Mary Baker Eddy

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Mary Baker Eddy
photograph
Born Mary Morse Baker
(1821-07-16)July 16, 1821
Bow, New Hampshire
Died December 3, 1910(1910-12-03) (aged 89)
Newton, Massachusetts
Resting place
Mount Auburn Cemetery, Cambridge, Massachusetts
Other names Mary Baker Glover, Mary Patterson, Mary Baker Glover Eddy, Mary Baker G. Eddy
Known for Founder of Christian Science and the First Church of Christ, Scientist
Spiritual healing
Notable work(s) Science and Health (1875)
Spouse(s) George Washington Glover (m. 1843–1844)
Daniel Patterson (m. 1853–1873, separated 1866)
Asa Gilbert Eddy (m. 1877–1882)
Children George Washington Glover II (b. 1844)[1]
Parents Mark Baker (d. 1865)
Abigail Ambrose Baker (d. 1849)
Relatives Siblings: Samuel Dow (b. 1808), Albert (b. 1810), George Sullivan (b. 1812), Abigail Barnard (b. 1816), Martha Smith (b. 1819)

Mary Baker Eddy (born Mary Morse Baker, July 16, 1821 – December 3, 1910) was the founder of Christian Science, a religious movement that emerged in New England in the late 19th century. Eddy is the author of the movement's textbook, Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures (first published 1875), and founder of the Church of Christ, Scientist (1879). She also founded the Christian Science Publishing Society (1898), which continues to publish a number of periodicals, including The Christian Science Monitor (1908).

Early life[edit]

Childhood[edit]

Mary Morse Baker was born in Bow, New Hampshire, the youngest of six children of Abigail and Mark Baker. Although raised a Congregationalist, she came to reject teachings such as predestination and original sin. She suffered chronic illness and developed a strong interest in biblical accounts of early Christian healing. At the age of eight, she wrote, she began to hear voices calling her name; she would go to her mother only to learn that her mother had not called her. In her autobiography, she relates one of these experiences:

"One day, when my cousin, Mehitable Huntoon, was visiting us, and I sat in a little chair by her side, in the same room with grandmother, the call again came, so loud that Mehitable heard it, though I had ceased to notice it. Greatly surprised, my cousin turned to me and said, 'Your mother is calling you!' Finally, after speaking with her mother, the child Mary responded to the voice with the phrase from Samuel 'Speak, Lord; for Thy servant heareth.' When the call came again I did answer, in the words of Samuel, but never again to the material senses was that mysterious call repeated."[2]

Several of her biographers, such as Willa Cather and Georgine Milmine in their The Life of Mary Baker G. Eddy (1909), have written that Eddy suffered from various nervous disorders as a child and adult.[3] Eddy herself wrote of her problems with food when she was young; another biographer, Gillian Gill, wrote that Eddy probably suffered from an eating disorder.[4]

Congregational church – Tilton, NH

Eddy frequently expressed confidence in God's love, which placed her at odds with her father's views on predestination and judgment day, leading to a religious crisis when she was twelve and first eligible to join the Congregational church. Amid their clash of views Eddy developed a fever; she wrote that the fever lifted after prayer:[5]

"My mother, as she bathed my burning temples, bade me lean on God's love, which would give me rest if I went to Him in prayer, as I was wont to do, seeking His guidance. I prayed; and a soft glow of ineffable joy came over me. The fever was gone and I rose and dressed myself in a normal condition of health. Mother saw this and was glad. The physician marveled; and the "horrible decree" of Predestination – as John Calvin rightly called his own tenet – forever lost its power over me."[6]

Eddy did not join the Congregational church until she was 17 at Sanbornton Bridge, New Hampshire (present-day Tilton).[5] A fragile child, she suffered from a number of physical complaints. The exact nature of these illnesses, and their possible psychosomatic or hysterical (as it was called at that time) nature, is still a subject of debate. Eddy's letters from this time, now at the Mary Baker Eddy Library in Boston, Massachusetts, portray her sufferings and search for relief. In an effort to find health in her adult years, she tried homeopathy, medicine, dietary cures, mesmerism, hydropathy, and other popular "cures" of the day. None of those methods brought lasting health.[7]

Early marriages[edit]

On December 10, 1843, Eddy married George Washington Glover.[8] He died of yellow fever on June 27, 1844, a little over two months before the birth of their only child, George Washington Glover. As a single mother of poor health, Eddy wrote some political pieces for the New Hampshire Patriot. She also worked as a substitute teacher in the New Hampshire Conference Seminary. Her success there led to her briefly opening an experimental school which was an early attempt to introduce kindergarten methods (love instead of harshness for discipline; interest instead of compulsion to impart knowledge), but this, like other similar attempts at this time was not accepted and soon closed.[8] The social climate of the time made it very difficult for a widowed woman to earn money.

Eddy in the 1850s

Her mother died in November 1849 and about a year later, her father married Elizabeth Patterson Duncan.[8] Eddy continued to have poor health and her son was put into the care of neighbors by her father and stepmother. She married Dr. Daniel Patterson, a dentist, in 1853, hoping he would adopt the young boy. Patterson apparently signed papers to that effect on their wedding day, but failed to follow through on his promise.[9]

Eddy was often bedridden during this period. Her stepmother did not welcome Eddy or her child. A neighbor couple with a small farm and no children took up the care of the boy for a fee. When this couple, who found the boy useful in the farm labor, decided to move to the Prairie territories, without Eddy's knowledge, some of Eddy's family arranged that the couple should take the child along with money given them by her father. The failure of Patterson to make good on his promises of reunification with her now far-distant son plunged Eddy into despair.[9] Her desire to recover her health led her to seek healing in the various systems fashionable of the period, including electrical treatments, morphine, homeopathy, hydropathy, Grahamism, and mesmerism.[10]

Patterson ran into financial difficulty. He mortgaged Eddy's furniture, jewelry, and books, but was unable to keep current on their property in Groton, New Hampshire, and was eventually forced to vacate. Eddy's sister, Abigail, moved her to Rumney, six miles away.[9]

Spiritualism[edit]

Eddy often attempted to distinguish Christian Science from Spiritualism, and wrote in her later publications that she had never been a Spiritualist. According to the Christian Scientist Robert Peel, in the spring of 1864 Eddy gave a public talk in Warren, Maine, opposing Spiritualism.[11] Hiram Crafts, the first student Eddy taught after her discovery of Christian Science in 1866, stated in an affidavit given some years later: “At that date I was a Spiritualist, but her teachings changed my views on that subject and I gave up spiritualism.... She taught me from the Scriptures and from manuscripts that she wrote when she taught me."[12]

Reports that Eddy was at one time a medium in Boston surfaced after she became well known.[13] At the time she was said to be a medium there, she lived some distance away.[14] She was also bedridden during that time.[13] Peel has been challenged by other researchers who write that Eddy acted as a trance channeler, and worked in and around Boston as a Spiritualist medium giving public séances for money.[15]

According to Gillian Gill, Eddy knew spiritualists and took part in some of their activities, but was never a convinced believer.[16] For example, in 1864, she visited a friend, Sarah Crosby, who believed in Spiritualism. Eddy attempted to show Crosby the folly of believing in Spiritualism by playing a prank on her and pretending to channel Eddy’s brother Albert and writing letters she attributed to him. Eddy was poking fun at Spiritualism and told Crosby so at the time, but this was not enough to shake Crosby's belief in the practice.[17] According to researcher Georgine Milmine, Eddy claimed to channel the spirit of her dead brother Albert in 1864, and also performed automatic handwriting.

