Pope Siricius

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Pope Saint
Siricius
Pormenor do Retábulo de Santa Auta (Papa Ciríaco Abençoa Santa Auta e o Príncipe Conan), Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga.png
A detail of the Saint Auta Reredos depicting the Pope (referenced as Cyriacus in the legend of Saint Ursula). National Museum of Ancient Art, Lisbon, Portugal.
Papacy began December 384
Papacy ended 26 November 399
Predecessor Damasus I
Successor Anastasius I
Personal details
Birth name Siricius
Born 334
Died (399-11-26)26 November 399
Sainthood
Feast day 26 November
Papal styles of
Pope Siricius
Emblem of the Papacy SE.svg
Reference style His Holiness
Spoken style Your Holiness
Religious style Holy Father
Posthumous style Saint

Pope Siricius (334 – 26 November 399) was the Pope from December 384[1] to his death in 399. He was successor to Pope Damasus I and was himself succeeded by Pope Anastasius I.

In response to inquiries from Bishop Himerius of Tarragona, Siricius issued decrees of baptism, church discipline and other matters. These are the oldest completely preserved papal decretals.


Biography[edit]

Siricius was a native of Rome; his father's name was Tiburtius. Siricius entered the service of the Church at an early age and, according to the testimony of the inscription on his grave, was lector and then deacon of the Roman Church during the pontificate of Liberius.[2]

Siricius was elected Bishop of Rome unanimously, despite attempts by the Antipope Ursinus to promote himself. Emperor Valentinian II's confirmation of his election stilled any further objections.[3]

He was an active Pope, involved in the administration of the Church and the handling of various factions and viewpoints within it. In response to a letter from Himerius, Bishop of Tarragona, he issued decisions on fifteen different points, on matters regarding baptism, penance, church discipline and the celibacy of the clergy. His are the oldest completely preserved decretals.[2]

According to the life in the "Liber Pontificalis" (ed. Duchesne, I, 216), Siricius also took severe measures against the Manichæans at Rome. However, as Duchesne remarks (loc. cit., notes) it cannot be assumed from the writings of the converted Augustine of Hippo, who was a Manichæan when he went to Rome (383), that Siricius took any particular steps against them, yet Augustine would certainly have commented on this if such had been the case. The mention in the "Liber Pontificalis" belongs properly to the life of Pope Leo I. Neither is it probable, as Langen thinks (Gesch. der röm. Kirche, I, 633), that Priscillianists are to be understood by this mention of Manichæans, although probably Priscillianists were at times called Manichæans in the writings of that age. The western emperors, including Honorius and Valentinian III, issued laws against the Manichæans, whom they declared to be political offenders, and took severe action against the members of this sect (Codex Theodosian, XVI, V, various laws).

In the East, Siricius interposed to settle the Meletian schism at Antioch; this schism had continued notwithstanding the death in 381 of Meletius at the Council of Constantinople. The followers of Meletius elected Flavian as his successor, while the adherents of Bishop Paulinus, after the death of this bishop (388), elected Evagrius. Evagrius died in 392 and through Flavian's management no successor was elected. By the mediation of St. John Chrysostom and Theophilus of Alexandria an embassy, led by Bishop Acacius of Beroea, was sent to Rome to persuade Siricius to recognize Flavian and to readmit him to communion with the Church.[2]

When the Spanish bishop and ascetic Priscillian, accused by his fellow bishops of heresy, was executed by the emperor Magnus Maximus under the charge of magic, Siricius—along with Ambrose of Milan and Martin of Tours—protested against the verdict to the emperor.[3]

Although sources say that Pope Siricius was the first Bishop of Rome to style himself Pope,[4] other authorities say the title "Pope" was from the early 3rd century an honorific designation used for any bishop in the West.[5] In the East it was used only for the Bishop of Alexandria.[5] Pope Marcellinus (d. 304) is the first Bishop of Rome shown in sources to have had the title "Pope" used of him. From the 6th century, the imperial chancery of Constantinople normally reserved this designation for the Bishop of Rome.[5] From the early 6th century, it began to be confined in the West to the Bishop of Rome, a practice that was firmly in place by the 11th century,[5] when Pope Gregory VII declared it reserved for the Bishop of Rome.

Siricius is also one of the Popes presented in various sources as having been the first to bear the title Pontifex Maximus. Others that are said to have been the first to bear the title are Pope Callistus I, Pope Damasus I, Pope Leo I, and Pope Gregory I. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church indicates instead that it was in the fifteenth century (when the Renaissance stirred up new interest in ancient Rome) that "Pontifex Maximus" became a regular title of honour for Popes.[6]

Siricius is buried in the basilica of San Silvestro.[3] His feast day is 26 November.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The date in December—15, 22, or 29—is uncertain. Annuario Pontificio (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2012 ISBN 978-88-209-8722-0), p. 9.
  2. ^ a b c Kirsch, Johann Peter. "Pope St. Siricius." The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 14. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1912. 29 September 2017
  3. ^ a b c "The 38th Pope", Spirituality for Today, Diocese of Bridgeport
  4. ^ Bettenson, Henry; Maunder, Chris (2011). Documents of the Christian Church. Oxford University Press. p. 88. ISBN 9780199568987. 
  5. ^ a b c d Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (Oxford University Press 2005 ISBN 978-0-19-280290-3), article Pope
  6. ^ Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (Oxford University Press 2005 ISBN 978-0-19-280290-3), article Pontifex Maximus

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainHerbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Pope St. Siricius". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton. 

External links[edit]

Titles of the Great Christian Church
Preceded by
Damasus I
Pope
384–399
Succeeded by
Anastasius I