Joy Harjo

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Joy Harjo
Harjo smiling, wearing traditional earrings
BornJoy Foster
(1951-05-09) May 9, 1951 (age 71)
Tulsa, Oklahoma, U.S.
Pen nameJoy Harjo-Sapulpa
OccupationAuthor, poet, performer, educator, United States Poet Laureate
NationalityMuscogee, American
EducationUniversity of New Mexico (BA)
University of Iowa (MFA)
GenrePoetry, non-fiction, fiction
Literary movementNative American Renaissance
United States Poet Laureate
In office
Preceded byTracy K. Smith
Succeeded byAda Limón

Joy Harjo (/ˈhɑːr/ HAR-joh; born May 9, 1951) is an American poet, musician, playwright, and author. She served as the 23rd United States Poet Laureate, the first Native American to hold that honor. She was also only the second Poet Laureate Consultant in Poetry to have served three terms. Harjo is a member of the Muscogee Nation (Este Mvskokvlke) and belongs to Oce Vpofv (Hickory Ground).[1] She is an important figure in the second wave of the literary Native American Renaissance of the late 20th century. She studied at the Institute of American Indian Arts, completed her undergraduate degree at University of New Mexico in 1976, and earned an MFA degree at the University of Iowa in its creative writing program.

In addition to writing books and other publications, Harjo has taught in numerous United States universities, performed internationally at poetry readings and music events, and released seven albums of her original music. Harjo is the author of nine books of poetry, and two award-winning children's books, The Good Luck Cat and For a Girl Becoming. Her books include Poet Warrior (2021), An American Sunrise (2019), Conflict Resolution for Holy Beings (2015), Crazy Brave (2012), and How We Became Human: New and Selected Poems 1975–2002 (2004). She was a recipient of the 2017 Ruth Lilly Poetry Prize, the Academy of American Poets Wallace Stevens Award, two fellowships from the National Endowment for the Arts, a Guggenheim Fellowship, and a Tulsa Artist Fellowship, among other honors. In 2019, she was elected a chancellor of the Academy of American Poets. Harjo founded For Girls Becoming, an art mentorship program for young Mvskoke women and is a Founding Board Member and Chair of the Native Arts & Cultures Foundation.

Her signature project as U.S. Poet Laureate is called "Living Nations, Living Words: A Map of First Peoples Poetry", which focuses on "mapping the U.S. with Native Nations poets and poems".[2]

Early life and education[edit]

Harjo in 1986.

Harjo was born on May 9, 1951, in Tulsa, Oklahoma.[1] Her father, Allen W. Foster, was Muscogee, and her mother, Wynema Baker Foster, was Cherokee and European-American from Arkansas.[3] As a member of the Muscogee (Creek) Nation, Harjo adopted her paternal grandmother's surname.[4]

At the age of 16, Harjo attended the Institute of American Indian Arts, which at the time was a BIA boarding school, in Santa Fe, New Mexico, for high school.[5][6] Harjo loved painting and found that it gave her a way to express herself.[7] Harjo was inspired by her great-aunt, Lois Harjo Ball, who was a painter.[8]

Harjo enrolled as a pre-med student the University of New Mexico. She changed her major to art after her first year. During her last year, she switched to creative writing, as she was inspired by different Native American writers. She graduated in 1976.[9][10] Harjo earned her master of fine arts degree in creative writing from the University of Iowa in 1978.[11] She also took filmmaking classes at the Anthropology Film Center in Santa Fe, New Mexico.[12]


Harjo taught at the Institute of American Indian Arts from 1978 to 1979 and 1983 to 1984. She taught at Arizona State University from 1980 to 1981, the University of Colorado from 1985 to 1988, the University of Arizona from 1988 to 1990, and the University of New Mexico from 1991 to 1995.[12] Her students at the University of New Mexico included future Congresswoman and Secretary of the Interior Deb Haaland.[13]