In another example of Eddy's familiarity with Spiritualism but her disbelief in it, some time between 1866 and 1870, Eddy boarded at the home of Brene Paine Clark, who was very interested in it.[18] Seances were often conducted there, but Eddy and Clark engaged in vigorous, good-natured arguments about them.[19] Eddy's arguments against Spiritualism convinced at least another who was there at the time, Hiram Crafts, that "her science was far superior to spirit teachings."[20] Clark's son, George, tried to convince Eddy to take up Spiritualism, but he said she abhorred the idea.[21] According to Cather and Milmine, Mrs. Richard Hazeltine, who attended seances at Clark's home,[22] said Eddy had acted as a trance medium, claiming to channel the spirits of the Apostles.[23] Eddy was also known for channeling messages from the dead brother of her friend Sarah Crosby. According to Martin Gardner, Eddy's mediumship converted Crosby to Spiritualism.[24]

On the subject of Eddy and Spiritualism, Frank Podmore, who relied mainly on Milmine's research,[25] wrote:

After her separation from Patterson she wandered about for four years living with different families, in Lynn, Amesbury, or some of the neighbouring towns. But she was never able to stay long in one family. She quarrelled successively with all her hostesses, and her departure from the house was heralded on two or three occasions by a violent scene. Her friends during these years were generally Spiritualists; she seems to have professed herself a Spiritualist, and to have taken part in séances. She was occasionally entranced, and had received "spirit communications" from her deceased brother Albert. Her first advertisement as a healer appeared in 1868, in the Spiritualist paper, The Banner of Light. During these years she carried about with her a copy of one of Quimby's manuscripts giving an abstract of his philosophy. This manuscript she permitted some of her pupils to copy.[26]

Mary Gould, a Spiritualist from Lynn, claimed that one of the spirits that Eddy channeled was Abraham Lincoln. According to eyewitness reports cited by Milmine, Eddy was still attending séances as late as 1872 (six years after her discovery of Christian Science).[27] In these later séances Eddy would attempt to convert her audience into accepting Christian Science.[28] Eddy showed extensive familiarity with Spiritualist practice but denounced it in her Christian Science writings.[29] Ann Braude wrote that there were similarities between Spiritualism and Christian Science, but the main difference was that Eddy after her discovery of Christian Science came to believe that spirit manifestations had never really had bodies to begin with, because matter is unreal and that all that really exists is spirit, before and after death.[30]

Study with Phineas Quimby and his influence[edit]

photograph
Eddy's methods are seen as having derived from the ideas of Phineas Quimby and homeopathy.[31]

In October 1862 Eddy became a patient of Phineas Quimby,[32] a magnetic healer from Maine. She benefited temporarily by his treatment.[33] From 1862 to 1865 Quimby and Eddy engaged in lengthy discussions about healing methods practiced by Quimby and others.[34] It is said by Quimby's supporters that his beliefs influenced her later thinking and writing, although to what extent has been frequently disputed. Originally, Eddy gave Quimby much credit for his hypnotic treatments of her nervous and physical conditions and initially thought his brand of mesmerism entirely benign. An experience in 1866, when Eddy had a physical healing of serious injuries while reading the Bible, led her to investigate more and more into the system of healing she would eventually term "Christian Science."[35]

Quimby was steeped both in the Protestant Christianity of his time and the science of the industrial revolution. Quimby wrote in 1864, "The wise man, in like measure... knows that the light of the body or natural man is but the reflection of the scientific man. Our misery lies in this darkness. This is the prison that holds the natural man, till the light of Wisdom bursts his bonds, and lets the captive free. Here is where Christ went to preach to the prisoners bound by error before the reformation of science." Quimby writes many such passages linking the healing power of Christ with right perception and understanding, which Quimby equates with Science. The impartial student may see Quimby as a precursor in the theory and practice of Christian Science, though Eddy's relationship with Quimby was a subject of controversy even within her own lifetime.[36] In a letter to the Portland Evening Courier November 1862, Eddy wrote:

With this physical and mental depression I first visited P. P. Quimby, and in less than one week from that time I ascended by a stairway of one hundred and eighty-two-steps to the dome of the City Hall, and am improving ad in-finitum. To the most subtle reasoning, such a proof, coupled to as it is with numberless similar ones, demonstrates his power to heal.[37]

Eddy wrote that she had a relief from pain after visiting Quimby and even his absent treatments were effective as she claimed to draw on his spiritual presence, claiming even visitations by his apparition. In a letter in 1864 Eddy wrote that "I am up and about today, i.e., by the help of the Lord (Quimby)."[38]

In another letter to the Portland Courier Eddy denied mesmerism, claiming Christ was the cure:

P. P. Quimby stands upon the plane of wisdom with his truth. Christ healed the sick, but not by jugglery or with drugs. As the former speaks as never man before spake, and heals as never man healed since. Christ, is he not identified with truth, and is not this the Christ which is in him? We know that in wisdom is life, `and the life was the light of man.' P. P. Quimby rolls away the stone from the sepulchre of error, and health is the resurrection. But we also know that `light shineth in darkness, and the darkness comprehended it not.[39]

While Quimby had his own notions on the nature of these unseen forces, which Eddy accepted early on, she would later draw decidedly different opinions on the nature of thought on the body and reject any form of hypnotism. It is evident that Eddy and Quimby worked together, appreciated one another and learned from one another. Quimby later said he learned more from Eddy than she did from him. Eddy clearly respected him and at one point referred to him as an "advanced thinker" with a "high and noble character."[40]

Still, the controversy over how much Eddy took from Quimby and vice versa has existed from their day to the present.[34] Quimby's work and writings, as seen above, included references to "Christ" and "scientific man" and "wisdom," all words which Eddy used in her writings and teachings. However, it is clear, based on scholarly work on this subject (see, for example, the Gillian Gill and Robert Peel biographies of Eddy), that Quimby continued to practice various forms of hypnotism, mesmerism, and physical manipulation of the body. In contrast, Eddy's healing method became firmly grounded in The Bible and the healing example of Jesus before the first edition of her book Science and Health was published in 1875.[41]

Phineas Quimby died in January 1866.

