Uppåkra - en forntida centralort". Retrieved 23 May 2010. 
  16. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Lund". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 
  17. ^ 3 juli 1720 - Riksarkivet - Sök i arkiven. Sok.riksarkivet.se. Retrieved on 2015-06-24.
  18. ^ Fredstraktat, tillige med dend: over bemelte Freds-tractat forfattede ... - Google Břger. Books.google.dk. Retrieved on 2015-06-24.
  19. ^ http://www.ts.skane.se/fakta/klaagerupsupproret-1811
  20. ^ "Lund C tramway stop". Lunds kommun. Retrieved 21 December 2016. 
  21. ^ "Precipitation Averages 1961-90". SMHI. April 2015. Retrieved 21 April 2015. 
  22. ^ "Statistics from Weather Stations (Swedish)". SMHI. March 2016. Retrieved 18 March 2016. 
  23. ^ Nova försvinner när stadsdelar blir officiella - Sydsvenskan 1 oktober 2014
  24. ^ "Politik och demokrati". lund.se. Lunds Kommun. Retrieved 25 December 2016. 
  25. ^ "Utrikes födda efter län, kommun och födelseland 31 december 2014". scb.se. Statistics Sweden. Retrieved 25 December 2016. 
  26. ^ Eriksson, Marianne. "Localities 1960-2005" (PDF). scb.se. Statistics Sweden. Retrieved 25 December 2016. 
  27. ^ Hedeklint, Karin. "Localities and urban areas 2015" (PDF). scb.se. Statistics Sweden. Retrieved 25 December 2016. 
  28. ^ Lund University (2016). "Lund University presentation brochure" (PDF). Lund University. Retrieved 27 December 2016. 
  29. ^ "The Times Higher Education World University Rankings 2016". Timeshighereducation.co.uk. Retrieved 2016-07-05. 
  30. ^ "About Lund University - Lund University". Lund University. 2016-07-05. Retrieved 2016-07-05. 
  31. ^ Lundaspexarna. "Lundaspexarna". 
  32. ^ "Lund Choral Festival". Lund Choral Festival. 
  33. ^ "Mejeriet". Kulturportal Lund. Retrieved 16 January 2017. 
  34. ^ Välkommen till Kulturen i Lund - startsida Archived May 9, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
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