Pope Damasus II
|Papacy began||17 July 1048|
|Papacy ended||9 August 1048|
|Birth name||Poppo de' Curagnoni|
|Born||Pildenau, Duchy of Bavaria, Holy Roman Empire|
9 August 1048|
Palestrina, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire
|Other popes named Damasus|
|Papal styles of|
Pope Damasus II
|Reference style||His Holiness|
|Spoken style||Your Holiness|
|Religious style||Holy Father|
Pope Damasus II (died 9 August 1048), born Poppo de' Curagnoni, was Pope from 17 July 1048 to his death on 9 August that same year. He was the second of the German pontiffs nominated by Emperor Henry III. A native of Bavaria, he was the third German to become Pope and had one of the shortest papal reigns.
Upon the death of Clement II, envoys from Rome were sent to the Emperor to ascertain who should be named pope. Henry named the Bishop of Brixen, Poppo de' Curagnoni. While the envoys were away, former pope Benedict IX reasserted himself and with the assistance of the disaffected Margrave of Tuscany once again assumed the papacy. Henry ordered Margrave Boniface to escort Bishop Poppo to Rome, but Boniface declined, pointing out that the Romans had already enthroned Benedict. Enraged, the Emperor ordered the Margrave to depose Benedict or suffer the consequences. Poppo became Pope in mid-July but died of malaria less than a month later, in Palestrina, where he had gone to avoid the heat of the city.
Given the display of imperial power Henry III had inflicted on the Romans in intervening against Pope Gregory VI and installing Clement II, it is not surprising that on Christmas Day of 1047, an emissary was sent by the Roman people bringing news of Clement II's death to Henry III and asking him, in his position as Patricius of the Romans, to appoint a successor. Henry had been engaged in an indecisive campaign in Frisia, and was in his palace at Pöhlde in Saxony when the embassy found him. The envoys, according to their instructions, suggested as a suitable candidate the handsome Halinard, Archbishop of Lyon, who was a fluent speaker of Italian, and was well respected in Rome.>
Henry was unwilling to rush matters, and so asked Wazo of Liège, the most independent bishop within the empire, who ought to be made pope. After careful consideration, Wazo declared that the most appropriate candidate for the vacant papal throne was the man the Emperor had removed – Gregory VI. Wazo's deliberations had taken time, and Henry soon lost patience. Henry instead appointed Poppo, Bishop of Brixen in Tyrol, a proud man of distinguished learning who had taken part in the Synod of Sutri. This decision antagonized the Romans, who were still pushing for Halinard to become the new Pope. Nevertheless, Henry sent the Roman envoys back to Rome with presents to prepare for the arrival of their new Pope.
Arrival in Italy
During the envoys’ absence, imperial authority in Rome became virtually extinguished as the Tusculan faction reasserted its power. A former pope, Benedict IX, residing at Tusculum, had been watching the situation in Rome intently, and had decided that now was his opportunity to reclaim what was his. He approached the Margrave Boniface III of Tuscany for help, and Boniface, who did not like the emperor, was easily convinced to help anyone who would disrupt Henry's authority. After Benedict had used his extensive supply of gold to gain a large number of followers, the Margrave's influence enabled him to occupy the papal throne for over eight months, from 8 November 1047 until 17 July 1048.
In the meantime, Henry was marching down towards Italy with Poppo, accompanying him at least as far as Ulm. Here it came to light that the papal exchequer was close to bankrupt, and so Poppo was allowed to retain the revenues of his see. In addition, a deed was drawn up on 25 January 1048 that granted Poppo an important forest in the valley of Puster. Having done this, and unable to leave Germany in case there might be an uprising during his absence, Henry III directed Margrave Boniface to conduct the Pope-designate to Rome in person, and in the emperor's name to arrange for the enthroning of the new Pope.