1866 injury, healing and study leads to Christian Science[edit]

In February 1866, after a fall in Lynn, Massachusetts caused a spinal injury, Eddy said she experienced a healing. She is quoted saying:[42]

On the third day thereafter, I called for my Bible, and opened it at Matthew, 9:2 [And, behold, they brought to him a man sick of the palsy, lying on a bed: and Jesus seeing their faith said unto the sick of the palsy; Son, be of good cheer; thy sins be forgiven thee.(King James Bible) ]. As I read, the healing Truth dawned upon my sense; and the result was that I arose, dressed myself, and ever after was in better health than I had before enjoyed. That short experience included a glimpse of the great fact that I have since tried to make plain to others, namely, Life in and of Spirit; this Life being the sole reality of existence.

She later filed a claim for money from the city of Lynn for her injury on the grounds that she was "still suffering from the effects of that fall" (though she afterwards withdrew the lawsuit).[43] Gillian Gill writes that Eddy's claim was probably made under financial pressure from her husband at the time. Her neighbors believed her sudden recovery to be a near-miracle.[44] Mary's attending physician Alvin M. Cushing, a homeopath, testified under oath that he "did not at any time declare, or believe, that there was no hope for Mrs. Patterson's recovery, or that she was in critical condition."[45]

She devoted the next three years of her life to Biblical study and what she considered the discovery of Christian Science. In her autobiography, Retrospection and Introspection, Eddy writes "I then withdrew from society about three years,--to ponder my mission, to search the Scriptures, to find the Science of Mind that should take the things of God and show them to the creature, and reveal the great curative Principle, --Deity."[6]

Convinced by her own study of the Bible, especially Genesis 1, and through experimentation, Eddy claimed to have found healing power through a higher sense of God as Spirit and man as God's spiritual "image and likeness." She became convinced that illness could be healed through an awakened thought brought about by a clearer perception of God and the explicit rejection of drugs, hygiene and medicine based upon the observation that Jesus did not use these methods for healing:

It is plain that God does not employ drugs or hygiene, nor provide them for human use; else Jesus would have recommended and employed them in his healing. … The tender word and Christian encouragement of an invalid, pitiful patience with his fears and the removal of them, are better than hecatombs of gushing theories, stereotyped borrowed speeches, and the doling of arguments, which are but so many parodies on legitimate Christian Science, aflame with divine Love. (Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures, 143:5, 367:3)

She eventually called this spiritual perception the operation of the Christ, Truth on human consciousness.

Claiming to have first healed herself and then others, and having learned from these experiences, Eddy felt anyone could perceive what she called "the Kingdom of Heaven" or spiritual reality on earth. For her, this healing method was based on scientific principles and could be taught to others. This positive rule of healing, she taught, resulted from a new understanding of God as infinite Spirit beyond the limitations of the material senses.

Divorce, publishing her work[edit]

In 1873, Eddy divorced Daniel Patterson for adultery. She stayed at various houses of spiritualists, often leaving in violent exchanges with her hostesses.[citation needed]

In 1875, after several years of offering her healing method, Eddy published her work in a book entitled Science and Health (years later retitled Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures), which she called the textbook of Christian Science. The first publication run was one thousand copies, which she self-published. In the final edition, she wrote "In the year 1866, I discovered the Christ Science or divine laws of Life, Truth, and Love, and named my discovery Christian Science" (p. 107). During these years she taught what she considered the science of "primitive Christianity" to at least 800 people.[46] Many of her students became healers themselves. The last 100 pages of Science and Health (chapter entitled "Fruitage") contains testimonies of people who claimed to have been healed by reading her book. She made numerous revisions to her book from the time of its first publication until shortly before her death.[47]

In 1877 she married Asa Gilbert Eddy; in 1882 they moved to Boston, and he died that year.[48]

Accusations of plagiarism[edit]

Quimbyism[edit]

Phineas Quimby by 1859 had connected his healing practices with the Christ of the New Testament. He also called his method of healing the "science of health", the "science of Christ" and had used the term "Christian Science" to describe his work.[49] According to the historian of science James C. Whorton:

In Quimby's mind, Christ and science were synonymous; his method of healing he thus called the Science of Christ and even, toward the close of his life, "Christian Science".[50]

Because of these facts and other considerations various writers such as Georgine Milmine and Martin Gardner have written that Eddy took many of her ideas from Quimby without giving him any kind of credit. Todd Jay Leonard summarized the controversy:

Many critics of Eddy maintained that she basically stole all of her ideas from her longtime teacher, Phineas P. Quimby. It was he who had worked to develop the healing system that she adopted to be used as the base-doctrine in Christian Science. If she did not take all of his ideas, she, at the very least, based her system of healing on his basic treatises about mental healing.[51]

In the end, Eddy's conclusions from scriptural study and continued healing practice were different than the Quimby teachings. Eddy also eventually rejected many of Quimby's conclusions on the dynamics of human disease, suffering, healing, redemption, God and Christ. Through her study of the Bible, Eddy rejected Quimby's notion of a dualism between matter and spirit. She wrote in Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures, "All is infinite Mind and its infinite manifestation, for God is All-in-all. Spirit is immortal Truth; matter is mortal error." (S&H 468: 10–12)

Eddy found that while at first hypnotism seemed to benefit the patient, it later created more problems than the original sickness. Ultimately she rejected any form of hypnotism or mesmerism, stating

The hypnotizer employs one error to destroy another. If he heals sickness through a belief, and a belief originally caused the sickness, it is a case of the greater error overcoming the lesser. This greater error thereafter occupies the ground, leaving the case worse than before it was grasped by the stronger error. (S&H 104:22–28)

Eddy's use of these terms and her teaching are considered by both her defenders and Quimby's family to be distinct from Quimbyism. Quimby's son, George, wrote, "Don't confuse his method of healing with Mrs. Eddy's Christian Science, so far as her religious teachings go.... The religion which she teaches certainly is hers, for which I cannot be too thankful."[52]

Hinduism[edit]

In the 24th edition of her book Science and Health up to the 33rd edition, Eddy admitted the harmony between Vedanta philosophy and Christian Science. She also quoted certain passages from an English translation of the Bhagavad Gita but they were later removed. According to Gillian Gill, in the 1891 revision, Eddy removed from her book all the trendy references to Eastern religion which her editor, Reverend James Henry Wiggin, had introduced.[53] On this issue Swami Abhedananda wrote:

Mrs. Eddy quoted certain passages from the English edition of the Bhagavad-Gita, but unfortunately, for some reason, those passages of the Gita were omitted in the 34th edition of the book, Science and Health... if we closely study Mrs. Eddy’s book, we find that Mrs. Eddy has incorporated in her book most of the salient features of Vedanta philosophy, but she denied the debt flatly.[54]

Other Hindu writers such as Jyotirmayananda Saraswati have said that Eddy may have been influenced by ancient Hindu philosophy.[55] The historian Damodar Singhal wrote:

The Christian Science movement in America was possibly influenced by India. The founder of this movement, Mary Baker Eddy, in common with the Vedantins, believed that matter and suffering were unreal, and that a full realization of this fact was essential for relief from ills and pains... The Christian Science doctrine has naturally been given a Christian framework, but the echoes of Vedanta in its literature are often striking.[56]

Swami Yogananda in his 1926 article entitled "Christian Science and Hindu Philosophy" wrote "It may be of much interest to many Christian Scientists to learn that the great founder of their faith, Mrs. Mary Baker Eddy was a student of the Hindu Scriptures".[57] Wendell Thomas in his scholarly work Hinduism Invades America (1930) supported the conclusion of Yogananda and suggested that Eddy may have discovered Hinduism through the teachings of the New England Transcendentalists such as Bronson Alcott who had met Eddy.[58]

Stephen Gottschalk, however, in his book The Emergence of Christian Science in American Religious Life (1973) wrote:

The association of Christian Science with Eastern religion would seem to have had some basis in Mrs Eddy's own writings. For in some early editions of Science and Health she had quoted from and commented favorably upon a few Hindu and Buddhist texts... None of these references, however, was to remain a part of Science and Health as it finally stood... Increasingly from the mid-1880s on, Mrs Eddy made a sharp distinction between Christian Science and Eastern religions.[59]

Timothy Miller wrote that Eddy's writings show a strong resemblance to the Hindu philosophy Advaita Vedanta.[60]

Building a church[edit]

Mary Baker G. Eddy in later years.

Eddy devoted the rest of her life to the establishment of the church, writing its bylaws, The Manual of The Mother Church, and revising Science and Health. While Eddy was a highly controversial religious leader, author, and lecturer, thousands of people flocked to her teachings.

By the 1870s Mary was telling her students "Some day I will have a church of my own."[61] In 1879 she and her students established the Church of Christ, Scientist, "to commemorate the word and works of our Master [Jesus], which should reinstate primitive Christianity and its lost element of healing."[62] In 1892 at Eddy's direction, the church reorganized as The First Church of Christ, Scientist, "designed to be built on the Rock, Christ...."[63] Some years later in 1881, she founded the Massachusetts Metaphysical College,[64] where she taught approximately 800 students in Boston, Massachusetts between the years 1882 and 1889.[65] At her college Eddy charged her students $300 each for tuition. This was a large sum for the period and generated considerable controversy.[66]

Her students spread across the country practicing healing, and instructing others, in accordance with Eddy's teachings. Eddy authorized these students to list themselves as Christian Science Practitioners in the church's periodical, The Christian Science Journal. She also founded the Christian Science Sentinel, a weekly magazine with articles about how to heal and testimonies of healing.

As teacher, author, and preacher, Eddy was leader of the burgeoning Christian Science movement. In 1888, a reading room selling Bibles, her writings and other publications opened in Boston.[67] This model would soon be replicated, and branch churches worldwide maintain more than 1,200 Christian Science Reading Rooms today.[68]

In 1889, she closed the Massachusetts Metaphysical College to focus on a major revision of Science and Health.[69] Throughout her lifetime, Science and Health would appear in over 400 separate printings, and undergo six major revisions.[47] Science and Health is currently published in 17 languages including Braille.[70]

In 1894, an edifice for The First Church of Christ, Scientist was completed in Boston (The Mother Church).[71] In the early years, Eddy served as pastor, and she was succeeded by several other individuals. In 1895, however, Eddy ordained the Bible and Science and Health as the pastor of The Church of Christ, Scientist, and the Sunday sermon consists of readings from these two books.[72] Wednesday meetings also include readings from the Bible and Science and Health, and attendees participate by sharing accounts of healing and spiritual insight.[73] Also in 1895 she published the first edition of a church manual, establishing guidelines that are followed to this day. It is also in this slim volume that she made provisions for democratically run local churches around the world.[74]

Eddy founded The Christian Science Publishing Society in 1898, which became the publishing home for numerous publications launched by her and her followers.[75] In 1908, at the age of 87, Eddy founded The Christian Science Monitor, a daily newspaper.[76] She also founded the Christian Science Journal in 1883,[77] a monthly magazine aimed at the church's members and, in 1898,[78] the Christian Science Sentinel, a weekly religious periodical written for a more general audience, and the Herald of Christian Science, a religious magazine with editions in many languages.[79] All of these publications continue to be published today.

Malicious animal magnetism[edit]

The converse of mental healing was the use of mental powers to destroy people's health – what Eddy termed "malicious animal magnetism." She was concerned that a new practitioner could inadvertently harm a patient through unenlightened use of their mental powers, and that less scrupulous individuals could use such powers as a weapon.[80]

In 1872 Eddy had an argument with her first student Richard Kennedy and he was expelled from Christian Science. Later she came to believe out of revenge that he was using mental powers to destroy her so Eddy ordered her students to "mobilize all their mental energy to combat him".[81] Eddy also ordered her students to stand outside her bedroom door to protect her from any mental attacks directed at her. In 1882 Eddy publicly claimed that her last husband, Asa Gilbert Eddy had died of "mental assassination".[82] Daniel Spofford was another Christian Scientist expelled due to the accusation of practicing malicious animal magnetism by Eddy.[83] According to Eugene V. Gallagher:

Eddy believed that former students actually had the power to commit “mental assassination". After a breakup with one of her early protégés, Daniel H. Spofford, she thought he was using mental malpractice to undermine her Christian Science practice and ordered her students to stand outside her bedroom door to mentally ward off any attacks by Spofford. In a celebrated case (1878) that earned her much negative publicity, she took part in a lawsuit against Spofford, claiming that he deliberately practiced malicious mesmerism on one of her unhealed patients, Lucretia Brown. Irreverently dubbed "The Second Salem Witch Trial", the suit was eventually thrown out of court.[84]

There is no scientific evidence for the existence of "malicious animal magnetism" but the belief "remains a part of the doctrine of Christian Science".[85] In an article entitled "Malicious Animal Magnetism" published in the Christian Science Journal for February 1889 Eddy wrote that mental assassination was one of the greatest crimes and that anyone practicing it should be put to death by a human executioner (capital punishment).[86] Several persons had committed suicide because of the fear of malicious animal magnetism.[87] Mary Tomlinson, a student of Mary Baker Eddy, committed suicide by throwing herself out of a window.[88] Another Christian Scientist Marion Stephens committed suicide by gassing herself in a bathroom.[89]

In her later years, Eddy apparently became paranoid, believing that 50,000 people were trying to kill her by projecting their evil thoughts.[90] Eddy wrote that if she died it would be due to malicious animal magnetism rather than from natural causes.[91]

Mark Twain[edit]

Mark Twain was a notable critic of Eddy.

