List of living cardinals

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A generic depiction of a cardinal's choir dress
Choir dress of a cardinal, comprising cassock, fascia, rochet, mozzetta, pectoral cross, zucchetto and biretta, in scarlet

Cardinals are senior ecclesiastical leaders of the Catholic Church, usually ordained bishops and generally holding important roles within the Church, such as governing prominent archdioceses or managing dicasteries within the Roman Curia. They are themselves created in consistories (formal gatherings of the cardinals) by the Pope and one of the foremost duties of the cardinals is the election of a new pope (since 1378 always from among themselves, though not a formal requirement) when the Holy See is vacant, following the death or the resignation of the reigning pope. The body of all cardinals is collectively known as the College of Cardinals.

Under current ecclesiastical law, as defined by the apostolic constitution Universi Dominici gregis, only cardinals who are not yet over the age of 80 on the day that the Holy See falls vacant are eligible to participate in a papal conclave to elect a new pope.[1] Therefore, any cardinals born on or after 18 January 1938 would be eligible to vote if the Apostolic See were to fall vacant today and are thus known as cardinal electors, whereas any cardinals born before that date would be ineligible to vote. The same apostolic constitution also imposes an upper limit of 120 cardinal electors;[1] however, this has been exceeded in the past, though never during a conclave.

As of 20 December 2017, there are 216 cardinals, 120 of whom are cardinal electors. The most recent consistory for the creation of cardinals was held on 28 June 2017, when Pope Francis created five cardinals.[2] Lluís Martínez Sistach was the most recent cardinal to turn 80, on 29 April 2017, whereas Antonio Maria Vegliò will be the next to do so, on 3 February 2018. Bernard Francis Law was the most recent cardinal to die, on 20 December 2017, at the age of 86.[3]

Keith Michael Patrick O'Brien is the only cardinal under the age of 80 who is not a cardinal elector: while retaining his title, he resigned the rights and privileges of a cardinal on 20 March 2015, after acknowledging sexual misconduct.[4] In addition, there are two living former cardinals: Joseph Ratzinger and Jorge Mario Bergoglio, who were cardinals at the time of their respective elections as Pope Benedict XVI (now Pope emeritus) on 19 April 2005 and as Pope Francis on 13 March 2013.

Living cardinals[edit]

The College of Cardinals is divided into three orders, with official precedence in the following sequence, denoting seniority and a nominal prerogative of honour:

  1. cardinal bishops: the six bishops of the seven suburbicarian dioceses around Rome, chosen from the other cardinals, as well as patriarchs of Eastern Catholic Churches;
  2. cardinal priests: bishops typically heading (arch)dioceses (normally ordinaries) and former cardinal deacons who have opted for the order;
  3. cardinal deacons: bishops who hold Curial roles and other clergy; they have the option (Latin: optatio) of being elevated to cardinal priests after having been cardinal deacons for ten years.

For cardinal bishops who hold suburbicarian dioceses, the Dean takes precedence, followed by the Vice-Dean and then the rest in order of appointment as cardinal bishops. For cardinal bishops who are Eastern Catholic patriarchs, for cardinal priests and for cardinal deacons, precedence is determined by the date of the consistory and then by the order in which they appeared in the official bulletin. The most senior of the cardinal priests and of the cardinal deacons are termed the Protopriest and the Protodeacon respectively. By default, this table is sorted by the Order column, which sorts the cardinals by precedence.

All cardinals are of the Latin Church unless otherwise stated. Cardinals belonging to religious institutes are indicated by the relevant post-nominal.

This table is as of 20 December 2017.

