Saint Lorenzo Ruiz
|First Saint and Protomartyr of the Philippines|
Captaincy General of the Philippines
|Died||September 29, 1637 (aged 36–37)|
Nagasaki, Hizen Province, Tokugawa Shogunate
|Venerated in||Catholic Church|
|Beatified||February 18, 1981, Manila by Pope John Paul II|
|Canonized||October 18, 1987, Vatican City by Pope John Paul II|
|Major shrine||Binondo Church, Binondo, Manila, Philippines|
|Attributes||Rosary in clasped hands, gallows and pit, Barong Tagalog or camisa de chino and black trousers, cross, palm of martyrdom|
|Patronage||The Philippines, Filipinos, Overseas Filipino Workers and migrant workers, the poor, separated families, Filipino youth, Chinese-Filipinos, Filipino Altar servers, Tagalogs, Archdiocese of Manila.|
Saint Lorenzo Ruiz (Filipino: San Lorenzo Ruiz ng Maynila; Spanish: San Lorenzo Ruiz de Manila; Latin: Laurentius Ruiz Manilensis; ca. 1600 – 29 September 1637) is a Filipino saint venerated in the Roman Catholic Church. A Chinese-Filipino, he became his country's protomartyr after his execution in Japan by the Tokugawa Shogunate during its persecution of Japanese Christians in the 17th century.
Saint Lorenzo is patron saint of, among others, the Philippines and the Filipino people.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Martyrdom
- 3 Veneration
- 4 Places and things named after Lorenzo Ruiz
- 5 Other tributes
- 6 In popular culture
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Ruiz served as an altar boy at the Binondo Church. After being educated by the Dominican friars for a few years, Ruiz earned the title of escribano (calligrapher) because of his skillful penmanship. He became a member of the Cofradia del Santísimo Rosario (Confraternity of the Most Holy Rosary). He married Rosario, a native, and they had two sons and a daughter. The Ruiz family led a generally peaceful, religious and content life.
In 1636, whilst working as a clerk for the Binondo Church, Ruiz was falsely accused of killing a Spaniard. Ruiz sought asylum on board a ship with three Dominican priests: Saint Antonio Gonzalez, Saint Guillermo Courtet, and Saint Miguel de Aozaraza; a Japanese priest, Saint Vicente Shiwozuka de la Cruz; and a lay leper Saint Lázaro of Kyoto. Ruiz and his companions sailed for Okinawa on 10 June 1636, with the aid of the Dominican fathers.
The Tokugawa Shogunate was persecuting Christians by the time Ruiz had arrived in Japan. The missionaries were arrested and thrown into prison, and after two years, they were transferred to Nagasaki to face trial by torture. The group endured many and various cruel methods of torture.
On 27 September 1637, Ruiz and his companions were taken to Nishizaka Hill, where they were tortured by being hung upside-down over a pit. This form of torture was known as tsurushi (釣殺し) in Japanese or horca y hoya ("gallows and pit") in Spanish. The method, alleged to have been extremely painful, had the victim bound; one hand was always left free so that the individual may signal their desire to recant, leading to their release. Despite his suffering, Ruiz refused to renounce Christianity and died from eventual blood loss and suffocation. His body was cremated, with the ashes thrown into the sea.
According to Latin missionary accounts sent back to Manila, Ruiz declared these words upon his death:
Ego Catholicus sum et animo prompto paratoque pro Deo mortem obibo.
Si mille vitas haberem, cunctas ei offerrem.
(I am a Catholic and wholeheartedly do accept death for God;
Had I a thousand lives, all these to Him shall I offer.)
Cause of beatification and canonization
The Positio Super Introductione Causae or the cause of beatification of Saint Lorenzo Ruiz was written by respected historian, Fr. Fidel Villarroel, O.P. Ruiz was beatified during Pope John Paul II's papal visit to the Philippines. It was the first beatification ceremony to be held outside the Vatican in history. San Lorenzo Ruiz was canonized by the same pope in the Vatican City on 18 October 1987, making him the first Filipino saint.