In 1907 Mark Twain published a satirical diatribe attacking Eddy, entitled Christian Science. He wrote:

We cannot peacefully agree as to her motives, therefore her character must remain crooked to some of us and straight to the others. No matter, she is interesting enough without an amicable agreement. In several ways she is the most interesting woman that ever lived, and the most extraordinary. The same may be said of her career, and the same may be said of its chief result. She started from nothing. Her enemies charge that she surreptitiously took from Quimby a peculiar system of healing which was mind-cure with a Biblical basis. She and her friends deny that she took anything from him. This is a matter which we can discuss by-and-by. Whether she took it or invented it, it was—materially—a sawdust mine when she got it, and she has turned it into a Klondike; its spiritual dock had next to no custom, if any at all: from it she has launched a world-religion which has now six hundred and sixty-three churches, and she charters a new one every four days. When we do not know a person—and also when we do—we have to judge his size by the size and nature of his achievements, as compared with the achievements of others in his special line of business—there is no other way. Measured by this standard, it is thirteen hundred years since the world has produced any one who could reach up to Mrs. Eddy's waistbelt.[92]

When Harper's refused to publish an earlier essay of his on Christian Science in 1903, Twain interpreted the rejection as suppression caused by pressure from Christian Scientists and wrote, "The situation is not barren of humour. I had been doing my best to show in print that the Xn Scientist cult has become a power in the land – well, here is the proof: it has scared the biggest publisher in the Union."[93]

Twain later offered another appraisal of Eddy, reported by his biographer Albert Bigelow Paine:[94]

I was at this period interested a good deal in mental healing, and had been treated for neurasthenia with gratifying results. Like most of the world, I had assumed, from his published articles, that he condemned Christian Science and its related practices out of hand. When I confessed, rather reluctantly, one day, the benefit I had received, he surprised me by answering:

"Of course you have been benefited. Christian Science is humanity's boon. Mother Eddy deserves a place in the Trinity as much as any member of it. She has organized and made available a healing principle that for two thousand years has never been employed, except as the merest kind of guesswork. She is the benefactor of the age."

It seemed strange, at the time, to hear him speak in this way concerning a practice of which he was generally regarded as the chief public antagonist. It was another angle of his many-sided character.

Use of medicine[edit]

Calvin Frye, Eddy's personal secretary

A diary kept by Calvin Frye, Eddy's personal secretary, suggested that Eddy had a lifelong dependence on morphine.[95] Miranda Rice, a friend and close student of Eddy, told a newspaper in 1906: "I know that Mrs. Eddy was addicted to morphine in the seventies. She begged me to get some for her. She sent her husband Mr. Eddy for some, and when he failed to get it went herself and got it. She locked herself into her room and for two days excluded every one. She was a slave to morphine."[96] Biographer Gillian Gill notes that the prescription of morphine was normal medical practice at the time, and that in her view Eddy was at no time addicted.[97]

Eddy had her grandchildren vaccinated and also paid for a mastectomy for her sister-in-law.[98] Eddy was quoted in the New York Herald: "Where vaccination is compulsory, let your children be vaccinated, and see that your mind is in such a state that by your prayers vaccination will do the children no harm. So long as Christian Scientists obey the laws, I do not suppose their mental reservations will be thought to matter much."[99]

By 1897, Eddy had used glasses for some years only for very fine print but later she dispensed with them almost entirely.[100] She found she could read fine print with ease.[101] In 1907, Arthur Brisbane, who was known as the greatest journalist of his day,[102] and who was not a believer in Christian Science, interviewed Eddy.[103] At one point, he picked up a periodical, selected at random a paragraph, and asked Eddy to read it.[104] According to Brisbane, at the age of eighty six she read the ordinary magazine type without glasses, as readily as any woman of twenty-five could do.[105] Towards the end of her life Eddy wore glasses and was frequently attended by doctors, these things acted in direct contradiction to the tenets of her own religion, in the view of critics.[106] On this subject Walter Martin in his book Kingdom of the Cults (2003) wrote:

The Christian Science Church has known for many years that though Mary Baker Eddy spoke vigorously against doctors and drugs as well as vigorously affirming the unreality of pain, suffering, and disease, she herself was frequently attended in her declining years by doctors, received injections of morphine for the alleviation of pain, wore glasses, and had her teeth removed when they became diseased. However, despite this, the Christian Science Church insists upon the validity of Mrs. Eddy's teaching, which deny the very practices Mrs. Eddy herself exemplified.[107]

Psychological evaluation[edit]

In 1907, in the course of a legal case, four psychiatrists interviewed the 86 year old Eddy. They found that she was sane. One of them, Dr. Allan McLane Hamilton (1848–1919), told The New York Times that the attacks on Eddy were the result of "a spirit of religious persecution that has at last quite overreached itself," and that "there seems to be a manifest injustice in taxing so excellent and capable an old lady as Mrs. Eddy with any form of insanity."[108] The psychiatrist George Eman Vaillant wrote that Eddy had once been hypochrondriacal.[109] The psychologists Leon Joseph Saul and Silas L. Warner in their book The Psychotic Personality (1982) came to the conclusion that Eddy had diagnostic characteristics of Psychotic Personality Disorder (PPD).[110]

Death[edit]

Mary Baker Eddy's burial Memorial

Eddy died on the evening of December 3, 1910 at her home at 400 Beacon Street, in the Chestnut Hill section of Newton, Massachusetts. Her death was announced the next morning, when a city medical examiner was called in.[111] She was buried December 8, 1910 at Mount Auburn Cemetery in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Her memorial was designed by New York architect Egerton Swartwout. Hundreds of tributes appeared in newspapers around the world, including The Boston Globe, which wrote, "She did a wonderful—an extraordinary work in the world and there is no doubt that she was a powerful influence for good."[112]

Legacy[edit]

Today, there are almost 1,700 Christian Science churches in 76 countries.[113]

Eddy's book Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures has been a best seller for decades, and was selected as one of the "75 Books By Women Whose Words Have Changed The World," by the Women's National Book Association.[114] In 1995, Eddy was inducted in the National Women's Hall of Fame.[115] In 2002, The Mary Baker Eddy Library opened its doors, giving the public access to one of the largest collections about an American woman.[116]

For more than a century, The Christian Science Journal and the Christian Science Sentinel have been publishing accounts of restored health based on the system of care that Eddy taught. The Christian Science Monitor newspaper has won seven Pulitzer Prizes to date.[117]

In 1921, on the 100th anniversary of Eddy's birth, a 100-ton (in rough) and 60–70 tons (hewn), eleven-foot square granite pyramid was dedicated on the site of her birthplace in Bow, New Hampshire.[118][119] A gift from James F. Lord, it was later dynamited in 1962 by order of the church's board of directors.[119] Also demolished was Eddy's former home in Pleasant View, as the board feared that it was becoming a place of pilgrimage.[119] Although Eddy allowed personal praise in her lifetime for various reasons, including for publicity and fundraising, the church shuns both the cult of personality and religious reliquaries.