Harjo has played alto saxophone with the band Poetic Justice, edited literary journals, and written screenplays.[14]

In 1995, Harjo received the Lifetime Achievement Award from the Native Writers' Circle of the Americas.[15]

In 2002, Harjo received the PEN/Beyond Margins Award for A Map to the Next World: Poetry and Tales[16]. In 2008, she served as a founding member of the board of directors for the Native Arts and Cultures Foundation,[17] for which she serves as a member of its National Advisory Council.[18]

Harjo joined the faculty of the American Indian Studies Program at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in January 2013.[19]

In 2016, Harjo was appointed to the Chair of Excellence in the Department of English at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville.[20]

In 2019, Harjo was named the United States Poet Laureate. She was the first Native American to be so appointed.[21] She was also the second United States Poet Laureate Consultant in Poetry to serve three terms.[22]

Literature and performance[edit]

Harjo has written numerous works in the genres of poetry, books, and plays. Harjo's works often include themes such as defining self, the arts, and social justice.[23]

Harjo uses Native American oral history as a mechanism for portraying these issues, and believes that "written text is, for [her], fixed orality".[24] Her use of the oral tradition is prevalent through various literature readings and musical performances conducted by Harjo. Her methods of continuing oral tradition include story-telling, singing, and voice inflection in order to captivate the attention of her audiences. While reading poetry, she claims that "[she] starts not even with an image but a sound," which is indicative of her oral traditions expressed in performance.[25]

Harjo published her first volume in 1975, titled The Last Song, which consisted of nine of her poems.[26] Harjo has since authored nine books of poet­ry, including her most recent, the highly acclaimed An American Sun­rise (2019), which was a 2020 Oklahoma Book Award Winner; Conflict Res­o­lution for Holy Beings (2015), which was shortlisted for the Griffin Prize and named a Notable Book of the Year by the American Library Associ­a­tion; and In Mad Love and War (1990), which received an American Book Award and the Delmore Schwartz Memo­r­i­al Award. Her first mem­oir, Crazy Brave, was awarded the PEN USA Liter­ary Award in Cre­ative Non Fiction and the American Book Award, and her second, Poet Warrior, was released from W.W. Norton in Fall 2021.[27][28]

She has published two award-winning children's books, The Good Luck Cat and For a Girl Becoming; a collab­o­ration with photographer/​astronomer Stephen Strom; an anthol­o­gy of North American Native women's writing; sever­al screenplays and collections of prose interviews; and three plays, including Wings of Night Sky, Wings of Morning Light, A Play, which she toured as a one-woman show and was recently published by Wesleyan Press.[27]

Harjo is Executive Editor of the anthol­o­gy When the Light of the World was Subdued, Our Songs Came Through — A Norton Anthol­o­gy of Native Nations Poet­ry and the editor of Living Nations, Living Words: An Anthology of First Peoples Poetry, the companion anthology to her signature Poet Laureate project featuring a sampling of work by 47 Native Nations poets through an interactive ArcGIS Story Map and a newly developed Library of Congress audio collection.[2][27]

Harjo's awards for poetry include the Ruth Lily Prize for Lifetime Achievement from the Poetry Foundation, the Academy of American Poets Wallace Stevens Award, the New Mexico Governor's Award for Excellence in the Arts, a PEN USA Literary Award, Lila Wallace-Reader's Digest Fund Writers’ Award, the Poets & Writers Jackson Poet­ry Prize, a Rasmuson US Artist Fellowship, two NEA fellowships, and a Guggenheim Fellowship. Her poetry is included on a plaque on LUCY, a NASA spacecraft launched in Fall 2021 and the first reconnaissance of the Jupiter Trojans.[27]