* Cardinals ineligible to participate in a papal conclave
Order Consistory
Pope
Name Country Birth
Age
Office Ref(s).
CB 28 June 1991[i]
John Paul II
Angelo Sodano*  Italy 23 November 1927
90
Secretary of State emeritus, Dean of the College of Cardinals [5]
CB 21 February 2001[ii]
John Paul II
Giovanni Battista Re*  Italy 30 January 1934
83
Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for Bishops, Vice-Dean of the College of Cardinals [6]
CB 30 June 1979[iii]
John Paul II
Roger Etchegaray*  France 25 September 1922
95
President emeritus of the Pontifical Councils for Justice and Peace and Cor Unum [7]
CB 25 May 1985[iv]
John Paul II
Francis Arinze*  Nigeria 1 November 1932
85
Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments [8]
CB 21 October 2003[v]
John Paul II
Tarcisio Bertone SDB*  Italy 2 December 1934
83
Secretary of State emeritus and Camerlengo emeritus of the Holy Roman Church [9]
CB 21 February 2001[vi]
John Paul II
José Saraiva Martins CMF*  Portugal 6 January 1932
86
Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints [10]
CB 26 November 1994
John Paul II
Nasrallah Pierre Sfeir*  Lebanon 15 May 1920
97
Patriarch emeritus of Antioch
(Syriac Maronite Church)
[11]
CB 20 November 2010
Benedict XVI
Antonios Naguib*  Egypt 18 March 1935
82
Patriarch emeritus of Alexandria
(Coptic Catholic Church)
[12]
CB 24 November 2012
Benedict XVI
Béchara Boutros Raï OMM  Lebanon 25 February 1940
77
Patriarch of Antioch
(Syriac Maronite Church)
[13][14]
CP 2 February 1983
John Paul II
Michael Michai Kitbunchu*  Thailand 25 January 1929
88
Archbishop emeritus of Bangkok, Protopriest of the College of Cardinals [15]
CP 2 February 1983
John Paul II
Alexandre do Nascimento*  Angola 1 March 1925
92
Archbishop emeritus of Luanda [16]
CP 2 February 1983
John Paul II
Godfried Danneels*  Belgium 4 June 1933
84
Archbishop emeritus of Mechelen-Brussels and Military ordinary emeritus of Belgium [17]
CP 2 February 1983
John Paul II
Thomas Stafford Williams*  New Zealand 20 March 1930
87
Archbishop emeritus of Wellington and Military ordinary emeritus of New Zealand [18]
CP 25 May 1985
John Paul II
Miguel Obando Bravo SDB*  Nicaragua 2 February 1926
91
Archbishop emeritus of Managua [19]
CP 25 May 1985
John Paul II
Henryk Roman Gulbinowicz*  Poland 17 October 1923
94
Archbishop emeritus of Wrocław [20]
CP 25 May 1985
John Paul II
Jozef Tomko*  Slovakia 11 March 1924
93
President emeritus of the Pontifical Committee for International Eucharistic Congresses [21]
CP 25 May 1985
John Paul II
Paul Poupard*  France 30 August 1930
87
President emeritus of the Pontifical Councils for Culture and for Interreligious Dialogue [22]
CP 25 May 1985
John Paul II
Friedrich Wetter*  Germany 20 February 1928
89
Archbishop emeritus of Munich and Freising [23]
CP 25 May 1985
John Paul II
Adrianus Johannes Simonis*  Netherlands 26 November 1931
86
Archbishop emeritus of Utrecht [24]
CP 28 June 1988
John Paul II
Eduardo Martínez Somalo*  Spain 31 March 1927
90
Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life and Camerlengo emeritus of the Holy Roman Church [25]
CP 28 June 1988
John Paul II
Achille Silvestrini*  Italy 25 October 1923
94
Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches [26]
CP 28 June 1988
John Paul II
José Freire Falcão*  Brazil 23 October 1925
92
Archbishop emeritus of Brasília [27]
CP 28 June 1988
John Paul II
Alexandre José Maria dos Santos OFM*  Mozambique 18 March 1924
93
Archbishop emeritus of Maputo [28]
CP 28 June 1988
John Paul II
Christian Wiyghan Tumi*  Cameroon 15 October 1930
87
Archbishop emeritus of Douala [29]
CP 28 June 1991
John Paul II
Edward Idris Cassidy*  Australia 5 July 1924
93
President emeritus of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity [30]
CP 28 June 1991
John Paul II
Nicolás de Jesús López Rodríguez*  Dominican Republic 31 October 1936
81
Archbishop emeritus of Santo Domingo and Military ordinary emeritus of the Dominican Republic [31]
CP 28 June 1991
John Paul II
Roger Michael Mahony*  United States 27 February 1936
81
Archbishop emeritus of Los Angeles [32]
CP 28 June 1991
John Paul II
Camillo Ruini*  Italy 19 February 1931
86
Archpriest emeritus of the Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran and Vicar General emeritus for Rome [33]
CP 28 June 1991
John Paul II
Henri Schwery*   Switzerland 14 June 1932
85
Bishop emeritus of Sion [34]
CP 26 November 1994
John Paul II
Jaime Lucas Ortega y Alamino*  Cuba 18 October 1936
81
Archbishop emeritus of San Cristóbal de la Habana [35]
CP 26 November 1994
John Paul II
Julius Riyadi Darmaatmadja SJ*  Indonesia 20 December 1934
83
Archbishop emeritus of Jakarta [36]
CP 26 November 1994
John Paul II
Emmanuel Wamala*  Uganda 15 December 1926
91
Archbishop emeritus of Kampala [37]
CP 26 November 1994
John Paul II
Adam Joseph Maida*  United States 18 March 1930
87
Archbishop emeritus of Detroit and Ecclesiastical superior emeritus of the Cayman Islands [38]
CP 26 November 1994
John Paul II
Vinko Puljić  Bosnia and Herzegovina 8 September 1945
72
Archbishop of Vrhbosna [39]
CP 26 November 1994
John Paul II
Juan Sandoval Íñiguez*  Mexico 28 March 1933
84
Archbishop emeritus of Guadalajara [40]
CP 21 February 1998
John Paul II
Jorge Medina Estévez*  Chile 23 December 1926
91
Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments [41]
CP 21 February 1998
John Paul II
Darío Castrillón Hoyos*  Colombia 4 July 1929
88
Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for the Clergy [42]
CP 21 February 1998
John Paul II