His canonization was supported by a miracle in October 1983, when Cecilia Algeria Policarpio of Calinog, Iloilo, was cured of brain atrophy (hydrocephalus) at the age of two, after her family and supporters prayed to Ruiz for his intercession. She was diagnosed with the condition shortly after birth and was treated at University of the East Ramon Magsaysay Memorial Medical Center.
Places and things named after Lorenzo Ruiz
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In the Philippines
- San Lorenzo Ruiz, Camarines Norte
- Barangay San Lorenzo, Makati City
- Barangay San Lorenzo, Masinloc, Zambales
- Barangay San Lorenzo Ruiz I and II, Dasmariñas City, Cavite
- San Lorenzo Village Puan, Davao City
- Minor Basilica of San Lorenzo Ruiz, Binondo, Manila
- San Lorenzo Ruiz Parish, Bacoor City, Cavite
- San Lorenzo Ruiz Parish, Dau Mabalacat City, Pampanga
- San Lorenzo Ruiz Diocesan Church, Bayugan City, Agusan del Sur
- San Lorenzo Ruiz Parish, Taytay, Rizal
- San Lorenzo Ruiz Chapel, Imnajbu, Batanes
- San Lorenzo Ruiz Chapel, Balanga City, Bataan
- San Lorenzo Ruiz Church, Ozamiz City, Misamis Occidental
- San Lorenzo Ruiz Parish, Tandang Sora, Quezon City
- San Lorenzo Ruiz Chapel, Laurel, Batangas
- San Lorenzo Ruiz Parish, Tisa, Cebu City
- San Lorenzo Ruiz de Manila Parish Church, San Jose del Monte, Bulacan
- Saint Lorenzo Ruiz Shrine Bangued, Abra
- San Lorenzo Ruiz and Companion Martyrs Parish, Kaunlaran Village, Navotas City
- San Lorenzo Ruiz Parish – Talomo, Davao City
- San Lorenzo Ruiz Parish – Dagatan, Taysan, Batangas
- San Lorenzo Ruiz Parish – Masipit, Calapan City, Oriental Mindoro
- San Lorenzo Ruiz Church, Gusa, Cagayan De Oro City, Misamis Occidental
- San Lorenzo Ruiz Parish – Pinagpanaan Talavera, Nueva Ecija,
- San Lorenzo Ruiz Church – Rainbow Village Bagumbong Caloocan City
- Lorenzo Ruiz Academy, Binondo, Manila
- Colegio de San Lorenzo, a Catholic college in Quezon City, founded in 1988
- Escuela de San Lorenzo Ruiz – Parañaque, Sucat, Parañaque City, founded in 1988
- Lorenzo Ruiz de Manila School, Cainta, Rizal, founded in 1990
- San Lorenzo Ruiz de Manila School, Marikina City, founded in 2003
- San Lorenzo Ruiz Montessori, Inc., Bulakan, Bulacan
- Colegio San Lorenzo Ruiz de Pilipinas, Paniqui, Tarlac
- San Lorenzo School, a non-sectarian school in San Pedro City, Laguna
- San Lorenzo Ruiz Parochial School, Navotas City
- San Lorenzo Ruiz Academy of Polomolok
- Colegio de San Lorenzo Ruiz de Manila Inc, Of Catarman, Northern Samar
- Plaza San Lorenzo Ruiz, the present name of the plaza fronting Binondo Church, Manila
- San Lorenzo Ruiz Diocesan Academy Inc. - San Bartolome, San Leonardo, Nueva Ecija founded in 1989
- San Lorenzo Ruiz Hospital – Naic, Cavite (formerly "The First Filipino Saint Hospital")
- San Lorenzo Ruiz Women's Hospital – medical clinic located at Malabon, Philippines
- San Lorenzo Ruiz Bridge, Bagabag, Nueva Vizcaya, Philippines
- St. Lorenzo Ruiz Catholic Church, a Catholic church in Walnut, California, United States of America
- Chapel of San Lorenzo Ruiz in New York City, United States of America, opened in 2005
- Saint Lorenzo Ruiz Chapel, Bjørnevatn, Vatsø, Norway
- Saint Lorenzo Ruiz Church (Parish), Yomitan, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan
- San Lorenzo Ruiz Elementary School, a Catholic school in Mississauga, Ontario, Canada
- San Lorenzo Ruiz Elementary School, a Catholic school in Markham, Ontario, Canada
- St Lorenzo Ruiz Elementary School, a Catholic school in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada
Lorenzo Ruiz is included in American painter John Nava's Communion of Saints Tapestries, a depiction of 135 saints and beati which hangs inside the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels in Los Angeles, California.