In the early stages of adolescence is when Joy Harjo's hardships started fairly quickly. Her family was challenged by her father's struggle with alcohol as well as an abusive stepfather. From this started her journey into the arts.[29] She started painting as a way to express herself. After getting kicked out by her stepfather at the young age of 16, She attended school at the institute of Native American Arts in New Mexico where she worked to change the light in which Native American art was presented. From there, she became a creative writing major in college and focused on her passion of poetry after listening to Native American poets. She began writing poetry at twenty-two, and released her first book of poems called The Last Song, which started her career in writing.[30]

Harjo standing
Harjo photographed by the Library of Congress in 2019, upon her nomination as Poet Laureate


Harjo plays the saxophone at the Library of Congress in 2019

As a musician, Harjo has released seven CDs. These feature both her original music and that of other Native American artists.[31]

Since her first album, a spoken word classic Letter From the End of the Twentieth Century (2003) and her 1998 solo album Native Joy for Real, Harjo has received numerous awards and recognitions for her music, including a Native American Music Award (NAMMY) for Best Female Artist of the year for her 2008 album, Winding Through the Milky Way. I Pray for My Enemies is Joy Harjo's seventh and newest album, released in 2021.[32]

Harjo performs with her saxophone and flutes, solo and with pulled-together players she often calls the Arrow Dynamics Band. She has performed in Europe, South America, India, and Africa, as well as for a range of North American stages, including the Vancouver Folk Music Festival, the Cultural Olympiad at the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, the 2010 Olympics in Vancouver, DEF Poetry Jam, and the U.S. Library of Congress in Washington D.C.[27]

She began to play the saxophone at the age of 40. Harjo believes that when reading her poems, she can add music by playing the sax and reach the heart of the listener in a different way. When reading her poems, she speaks with a musical tone in her voice, creating a song in every poem.[33]


In addition to her creative writing, Harjo has written and spoken about US political and Native American affairs. She is also an active member of the Muscogee Nation and writes poetry as "a voice of the Indigenous people".[34]

Harjo's poetry explores imperialism and colonization, and their effects on violence against women. Scholar Mishuana Goeman writes, "The rich intertextuality of Harjo's poems and her intense connections with other and awareness of Native issues- such as sovereignty, racial formation, and social conditions- provide the foundation for unpacking and linking the function of settler colonial structures within newly arranged global spaces".[35]

In her poems, Harjo often explores her Muskogee/Creek background and spirituality in opposition to popular mainstream culture. In a thesis at Iowa University, Eloisa Valenzuela-Mendoza writes about Harjo, "Native American continuation in the face of colonization is the undercurrent of Harjo’s poetics through poetry, music, and performance."[36] Harjo's work touches upon land rights for Native Americans and the gravity of the disappearance of "her people", while rejecting former narratives that erased Native American histories.[36]

Much of Harjo's work reflects Creek values, myths, and beliefs.[36][37] Harjo reaches readers and audiences to bring realization of the wrongs of the past, not only for Native American communities but for oppressed communities in general. Her activism for Native American rights and feminism stem from her belief in unity and the lack of separation among human, animal, plant, sky, and earth.[38] Harjo believes that we become most human when we understand the connection among all living things. She believes that colonialism led to Native American women being oppressed within their own communities, and she works to encourage more political equality between the sexes.[39]

Of contemporary American poetry, Harjo said, "I see and hear the presence of generations making poetry through the many cultures that express America. They range from ceremonial orality which might occur from spoken word to European fixed forms; to the many classic traditions that occur in all cultures, including theoretical abstract forms that find resonance on the page or in image. Poetry always directly or inadvertently mirrors the state of the state either directly or sideways. Terrance Hayes’s American sonnets make a stand as post-election love poems. Layli Long Soldier’s poems emerge from fields of Lakota history where centuries stack and bleed through making new songs. The sacred and profane tangle and are threaded into the lands guarded by the four sacred mountains in the poetry of Sherwin Bitsui. America has always been multicultural, before the term became ubiquitous, before colonization, and it will be after."[40]

Personal life[edit]