Given his role in the usurpation by Benedict IX, and his attitude towards Henry III, it is unsurprising that Boniface at first refused, advising Poppo when he entered Tuscany, "I cannot go to Rome with you. The Romans have again installed Benedict, and he has won over the whole city to his cause. Besides, I am now an old man." Having nowhere to turn, and unable to proceed, Poppo had no choice but to turn around and return to Germany, where he informed Henry of what had transpired.
Upon receiving the news, Henry was furious. Poppo was quickly sent back to Boniface, carrying with him a letter from the Emperor which ordered him to arrange the expulsion of Benedict and the enthroning of his successor. Henry was simple and direct. "Learn, you who have restored a Pope who was canonically deposed, and who have been led by love of money to despise my commands, learn that, if you do not amend your ways, I will soon come and make you." These threats soon reduced Boniface to obedience. He sent a body of troops into Rome and forcibly expelled Benedict from the city.
After Benedict IX's removal, the Bishop of Brixen (Poppo) entered the city in triumph, as the Romans, with every demonstration of joy, welcomed the bishop who would be Pope. He was enthroned at the Lateran as Pope Damasus II on 17 July 1048. His pontificate, however, was of short duration. Overcome, in all likelihood, by the heat of Rome, he retired to Palestrina, but it was too late. After a brief reign of twenty-three days, he died on 9 August and was buried in San Lorenzo fuori le Mura. According to Panvinio, Damasus’ sarcophagus was large and "adorned with reliefs representing a vineyard, with cupids as the wine gatherers."
The shortness of Damasus II's reign led to rumors that he had been poisoned by a man named Gerhard Brazutus, a friend of Benedict IX and a follower of Hildebrand. However, the source for this information is extremely suspect, and a more likely scenario is that he died of malaria.
- Coulombe, Charles A., Vicars of Christ: A History of the Popes, (Citadel Press, 2003), 204.
- One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Damasus". Encyclopædia Britannica. 7 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 786.
- Oestereich, Thomas. "Pope Damasus II." The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 4. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1908. 26 September 2017
- Mann, p. 288
- Mann, pg 289
- Mann, pp. 289–290
- Mann, p. 290
- Mann, p. 291
- The Reform of the Church, J.P. Whitney, The Cambridge Medieval History, Vol. V, ed. J.R. Tanner, C.W. Previte-Orton, Z.N. Brooke, (Cambridge University Press, 1968), 23.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Damasus II.|
- Literature by and about Pope Damasus II in the German National Library catalogue
- Mann, Horace K., The Lives of the Popes in the Early Middle Ages, Volume 5: The Popes In The Days of Feudal Anarchy, from Formosus to Damasus II, Part 2 (London, 1910)
- Ernst Steindorff (1876), "Damasus II", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB) (in German), 4, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 714–715
- Reinhard Elze (1957), "Damasus II", Neue Deutsche Biographie (NDB) (in German), 3, Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 498–498; (full text online)
- Friedrich Wilhelm Bautz (1975). "Damasus II". In Bautz, Friedrich Wilhelm. Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL) (in German). 1. Hamm: Bautz. col. 1200. ISBN 3-88309-013-1.
- Rudolf Schieffer: Damasus II in: Lexikon des Mittelalters. Vol. 3, Artemis & Winkler, Munich/Zurich 1986, ISBN 3-7608-8903-4, Col. 470.
- Bertolini, Paolo (1986). "Damaso II". Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani, Volume 32: Dall'Anconata–Da Ronco (in Italian). Rome: Istituto dell'Enciclopedia Italiana. pp. 289–292.
- Paolo Bertolini: Damaso II. In: Massimo Bray (ed.): Enciclopedia dei Papi, Istituto della Enciclopedia Italiana, Vol. 2 (Niccolò I, santo, Sisto IV), Rome, 2000, OCLC 313581688, pp. 153–156.
- Hans Göttler: Spurensuche nach Papst Damasus II. in Pildenau am Inn: Geschichte und Legende des 1. Pontifex Maximus aus Altbayern, Tiefenbach: Verlag Töpfl, 2005
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