Irish Catholic Martyrs
|Died||1537–1681, Ireland, England, Wales|
|Martyred by||English monarchy|
|Venerated in||Roman Catholic Church|
|Beatified||27 September 1992, by Pope John Paul II|
Irish Catholic Martyrs (Irish: Mairtírigh Chaitliceacha na hÉireann) were 22 people who have been sanctified in varying degrees for dying for their Roman Catholic faith between 1537 and 1681 in Ireland. The canonisation of Oliver Plunkett in 1975 brought an awareness of the other men and women who died for the Catholic faith in the 16th and 17th centuries. On 22 September 1992 Pope John Paul II proclaimed a representative group from Ireland as martyrs and beatified them. "Martyr" was originally a Greek word meaning "witness". In the Acts of the Apostles, Peter, speaking to those in Jerusalem at Pentecost, claimed he and all the apostles were "martyrs", that is, witnesses, in this case to Jesus's resurrection. Later the word came to mean a person who followed the example of Christ and gave up their lives rather than deny their faith.
Individuals formally recognized
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of the Catholic Church
12 October 1975 by Pope Paul VI.
15 December 1929 by Pope Pius XI.
22 November 1987 by Pope John Paul II.
27 September 1992 by Pope John Paul II.
- Patrick O'Hely, Franciscan Bishop of Mayo, 31 August 1579
- Conn O'Rourke, Franciscan priest, 31 August 1579
- Wexford Martyrs, 5 July 1581: Matthew Lambert, Robert Myler, Edward Cheevers, Patrick Cavanagh (Irish: Pádraigh Caomhánach), John O'Lahy, and one other unknown individual
- Margaret Ball, 1584, Dublin 
- Dermot O'Hurley, Archbishop of Cashel, 20 June 1584
- Muiris Mac Ionrachtaigh (Maurice MacKenraghty), Chaplain to the Earl of Desmond, 1585
- Dominic Collins, Jesuit lay brother from Youghal, County Cork, 31 October 1602
- Concobhar Ó Duibheannaigh (Conor O'Devany), Franciscan Bishop of Down & Connor, 11 February 1612
- Patrick O'Loughran, priest from County Tyrone, 11 February 1612
- Francis Taylor, former Mayor of Dublin, 1621
- Peter O'Higgins O.P., Prior of Naas, 23 March 1642
- Terence O'Brien O.P., Bishop of Emly, 31 October 1651
- John Kearney, Franciscan Prior of Cashel, 1653
- William Tirry, Augustinian priest from Cork, 12 May 1654
The persecution of Catholics in Ireland in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries came in waves, caused by a reaction to particular incidents or circumstances, with intervals of comparative respite in between.
Religious persecution of Catholics in Ireland began under King Henry VIII (then Lord of Ireland) after his excommunication in 1533. The Irish Parliament adopted the Acts of Supremacy, establishing the king's ecclesiastical supremacy. Some priests, bishops, and those who continued to pray for the pope were tortured and killed. The Treasons Act 1534 caused any act of allegiance to the pope to be considered treason. Many were imprisoned on this basis.
In 1536, Charles Reynods was posthumously convicted of high treason for successfully persuading the Pope to excommunicate Henry VIII of England. In 1537, John Travers, the Chancellor of St Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin, was executed under the Act of Supremacy.
Relations improved after the accession of the Catholic Queen Mary in 1553–58, and in the early years of the reign of her sister Queen Elizabeth I. After Mary's death in November 1558, Elizabeth's Parliament passed the Act of Supremacy of 1559, which re-established the Church of England's separation from the Catholic Church. Initially, Elizabeth adopted a moderate religious policy. The Acts of Supremacy and Uniformity (1559), the Prayer Book of 1559, and the Thirty-Nine Articles (1563) were all Protestant in doctrine, but preserved many traditionally Catholic ceremonies.
In 1563 the Earl of Essex issued a proclamation, by which all Roman Catholic priests, secular and regular, were forbidden to officiate, or even to reside in Dublin or in The Pale. Fines and penalties were strictly enforced for Recusancy from the Anglican Sunday service; before long, torture and death were inflicted. Priests and religious were, as might be expected, the first victims. They were hunted into the Mass rocks in mountains and caves; and the parish churches and few monastic chapels which had escaped the rapacity of Henry VIII were also destroyed.
During the early years of her reign no great pressure was put on Catholics to conform to the "Established Church" of the new regime, but the situation changed rapidly from about 1570 onwards, mainly as a result of Pope Pius V's papal bull Regnans in Excelsis which "released [Elizabeth I's] subjects from their allegiance to her".
In Ireland the First Desmond Rebellion was launched in 1569, at almost the same time as the Northern Rebellion in England. The Wexford Martyrs were found guilty of high treason for aiding in the escape of James Eustace, 3rd Viscount Baltinglass and refusing to take the Oath of Supremacy and declare Elizabeth I of England to be the Supreme Head of the Church of England and Ireland.