In 1969 at the Institute of American Indian Arts, Harjo met fellow student Phil Wilmon, with whom she had a son, Phil Dayn (born 1969). Their relationship ended by 1971. In 1972, she met poet Simon Ortiz of the Acoma Pueblo tribe, with whom she had a daughter, Rainy Dawn (born 1973).[41] She raised both her children as a single mother.[42]

Harjo is married to Owen Chopoksa Sapulpa, and is stepmother to his children.[43][44][45]




  • 1st Place in Poetry in the Santa Fe Festival of the Arts (1980)
  • Outstanding Young Women of America (1984)
  • New Mexico Music Awards (1987)
  • NEH Summer Stipend in American Indian Literature and Verbal Arts, University of Arizona (1987)
  • Arizona Commission on the Arts Poetry Fellowship (1989)


  • The American Indian Distinguished Achievement in the Arts Award (1990)
  • Delmore Schwartz Memorial Award, New York University: In Mad Love and War (1991)
  • Oakland PEN, Josephine Miles Poetry Award (1991)
  • William Carlos Williams Award from the Poetry Society of America (1991)
  • American Book Award from the Before Columbus Foundation: In Mad Love and War (1991)
  • Honorary Doctorate from Benedictine College (1992)
  • Woodrow Wilson Fellowship at Green Mountain College in Poultney, Vermont (1993)
  • Witter Bynner Poetry Fellowship (1994)
  • Lifetime Achievement Award from the Native Writers Circle of The Americas (1995)[15]
  • Oklahoma Book Award: The Woman Who Fell from the Sky (1995)
  • Bravo Award from the Albuquerque Arts Alliance (1996)
  • Wordcraft Circle of Native Writers and Storytellers Musical Artist of the Year: Poetic Justice (1997)
  • New Mexico Governor's Award for Excellence in the Arts (1997)
  • St. Mary-in-the-Woods College Honorary Doctoral Degree (1998)
  • Lila Wallace-Reader's Digest Fund Writer's Award for work with nonprofit group Atlatl in bringing literary resources to Native American communities (1998)
  • Finalist for the Oklahoma Book Award: Reinventing the Enemy's Language (1998)
  • National Endowment for the Arts Creative Writing Fellowships (1998)


  • Writer of the Year/children's books by the Wordcraft Circle of Native Writers and Storytellers for The Good Luck Cat (2001)
  • Oklahoma Book Award for Poetry for How We Became Human: New and Selected Poems 1975–2001 (2003)
  • Arrell Gibson Award for Lifetime Achievement from the Oklahoma Center for the Book for How We Became Human: New and Selected Poems 1975–2001 (2003)
  • Mountains and Plains Booksellers Award[46]
  • Wordcraft Circle of Native Writers and Storytellers, Writer of the Year for A Love Supreme (2003-2004)
  • Storyteller of the Year, Wordcraft Circle of Native Writers and Storytellers (2004)
  • Wordcraft Circle of Native Writers and Storytellers, Writer of the Year for the script A Thousand Roads (2005)
  • Native American Music Award, Native Contemporary Song (2008)
  • Native American Music Award, Native Contemporary Song and Best World Music Song (2009)
  • United States Artists Rasmuson Fellows Award (2009)
  • Eagle Spirit Achievement Award (2009)