Residences[edit]

A number of the homes Eddy lived in are now maintained as historic sites. The following list contains these houses arranged by dates of her occupancy: .

All of these houses are currently owned by the Longyear Museum, and all may be visited.[120]

Works[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Fraser, Caroline. God's Perfect Child, Living and Dying in the Christian Science Church
  2. ^ Wilbur, Sibyl (1907), The Life of Mary Baker Eddy, Boston: The Christian Science Publishing Society, pp. 9–20 
  3. ^ Cather, Willa and Milmine, Georgine. The Life of Mary Baker G. Eddy and the History of Christian Science. University of Nebraska Press, 1993 [1909], p. 22.
  4. ^ Gill, Gillian. Mary Baker Eddy. Da Capo Press, 1998, pp. 47–48.
  5. ^ a b Wilbur 1907, pp. 21–37.
  6. ^ a b Eddy, Mary Baker G. (1891–1892), Retrospection and Introspection, Cambridge: University Press (published 1915), pp. 8–9, 22, 24–5, ISBN 0-87952-044-2, retrieved October 24, 2008 
  7. ^ Gill 1998
  8. ^ a b c Wilbur 1907, pp. 38–48.
  9. ^ a b c Wilbur 1907, pp. 49–66.
  10. ^ Piepmeier, Alison. Out in Public: Configurations of Women's Bodies in Nineteenth-Century America. The University of North Carolina Press, 2004.
  11. ^ Peel, Robert. Mary Baker Eddy: The Years of Discovery. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1966, pp. 183-84.
  12. ^ Peel 1966, p. 212.
  13. ^ a b Peel 1966, p. 133.
  14. ^ Gill 1998, p. 627.
  15. ^ Ankerberg, John. The Facts on the Mind Sciences. Atri Publishing, 2011.
  16. ^ Gill 1998, pp. 179-180.
  17. ^ Wilbur, Sybil. "The Story of the Real Mrs. Eddy," Human Life, March 1907, p. 10.
  18. ^ Gill 1998, p. 172.
  19. ^ Gill 1998, p. 173.
  20. ^ Gill 1998, p. 174.
  21. ^ Peel 1966, pp. 210-211.
  22. ^ Milmine, Georgine. "Mary Baker G. Eddy," McClure's Magazine, May 1907, 108.
  23. ^ Cather and Milmine 1909 (reprint edition, 1971), pp. 64–68, 111–116.
  24. ^ Gardner, Martin. The Healing Revelations of Mary Baker Eddy: The Rise and Fall of Christian Science. Prometheus Books, 1993, p. 26.
  25. ^ Podmore, Frank. Mesmerism and Christian Science: A Short History of Mental Healing. George W. Jacobs and Company, 1909, p. 262.
  26. ^ Podmore, Frank. Mesmerism and Christian Science: A Short History of Mental Healing. George W. Jacobs and Company Publishers, 1909, pp. 267–268.
  27. ^ Milmine, Georgine. 1909. Also see Hall, Robert. 1916. The Modern Siren. H. L. Thatcher. Online
  28. ^ Leonard, Todd. 2005. Talking to the Other Side: a History of Modern Spiritualism And Mediumship: A Study of the Religion, Science, Philosophy and Mediums that Encompass this American-Made Religion. iUniverse, Inc., pp. 32-33
  29. ^ Christian Science versus Spiritualism[dead link]
  30. ^ Braude, Ann. Radical Spirits: Spiritualism and Women's Rights in Nineteenth-Century America. Indiana University Press, 2001, p. 186.
  31. ^ Schoepflin, Rennie. "Christian Science", in Paul S. Boyer (ed.). The Oxford Companion to United States History. Oxford University Press, 2001, p. 119.
  32. ^ NOTES: Gill (1998, p. 131) REFERENCES: Gill, Gillian (1998), Mary Baker Eddy, Reading: Perseus Books, ISBN#0-7382-0042-5.
  33. ^ NOTES: Peel (1972, p. 172); Gill (1998, p. 135) REFERENCES: Peel, Robert (1971), Mary Baker Eddy: The Years of Discovery, Boston: The Christian Science Publishing Society, ISBN#0-87510-085-6; Gill, Gillian (1998), Mary Baker Eddy, Reading: Perseus Books, ISBN#0-7382-004.
  34. ^ a b NOTES: Gill (Chapter 7) REFERENCES: Gill, Gillian (1998), Mary Baker Eddy, Reading: Perseus Books, ISBN#0-7382-0042-5.
  35. ^ Notes: Peel (Chapter 6, Sections I, II); Gill (1998, p. 167-168) REFERENCES: Peel, Robert (1972), Mary Baker Eddy: The Years of Discovery, Boston: The Christian Science Publishing Society, ISBN#0-87510-085-6; Gill, Gillian (1998), Mary Baker Eddy, Reading: Perseus Books, ISBN#0-7382-004.
  36. ^ REFERENCES: Quimby papers, Library of Congress, Vol. 6., p. [112]. This corrects the edited version in Horatio Dresser, The Quimby Manuscripts, …
  37. ^ Buchanan, Paul. 2009. American Women's Rights Movement: A Chronology of Events and of Opportunities from 1600 to 2008. Branden Books, pp. 80-81
  38. ^ Powell, Lyman. 1917. Christian science, the faith and its founder. G.P. Putnam's sons, p. 31
  39. ^ The Life of Mary Baker G. Eddy and the History of Christian Science by Willa Cather and Georgine Milmine
  40. ^ Notes: Peel (1971, p. 172 & 183) REFERENCES: Peel, Robert (1972) Mary Baker Eddy: The Years of Discovery, Boston: The Christian Science Publishing Society, ISBN#0-87510-085-6.
  41. ^ Notes: Gill (1998, p. 168), Peel (1972, Chapter 6) REFERENCES Gill, Gillian (1998), Mary Baker Eddy, Reading: Perseus Books, ISBN#0-7382-004; Peel, Robert (1972) Mary Baker Eddy: The Years of Discovery, Boston: The Christian Science Publishing Society, ISBN#0-87510-085-6.
  42. ^ Hammond, Edward H. (October 1899), Christian Science: What it is and what it does, "The Christian science journal", The Christian Science Journal (The Christian Science Publishing Society) 17 (7): 464 
  43. ^ Richard A. Nenneman (1997), Persistent Pilgrim: The Life of Mary Baker Eddy, Nebbadoon Press, ISBN 1-891331-02-7 
  44. ^ Gill 1999, pp. 161-170.
  45. ^ Martin Gardner (1993), The Healing Revelations of Mary Baker Eddy, Prometheus Books, ISBN 0-87975-838-4 