During this period, the English persecution of Catholics in Ireland was more lenient than usual, owing to the sympathy of the king, until the Popish Plot, a conspiracy theory concocted by Titus Oates, between 1678 and 1681 gripped the Kingdoms of England and Scotland in anti-Catholic hysteria. Those caught up in the false allegations included:
- Peter Talbot, Archbishop of Dublin (died in prison, November 1680)
- Oliver Plunkett, Archbishop of Armagh, executed at Tyburn 1 July 1681
Irish martyrs suffered over several reigns. There was a long delay in starting the investigations into the causes of the Irish martrys for fear of reprisals. Further complicating the investigation is that the records of these martyrs were destroyed, or not compiled, due to the danger of keeping such evidence. Details of their endurance in most cases have been lost. The first general catalog is that of Father John Houling, S.J., compiled in Portugal between 1588 and 1599. It is styled a very brief abstract of certain persons whom it commemorates as sufferers for the Faith under Elizabeth.
After Catholic Emancipation in 1829, the cause for Oliver Plunkett was re-visited. As a result, a series of publications on the whole period of persecutions was made. The first to complete the process was Oliver Plunkett, Archbishop of Armagh, canonized in 1975 by Pope Paul VI. Plunkett was certainly targeted by the administration and unfairly tried.
John Kearney (1619-1653) was born in Cashel, County Tipperary and joined the Franciscans at the Kilkenny friary. After his novitiate, he went to Leuven in Belgium and was ordained in Brussels in 1642. Returned to Ireland, he taught in Cashel and Waterford, and was much admired for his preaching. In 1650 he became guardian of Carrick-on-Suir, Co Tipperary. During the Cromwellian persecutions, he was arrested and hanged in Clonmel, Co Tipperary. He was buried in the chapter hall of the suppressed friary of Cashel.
Peter O'Higgins O.P.
Peter O'Higgins was born in Dublin around 1602 during the persecution under James I. He was educated secretly in Ireland and later in Spain. With the accession of Charles I in 1625, a limited tolerance obtained and Peter came back to Dublin and was sent to re-open the Dominican house in Naas, supported by the Viceroy Strafford who was building Jigginstown nearby. The 1641 rebellion, a result of the plantations, evictions and persecutions (but not in County Kildare), brought with it years of conflict between Irish v Old English, Catholic v Protestant; Puritan v Anglican. During this time the William Pilsworth, Protestant rector of Donadea, was arrested by rebel soldiers and about to be hanged, when Fr. Peter O'Higgins stepped forward. Pilsworth later wrote that when he was on the gallows, "a priest whom I never saw before, made a long speech on my behalf saying that this…was a bloody inhuman act that would…draw God's vengeance on them. Whereupon I was brought down and released."
The government army moved on Naas in February 1642 and O'Higgins was arrested and turned over to Governor Coote of Dublin. O'Higgins was offered his life if he would renounce his faith. He responded, ""So here the condition on which I am granted my life. They want me to deny my religion. I spurn their offer. I die a Catholic and a Dominican priest. I forgive from my heart all who have conspired to bring about my death." Among the crowd at the foot of the scaffold was William Pilsworth who shouted out: "This man is innocent. This man is innocent. He saved my life." William Pilsworth was not wanting in courage, but his words fell on deaf ears. With the words "Deo Gratias" on his lips Peter O'Higgins died on 23 March 1642.
The most likely reason for Prior Higgins' execution without trial was that on the previous day, 22 March, at a synod at Kells, County Meath chaired by Archbishop Hugh O'Reilly, the Catholic bishops had pronounced the rebellion to be a "Holy and Just War". Higgins had been summarily executed as a result.
Various churches have been dedicated to the martyrs, including:
- Church of the Irish Martyrs, Ballyraine, Letterkenny
- Church of the Irish Martyrs, Ballycane, Naas
- Church of the Irish Martyrs, Cromwell, Otago, New Zealand.
- Church of the Irish Martyrs, Mallee Border Parish, Lameroo, South Australia, Australia
- Chapel of the Irish Martyrs, Pontificio Collegio Irlandese, Pontifical Irish College, Rome, Italy.
- Irish Martyrs, catholicireland.net; accessed 11 July 2015.
- ""The Irish Martyrs", The Church of the Irish Martyrs, Ballyraine". Archived from the original on 2013-09-24. Retrieved 2013-04-13.
- "Peter O'Higgins O.P." Newbridge College.
- "Franciscan Saints & Blessed". Archived from the original on 2014-02-04.
- Barry, Patrick, "The Penal Laws", L'Osservatore Romano, p.8, 30 November 1987
- "The Irish Martyrs", Irish Jesuits, sacredspace.ie; accessed 16 December 2015.
- "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Irish Confessors and Martyrs".
- "Martyrs of England and Wales" New Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 9 (1967), p. 322.
- "The Reign of Elizabeth I" by J.P. Sommerville, University of Wisconsin.
- Cusack, Margaret Anne, An Illustrated History of Ireland, libraryireland.com; accessed 11 July 2015.
- Catholic encyclopedia article, accessed Feb 2017
- "Naas Parish website". Archived from the original on 2007-11-23. Retrieved 2008-01-29.
- New Catholic Dictionary: Irish Martyrs