  • Indian Summer Music Award for Best Contemporary Instrumental, for “Rainbow Gratitude” from the album Red Dreams, A Trail Beyond Tears (2011)
  • Mvskoke Women's Leadership Award (2011)
  • 2011Aboriginal Music Awards, Finalist for Best Flute Album (2011)
  • Mvskoke Creek Nation Hall of Fame Induction (2012)[47]
  • American Book Award, Before Columbus Foundation for Crazy Brave (2013)[48]
  • PEN USA Literary Award in Creative Nonfiction for Crazy Brave (2013)[46]
  • Black Earth Institute Award (2014)[49]
  • John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation Fellowship (2014)[50]
  • Wallace Stevens Award in Poetry by the Academy of American Poets Board of Chancellors (2015)[51]
  • Shortlisted for the 2016 Griffin Poetry Prize[52]
  • Ruth Lilly Poetry Prize (2017)[53]
  • The 2019 Jackson Prize, Poets & Writers (2019)[54]
  • Association of Tribal Archives, Libraries, and Museums (ATALM) Literary Award, 2019[55]
  • Tulsan of the Year, 2019, TulsaWorld
  • United States Poet Laureate (2019)[5][56]
  • Oklahoma Book Award for An American Sunrise (2020)[57]
  • Institute of American Indian Arts Honorary Doctoral Degree (2020)
  • Association for Women in Communication International Matrix Award (2021)
  • Association for Women in Communication, Tulsa Professional Chapter - Saidie Award for Lifetime Achievement Newsmaker Award (2021)
  • SUNY Buffalo Honorary Doctoral Degree (2021)
  • UNC Asheville Honorary Doctoral Degree (2021)
  • University of Pennsylvania Honorary Doctoral Degree (2021)
  • Smith College Honorary Doctoral Degree (2021)
  • PEN Oakland 2021 Josephine Miles Award for When the Light of the World WasSubdued Our Songs Came Through (2021)[58]
  • 31st Annual Reading the West Book Award for Poetry, When the Light of the World Was Subdued Our Songs Came Through (2021)[59]
  • Inductee, National Women's Hall of Fame (2021)[60]
  • Inductee, Native American Hall of Fame (2021)[61]
  • Designation as the 14th Oklahoma Cultural Treasure at the 44th Oklahoma Governor's Arts Awards (2021)[62]


  • American Academy of Arts and Letters, Elected Member, Department of Literature (2021)[63]
  • American Philosophical Society, Elected Member (2021)[64]
  • American Academy of Art and Sciences, Member Appointment (2020)[65]
  • Chancellor, Academy of American Poets, Member Appointment (2019)[66]
  • Poetry included on plaque of LUCY, a NASA spacecraft launched in Fall 2021 and the first reconnaissance of the Jupiter Trojans[67]
  • Joy Harjo has received honorary doctorates from the following:
    • SUNY Buffalo Honorary Doctoral Degree, 2021
    • UNC Asheville Honorary Doctoral Degree, 2021
    • University of Pennsylvania Honorary Doctoral Degree, 2021
    • Smith College Honorary Doctoral Degree, 2021
    • Institute of American Indian Arts Honorary Doctoral Degree, 2020
    • St. Mary-in-the-Woods College Honorary Doctoral Degree, 1998
    • Benedictine College, Kansas Honorary Doctoral Degree, 1992




  • The Last Song, Puerto Del Sol, 1975.
  • What Moon Drove Me to This?, I. Reed Books, 1979, ISBN 978-0-918408-16-7.
  • Remember, Strawberry Press, 1981.
  • She Had Some Horses, Thunder's Mouth Press, 1983, ISBN 978-1-56025-119-4; W. W. Norton & Company, 2008, ISBN 978-0-393-33421-0.
  • Secrets from the Center of the World, University of Arizona Press, 1989, ISBN 978-0-8165-1113-6.
  • In Mad Love and War, Wesleyan University Press, 1990, ISBN 978-0-8195-1182-9.
  • Fishing, Ox Head Press, 1992.
  • The Woman Who Fell From the Sky, W. W. Norton & Company, 1994, ISBN 978-0-393-03715-9.
  • A Map to the Next World, W. W. Norton & Company, 2000, ISBN 978-0-393-04790-5.
  • How We Became Human New and Selected Poems: 1975–2001, W. W. Norton & Company, 2004, ISBN 978-0-393-32534-8.
  • Conflict Resolution for Holy Beings: Poems, W. W. Norton & Company, 2015, ISBN 978-0-393-24850-0. (shortlisted for the 2016 Griffin Poetry Prize)
  • An American Sunrise: Poems, W. W. Norton & Company, 2019, ISBN 978-1-324-00386-1.
  • Perhaps the World Ends Here, Kalliope, 1999.[68]