  46. ^ NOTES: Peel (1977, p. 483, n. 104) REFERENCES: Peel, Robert (1977), Mary Baker Eddy, The Years of Authority, Boston: The Christian Science Publishing Society, ISBN#0-87510-142-9.
  47. ^ a b NOTES: Gill (1998, p. 324) REFERENCES: Gill, Gillian (1998), Mary Baker Eddy, Reading: Perseus Books, ISBN#0-7382-0042-5.
  48. ^ Mary Baker Eddy Timeline
  49. ^ Martin, Walter. 2003. The Kingdom of the Cults. Bethany House Publishers, p. 151
  50. ^ Nature Cures: The History of Alternative Medicine in America by James C. Whorton
  51. ^ Leonard, Todd. 2005. Talking to the Other Side: a History of Modern Spiritualism And Mediumship: A Study of the Religion, Science, Philosophy and Mediums that Encompass this American-Made Religion. iUniverse, Inc., p. 32
  52. ^ Gottschalk, Stephen. 2011. Rolling Away the Stone: Mary Baker Eddy's Challenge to Materialism. Indiana University Press, p. 72
  53. ^ Gill, Gillian. Mary Baker Eddy. Perseus Books, 1998, p. 332-33.
  54. ^ Swami Prajnanananda. The Philosophical Ideas of Swami Abhedananada (Calcutta: Ramakrishna Vedanta Math, 1971), p. 164
  55. ^ Nanda, Maya. 1993.Vivekananda: His Gospel of Man-making with a Garland of Tributes and a Chronicle of his Life and Times, wih Pictures. Swami Jyotirmayananda, p. 480
  56. ^ Singhal, Damodar. 1980. Modern Indian Society and Culture. Meenakshi Prakashan, p. 136
  57. ^ Christian Science And Hindu Philosophy
  58. ^ Thomas, Wendell. 1930. Hinduism Invades America. The Beacon Press, Inc., pp. 228-234 Online
  59. ^ Stephen Gottschalk. 1973. The Emergence of Christian Science in American Religious Life. University of California Press, pp. 152-153
  60. ^ Miller, Timothy. 1995. America's Alternative Religions. State University of New York, p. 174
  61. ^ NOTES: Peel (1971, p. 62) REFERENCES: Peel, Robert (1971), Mary Baker Eddy, The Years of Trial, Boston: The Christian Science Publishing Society, ISBN#0-87510-118-16
  62. ^ NOTES: Eddy (1910, pp. 17-18) REFERENCES: Eddy, Mary Baker (1910), Church Manual of The First Church of Christ, Scientist, in Boston, Mass, Boston: The First Church of Christ, Scientist.
  63. ^ NOTES: Eddy (1910, pp. 18-19) REFERENCES: Eddy, Mary Baker (1910), Church Manual of The First Church of Christ, Scientist, in Boston, Mass, Boston: The First Church of Christ, Scientist.
  64. ^ NOTES: Peel (1971, pp. 81-82) REFERENCES: Peel, Robert (1971), Mary Baker Eddy, The Years of Trial, Boston: The Christian Science Publishing Society, ISBN#0-87510-118-16
  65. ^ NOTES: Peel (1977, p. 483, n. 104) REFERENCES: Peel, Robert (1977), Mary Baker Eddy, The Years of Authority, Boston: The Christian Science Publishing Society, ISBN#0-87510-142-9
  66. ^ Caplan, Eric. 2001. Mind Games: American Culture and the Birth of Psychotherapy. University of California Press, p. 75
  67. ^ A New Home," The Christian Science Journal (September 1888), p. 317.
  68. ^ See Christian Science Reading Room listings in current edition of the Christian Science Journal.
  69. ^ NOTES: Eddy (first copyrighted in 1875, p. xii) REFERENCES: Eddy, Mary Baker (first copyrighted in 1875), Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures, Boston: First Church of Christ, Scientist, ISBN#0-87952-262-3.
  70. ^ See www.spirituality.com, online shop
  71. ^ Daily Inter-Ocean, Chicago, Dec. 31, 1884; NOTES: Eddy, (1895, p.23) REFERENCES: Eddy, Mary Baker (1895), Pulpit and Press, Boston: The First Church of Christ, Scientist.
  72. ^ NOTES: Eddy (1910, p. 58) REFERENCES: Eddy, Mary Baker (1910), Church Manual of The First Church of Christ, Scientist, in Boston, Mass, Boston: The First Church of Christ, Scientist.
  73. ^ NOTES: Eddy (1910, p. 122) REFERENCES: Eddy, Mary Baker (1910), Church Manual of The First Church of Christ, Scientist, in Boston, Mass, Boston: The First Church of Christ, Scientist.
  74. ^ NOTES: Eddy (1910, pp. 70, 74) REFERENCES: Eddy, Mary Baker (1910), Church Manual of The First Church of Christ, Scientist, in Boston, Mass, Boston: The First Church of Christ, Scientist.
  75. ^ NOTES: Peel (1977, p. 372) REFERENCES: Peel, Robert (1977), Mary Baker Eddy, The Years of Authority, Boston: The Christian Science Publishing Society, ISBN#0-87510-142-9.
  76. ^ NOTES: Gill (1998, p. xv.) REFERENCES: Gill, Gillian (1998), Mary Baker Eddy, Reading: Perseus Books, ISBN#0-7382-0042-5.
  77. ^ NOTES: Gill (1998, p. 325) REFERENCES: Gill, Gillian (1998), Mary Baker Eddy, Reading: Perseus Books, ISBN#0-7382-0042-5.
  78. ^ NOTES: Gill (1998, p. 410) REFERENCES: Gill, Gillian (1998), Mary Baker Eddy, Reading: Perseus Books, ISBN#0-7382-0042-5.
  79. ^ NOTES: Peel (1977, p. 415, n. 121) REFERENCES: Peel, Robert (1977), Mary Baker Eddy, The Years of Authority, Boston: The Christian Science Publishing Society, ISBN#0-87510-142-9.
  80. ^ Moore, Laurence. Religious Outsiders and the Making of Americans. Oxford University Press, 1986.
  81. ^ Tucker, Ruth A. Another Gospel: Cults, Alternative Religions, and the New Age Movement, p. 157.
  82. ^ Miller, Timothy. America's Alternative Religions. State University of New York, 1995, p. 62.
  83. ^ Haller, John S. American Medicine in Transition, 1840-1910, p. 139.
  84. ^ Gallagher, Eugene V. and Ashcroft, Michael W. Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America, p. 93.