On 28 September 2007, the Catholic Church celebrated the 20th anniversary of Ruiz's canonisation. Then-archbishop of Manila Cardinal Gaudencio Rosales said: "Kahit saan nandoon ang mga Pilipino, ang katapatan sa Diyos ay dala-dala ng Pinoy." ("Wheresoever Filipinos are, the Pinoy brings fidelity to God.")
A mosaic of St. Lorenzo is found in the Trinity Dome of Mary's National Shrine in Washington DC.
On 28 September 2017, St. Lorenzo Ruiz celebrated his 30th anniversary of his canonisation by Archbishop of Manila.
In popular culture
Film and theatre
- Ang Buhay ni Lorenzo Ruiz, a 1970 Philippine religious biographical film
- Lorenzo Ruiz... The Saint... A Filipino!, a 1988 Philippine film
- Lorenzo, a musical staged in September 2013, by Green Wings Entertainment, with music by Ryan Cayabyab, book and lyrics by Juan Ekis and Paul Dumol, with the collaboration of Joem Antonio, direction by Nonon Padilla, and production by Christopher de Leon.
- Carunungan, Celso Al. To Die a Thousand Deaths: A Novel on the Life and Times of Lorenzo Ruiz, Social Studies Publications, Metro Manila, Philippines, 1980.
- Delgado, Antonio C. The Making of The First Filipino Saint, The Ala-Ala Foundation, 1982.
- Ignacia del Espiritu Santo
- Jerónima de la Asunción
- Kakure Kirishitan
- Martha de San Bernardo, the first Filipino nun
- Martyrs of Japan
- Pedro Calungsod, the second Filipino saint
- "Visit of Her Excellency President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo to Participate in the 2005 World Summit – High Level plenary session of the 60th Session of the United Nations General Assembly, New York, United States of America, 12–15 September 2005", Press Kit, Office of the President, Government Mass Media Group, Bureau of Communications Services, Manila, September, 2005.
- Religion-Cults.com Dominguez, J, M.D., September 29: Saints of the Day, Saint Lorenzo Ruiz and Companions, 1600–1637, Religion-Cults.com, retrieved on: 10 June 2007
- Foley O.F.M., Leonard. Saint of the Day, Lives, Lessons and Feast, (revised by Pat McCloskey O.F.M), Franciscan Media
- Filipino Apostolate/Archdiocese of New York, Chapel of San Lorenzo Ruiz, ChapelofSanLorenzoRuiz.org Archived 2008-11-20 at the Wayback Machine, retrieved on: 9 June 2007
- azheepineda. "UST Archives director Fr. Fidel Villarroel, O.P. : Master key to UST's past". Skyrock.
- "2-volume UST history charts evolution of higher education in the Philippines". inquirer.net.
- "UST historian named Master of Theology". The Varsitarian.
- The Pinoy Catholic. "The Pinoy Catholic: St. Lorenzo Ruiz". thepinoycatholic.blogspot.com.
- "ParishWorld.org". stlorenzo.org.
- "Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels". olacathedral.org.
- "Roxas may slide down for Poe, says LP" (TXT). Newsinfo.inquirer.net. Retrieved 2015-05-17.[permanent dead link]
- Cause for Beatification
- Mosaic in Saint Peter's Basilica
- St. Lorenzo Ruiz in the Communion of Saints Tapestries
- St. Lorenzo Ruiz Prayer in times of adversity. Translated into Spanish by José Tlatelpas, traditional version in English and Tagalog. Published in the Canadian Hispanic webzine "La Guirnalda Polar".
- Lorenzo Ruiz at Find a Grave
- LORENZO, a musical on the life of Lorenzo Ruiz