As editor[edit]

  • Reinventing the Enemy's Language: Contemporary Native Women's Writings of North America, W.W. Norton & Company, 1998, ISBN 978-0-393-31828-9.
  • When the Light of the World Was Subdued Our Songs Came Through: A Norton Anthology of Native Nations Poetry, W.W. Norton, 2020, ISBN 978-0393356809
  • Living Nations, Living Words: An Anthology of First Peoples Poetry, W.W. Norton, 2021, ISBN 978-0393867916

In anthology[edit]

  • Ghost Fishing: An Eco-Justice Poetry Anthology, University of Georgia Press, 2018, ISBN 978-0820353159.


  • Wings of Night Sky, Wings of Morning Light: A Play by Joy Harjo and a Circle of Responses, Wesleyan University Press (published 2019), 25 January 2019, ISBN 978-0819578655


Children's literature[edit]


Solo albums[edit]

  • Letter from the End of the Twentieth Century (2003)[69]
  • Native Joy for Real (2004)[70]
  • She Had Some Horses (2006)[71]
  • Winding Through the Milky Way (2008)[72]
  • Red Dreams, A Trail Beyond Tears (2010)[73]
  • This America (2011)[74]
  • I Pray For My Enemies (2021)[75]

Joy Harjo and Poetic Justice[edit]

  • Letter from the End of the Twentieth Century (1997)