  85. ^ Williams, William. Encyclopedia of Pseudoscience: From Alien Abductions to Zone Therapy. Facts on File, 2000.
  86. ^ Religio-Medical Masquerade by Frederick W. Peabody
  87. ^ Locke, Charles. 1911. Eddyism: Is it Christian? Is it Scientific? How Long Will it Last?. Grafton Publishing Company, p. 39
  88. ^ Dakin, Edwin. 1930. Mrs. Eddy: the biography of a virginal mind. Blue Ribbon Books, p. 462
  89. ^ Lay Eddyite Suicide to "Death Thought". Malicious Animal Magnetism" Said to Have Caused Miss Stephens to End Her Life.
  90. ^ Bates, E.S. & Dittmore, J.V. 1933. Mary Baker Eddy. The Truth and the Tradition George Routlege and Sons, London.
  91. ^ Tucker, Ruth. Another Gospel: Cults, Alternative Religions, and the New Age Movement. Zondervan, 2004, p. 166.
  92. ^ Twain, Mark (1907), Christian Science, New York and London: Harper & Brothers Publishers, pp. 102–103 
  93. ^ Reasonings: The Official Newsletter of Rationalists of Greater Madison, a Chapter of the Freedom from Religion Foundation, Issues 1-66, The Rationalists, 1989, p. 47
  94. ^ Paine, Albert Bigelow (1912), Mark Twain: A Biography; the Personal and Literary Life of Samuel Langhorne Clemens (Scholar search) 3, Philadelphia, Pa.: Chelsea House Publishers, p. 1271, ISBN 0-7910-4539-0 
  95. ^ Gardner, Martin. 1993. The Healing Revelations of Mary Baker Eddy. Prometheus Books.
  96. ^ Springer, Fleta. 1930. According to the Flesh: A Biography of Mary Baker Eddy. Coward-McCann, inc., p. 299
  97. ^ Gillian Gill, Mary Baker Eddy, Radcliffe Biography Series, MA: Merloyd Lawrence / Perseus Books, p. 546
  98. ^ Whorton, James. 2004. Nature Cures: The History of Alternative Medicine in America. Oxford University Press, p. 128
  99. ^ New York Herald, May 1, 1901, reprinted in Eddy, Mary Baker, "General Miscellany," Prose Works other than Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures, Trustees under the Will of Mary Baker G. Eddy, pp. 344-345
  100. ^ Peel, Robert. Mary Baker Eddy: The Years of Authority. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1977, pp. 108-09, 411, note 65.
  101. ^ Peel, Robert. Mary Baker Eddy: The Years of Trial. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1971, p. 376.
  102. ^ "The Press: Death of Brisbane," Time, January 4, 1937.
  103. ^ Brisbane, Arthur. "An Interview with Mrs. Eddy," Cosmopolitan Magazine, August 1907, p. 451.
  104. ^ Brisbane, Arthur. "An Interview with Mrs. Eddy," Cosmopolitan Magazine, August 1907, pp. 454, 456.
  105. ^ Brisbane, Arthur. "An Interview with Mrs. Eddy," Cosmopolitan Magazine, August 1907, p. 456.
  106. ^ Stark, Rodney. The Rise and Fall of Christian Science. J. Contemporary Religion 13 (2) (1998), 189-214.
  107. ^ Martin, Walter. 2003. The Kingdom of the Cults. Bethany House Publishers, p. 39
  108. ^ The New York Times 1907.
  109. ^ Vaillant, George. 1992. Ego Mechanisms of Defense: A Guide for Clinicans and Researchers. American Psychiatric Press, Inc., p. 70
  110. ^ Saul, Leon and Warner, Silas. 1982. The Psychotic Personality. Van Nostrand Reinhold, pp. 287-288
  111. ^ Mrs. Eddy Dies Of Pneumonia; No Doctor Near, written at Boston, "New York Times", The New York Times (New York City, published December 5, 1910) 60 (19,308), December 4, 1910: 1–2, ISSN 0362-4331, retrieved October 19, 2008, "Mrs. Mary Baker Eddy, founder of the Church of Christ, Scientist, died Saturday night at 10:45 o'clock. The death was kept a secret until this morning, when a city medical examiner was called in. It was first publicly announced at the Mother Church this morning. Mrs. Eddy was in her ninetieth year." 
  112. ^ "Mrs. Eddy's Life and Achievement." The Boston Globe, December 5, 1910, p. 4.
  113. ^ See Christian Science Church listings in current issue of The Christian Science Journal.
  114. ^ 75 Books by Women Whose Words Have Changed the World
  115. ^ National Women's Hall of Fame: Mary Baker Eddy
  116. ^ The Mary Baker Eddy Library
  117. ^ The Pulitzer Prizes
  118. ^ Eddy Centenary Observed at Bow, written at Concord, NH, "New York Times", The New York Times (New York City, published July 17, 1921) 70 (23,185), July 16, 1921: 23, ISSN 0362-4331, retrieved October 19, 2008, "A little group of between 75 and 100 persons gathered in the village of Bow, three miles from here, this afternoon to take part in the simple, brief exercises which marked the centennial of Mary Baker Eddy founder of the Church of Christ, Scientist." 
  119. ^ a b c Hartsook, Andrew W. (1994), Christian Science After 1910 (PDF), Bookmark, pp. 25, 26, 27 and 28, ISBN 0-930227-24-7, "The Concord Evening Monitor of December 24, 1918, contained an interesting article regarding the project of a lone Christian Scientist." [dead link]
  120. ^ Longyear Museum | Historic Houses | Chestnut Hill & Lynn, MA[dead link]

Further reading[edit]

  • Conant, Albert F., A Complete Concordance to the Writings of Mary Baker Eddy, Other than 'Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures'. Authorized ed. Boston, Mass.: Published by the Trustees under the Will of Mary Baker G. Eddy, 1915.
  • Voorhees, Amy B., “Mary Baker Eddy, the Woman Question, and Christian Salvation: Finding a Consistent Connection by Broadening the Boundaries of Feminist Scholarship,” Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion 28 (Fall 2012), 5–25.

External links[edit]

Biographies of Eddy[edit]