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b "About Joy Harjo". Academy of American Poets. Retrieved March 2, 2020.
  2. ^ a b "Story Map Cascade". Library of Congress.
  3. ^ "Wynema Jewell Pickett". The Claremore Daily Progress. October 13, 2011. Retrieved 10 September 2021.
  4. ^ "Harjo, Joy 1951–". Oklahoma Historical Society.
  5. ^ a b King, Noel (June 21, 2019). "Meet Joy Harjo, The 1st Native American U.S. Poet Laureate". NPR.
  6. ^ Napikoski, Linda (March 18, 2017). "Joy Harjo: Feminist, Indigenous, Poetic Voice". ThoughtCo.
  7. ^ "Joy Harjo Biography".
  8. ^ "Harjo, Joy |". Retrieved 2021-10-11.
  9. ^ Shepland, Jenn (30 January 2019). "Interview with Poet Joy Harjo". Southwest Contemporary.
  10. ^ Moffett, Penelope (10 February 1989). "A Poet's Words From the Heart of Her Heritage". Los Angeles Times.
  11. ^ "Librarian of Congress Names Joy Harjo the Nation's 23rd Poet Laureate". University of Iowa Writers Workshop.
  12. ^ a b "Harjo, Joy 1951–". Oklahoma Historical Society. 1951.
  13. ^ Firekeeper's Daughter: A Celebration of Indigenous Literature with Angeline Boulley & Louise Erdich (Video). YouTube: National Congress of American Indians. Apr 28, 2021. Event occurs at 19:43. Archived from the original on 2021-12-13. Retrieved June 2, 2021.
  14. ^ "Joy Harjo". June 19, 2014. Retrieved June 21, 2019.
  15. ^ a b "Lifetime Achievement Awards from the Native Writers Circle of America". Storytellers: Native American Authors Online. Karen M. Strom. Retrieved May 1, 2015.
  16. ^ "PEN Open Book Award Winners". PEN America. April 29, 2016. Retrieved March 2, 2020.
  17. ^ Pogrebin, Robin (April 21, 2009). "New Group Is Formed to Sponsor Native Arts". The New York Times. Retrieved May 1, 2015.
  18. ^ "NACF National Leadership Council Members". Archived from the original on April 24, 2009. Retrieved May 14, 2014.
  19. ^ "Current News, American Indian Studies Program, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign". University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Archived from the original on October 29, 2013. Retrieved September 29, 2012.
  20. ^ "The Creative Writing Program Welcomes Joy Harjo to the Faculty as a Professor & Chair of Excellence | Department of English". Retrieved March 2, 2020.
  21. ^ Lynn Neary; Patrick Jarenwattananon (June 19, 2019). "Joy Harjo Becomes The First Native American U.S. Poet Laureate". NPR.
  22. ^ "Joy Harjo will serve a rare third term as U.S. poet laureate". PBS NewsHour. November 19, 2020. Retrieved November 19, 2020.
  23. ^ Kingsbury, Pam (June 15, 2002). "Review: Harjo, Joy. How We Became Human: New and Selected Poems". Library Journal.
  24. ^ Acosta, Belinda (2014). "Review: Joy Harjo. Crazy Brave: A Memoir". Prairie Schooner: 160+. doi:10.1353/psg.2014.0140. S2CID 53935940.
  25. ^ Scarry, John (1994). "Joy Harjo: Overview". Reference Guide to American Literature.
  26. ^ "Joy Harjo". Poetry Foundation. Retrieved November 18, 2016.
  27. ^ a b c d e "Joy Harjo Official Site". Joy Harjo. Retrieved 2021-11-24.
  28. ^ "Joy Harjo". Library of Congress. Retrieved 2021-11-24.
  29. ^ "Joy Harjo's 'Crazy Brave' Path To Finding Her Voice". Retrieved 2021-12-06.
  30. ^ "Joy Harjo Biography". Joy Harjo Biography. Retrieved 2021-12-06.
  31. ^ "About Joy Harjo". Joy Harjo.
  32. ^ "First Native American Poet Laureate, Joy Harjo releases new album "I Pray For My Enemies" – Skope Entertainment Inc". Retrieved 2021-11-24.
  33. ^ Root, William Pitt (2005). "About Joy Harjo". Ploughshares. 30 (4): 184. JSTOR 40355019.
  34. ^ Scarry, John (1994). "Joy Harjo: Overview". Reference Guide to American Literature.
  35. ^ Goeman, Mishuana (2013). Mark My Words: Native Women Mapping Our Nations. University of Minnesota Press. p. 119.
  36. ^ a b c Valenzuela-Mendoza, Eloisa (2014). ""Tending to the past": The Historical Poetics of Joy Harjo and Natasha Trethewey". Iowa Research Online. 1 (7).
  37. ^ "Joy Harjo". Poetry Foundation. April 18, 2017. Retrieved April 19, 2017.
  38. ^ Romero, Channette (August 29, 2012). Activism and the American Novel: Religion and Resistance in Fiction by Women of Color. University of Virginia Press.
  39. ^ Suzack, Cheryl; Huhndorf, Shari; Perreault, Jeanne; Barman, Jean (2013). "Indigenous Women and Feminism: Politics, Activism, Culture". Diffractions. Graduate Journal for the Study of Culture (1): 3.
  40. ^ "An Interview with Joy Harjo, U.S. Poet Laureate". June 19, 2019. Retrieved June 21, 2019.
  41. ^ Dunaway, David King (1995). Writing the Southwest (revised ed.). University of New Mexico: Plume Books. pp. 50–51. ISBN 9780826323378.
  42. ^ "Joy Harjo: An Interview". Poets & Writers. July 1, 1993. Retrieved July 19, 2021.
  43. ^ [page needed] Harjo, Joy (September 7, 2021). Poet Warrior: A Memoir. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-393-24853-1.
  44. ^ "LUCKY HEART by Joy Harjo (Joy Harjo-Sapulpa) December 27, 2017". Native America Humane Society. Retrieved October 7, 2021.
  45. ^ "Group Blog Home". Retrieved October 7, 2021.
  46. ^ a b Poets, Academy of American. "About Joy Harjo | Academy of American Poets". Retrieved 2021-11-24.
  47. ^ " - Digital Newspaper & Magazine Subscriptions". Retrieved 2021-11-24.
  48. ^ "Before Columbus Foundation – Nonprofit educational and service organization dedicated to the promotion and dissemination of contemporary American multicultural literature since 1976. Host of the annual American Book Awards". Retrieved 2021-11-24.
  49. ^ "Association of Writers & Writing Programs". Retrieved 2021-11-24.
  50. ^ "Joy Harjo – 2014 John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation Fellow". Archived from the original on May 17, 2014.
  51. ^ "Wallace Stevens Award". Retrieved April 9, 2016.
  52. ^ "Griffin Poetry Prize: 2016 Shortlist". Griffin Poetry Prize. Retrieved 2021-11-24.
  53. ^ Schilling, Vincent (May 9, 2017). "Joy Harjo Awarded 2017 Ruth Lilly Poetry Prize and $100,000". Indian Country Today. Retrieved October 30, 2018.
  54. ^ "JOY HARJO WINS JACKSON POETRY PRIZE". Poets & Writers. 2019-04-24. Retrieved 2021-11-24.
  55. ^ "2019 International Conference of Indigenous Archives, Libraries, and Museums | ATALM". Retrieved 2021-11-24.
  56. ^ de León, Concepción (19 June 2019). "Joy Harjo Is Named U.S. Poet Laureate". The New York Times.
  57. ^ "2020 Oklahoma Book Awards – OK Dept. of Libraries". Retrieved 2021-11-24.
  58. ^ "Native Nations Poetry Anthology Wins PEN Oakland Award | Department of English". Retrieved 2021-11-24.
  59. ^ "Winners 2020-2029 – Reading the West". Retrieved 2021-11-24.
  60. ^ "Michelle Obama, Mia Hamm chosen for Women's Hall of Fame". March 8, 2021.
  61. ^ "Inductees - NNAHOF". National Native American Hall of Fame. Retrieved 2021-11-24.
  62. ^ "Joy Harjo, Kristin Chenoweth honored at Oklahoma Governor's Arts Awards". The Oklahoman. Retrieved 2021-11-24.
  63. ^ "2021 Newly Elected Members – American Academy of Arts and Letters". Retrieved 2021-11-24.
  64. ^ "The American Philosophical Society Welcomes New Members for 2021". American Philosophical Society. Retrieved 2021-11-24.
  65. ^ "Joy Harjo". American Academy of Arts & Sciences. Retrieved 2021-11-24.
  66. ^ Poets, Academy of American. "Joy Harjo and Natasha Trethewey Named Academy of American Poets Chancellors |". Retrieved 2021-11-24.
  67. ^ "The Lucy Plaque - Lucy Mission". Retrieved 2021-11-24.
  68. ^ Harjo, Joy. "Perhaps the World Ends Here". Kalliope, A Journal of Women's Art and Literature. 20 (3): 47.
  69. ^ "Letter From The End of the Twentieth Century - album by Joy Harjo". Joy Harjo. Retrieved November 6, 2019.
  70. ^ "Native Joy For Real an album by Joy Harjo". Joy Harjo. Retrieved November 6, 2019.
  71. ^ "She Had Some Horses". Joy Harjo. Retrieved November 6, 2019.
  72. ^ "Winding Through The Milky Way an album by Joy Harjo". Joy Harjo. Retrieved November 6, 2019.
  73. ^ "Red Dreams, Trail Beyond Tears an album by Joy Harjo". Joy Harjo. Retrieved November 6, 2019.
  74. ^ Harjo, Joy (October 26, 2021). "This America".{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  75. ^ Harjo, Joy (October 26, 2021). "I Pray For My Enemies".{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)


External links[edit]