James Francis Stafford*  United States 26 July 1932
85
Major Penitentiary emeritus of the Apostolic Penitentiary [43]
CP 21 February 1998
John Paul II
Salvatore De Giorgi*  Italy 6 September 1930
87
Archbishop emeritus of Palermo [44]
CP 21 February 1998
John Paul II
Serafim Fernandes de Araújo*  Brazil 13 August 1924
93
Archbishop emeritus of Belo Horizonte [45]
CP 21 February 1998
John Paul II
Antonio María Rouco Varela*  Spain 20 August 1936
81
Archbishop emeritus of Madrid [46]
CP 21 February 1998
John Paul II
Polycarp Pengo  Tanzania 5 August 1944
73
Archbishop of Dar-es-Salaam [47]
CP 21 February 1998
John Paul II
Christoph Schönborn OP  Austria 22 January 1945
72
Archbishop of Vienna and Ordinary for Eastern Catholics in Austria [48]
CP 21 February 1998
John Paul II
Norberto Rivera Carrera  Mexico 6 June 1942
75
Archbishop emeritus of Mexico [49]
CP 21 February 1998[a]
John Paul II
Marian Jaworski*  Poland[b] 21 August 1926
91
Archbishop emeritus of Lviv [50]
CP 21 February 1998[a]
John Paul II
Jānis Pujats*  Latvia 14 November 1930
87
Archbishop emeritus of Riga [51]
CP 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Agostino Cacciavillan*  Italy 14 August 1926
91
President emeritus of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See [52]
CP 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Sergio Sebastiani*  Italy 11 April 1931
86
President emeritus of the Prefecture for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See [53]
CP 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Zenon Grocholewski  Poland 11 October 1939
78
Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for Catholic Education [54]
CP 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Crescenzio Sepe  Italy 2 June 1943
74
Archbishop of Naples [55]
CP 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Walter Kasper*  Germany 5 March 1933
84
President emeritus of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity [56]
CP 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Geraldo Majella Agnelo*  Brazil 19 October 1933
84
Archbishop emeritus of São Salvador da Bahia [57]
CP 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Pedro Rubiano Sáenz*  Colombia 13 September 1932
85
Archbishop emeritus of Bogotá [58]
CP 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Theodore Edgar McCarrick*  United States 7 July 1930
87
Archbishop emeritus of Washington [59]
CP 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Audrys Juozas Bačkis*  Lithuania 1 February 1937
80
Archbishop emeritus of Vilnius [60]
CP 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Francisco Javier Errázuriz Ossa ISch*  Chile 5 September 1933
84
Archbishop emeritus of Santiago de Chile [61]
CP 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Wilfrid Fox Napier OFM  South Africa 8 March 1941
76
Archbishop of Durban [62]
CP 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Óscar Andrés Rodríguez Maradiaga SDB  Honduras 29 December 1942
75
Archbishop of Tegucigalpa and Coordinator of the Council of Cardinals [63]
CP 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Juan Luis Cipriani Thorne  Peru 28 December 1943
74
Archbishop of Lima [64]
CP 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Francisco Álvarez Martínez*  Spain 14 July 1925
92
Archbishop emeritus of Toledo [65]
CP 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Cláudio Hummes OFM*  Brazil 8 August 1934
83
Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for the Clergy [66]
CP 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Severino Poletto*  Italy 18 March 1933
84
Archbishop emeritus of Turin [67]
CP 21 February 2001
John Paul II
Karl Lehmann*  Germany 16 May 1936
81
Bishop emeritus of Mainz [68]
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Jean-Louis Tauran  France 3 April 1943
74
President of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue and Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church [69]
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Julián Herranz Casado*  Spain 31 March 1930
87
President emeritus of the Pontifical Council for Legislative Texts [70]
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Javier Lozano Barragán*  Mexico 26 January 1933
84
President emeritus of the Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Health Care Workers [71]
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Angelo Scola  Italy 7 November 1941
76
Archbishop emeritus of Milan [72]
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Anthony Olubunmi Okogie*  Nigeria 16 June 1936
81
Archbishop emeritus of Lagos [73]
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Gabriel Zubeir Wako  Sudan 27 February 1941
76
Archbishop emeritus of Khartoum [74]
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Carlos Amigo Vallejo OFM*  Spain 23 August 1934
83
Archbishop emeritus of Seville [75]
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Justin Francis Rigali*  United States 19 April 1935
82
Archbishop emeritus of Philadelphia [76]
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Keith Michael Patrick O'Brien*[c]  Great Britain 17 March 1938
79
Archbishop emeritus of Saint Andrews and Edinburgh [77]
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Eusébio Oscar Scheid SCI*  Brazil 8 December 1932
85
Archbishop emeritus of São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro and Ordinary emeritus for Eastern Catholics in Brazil [78]
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Ennio Antonelli*  Italy 18 November 1936
81
President emeritus of the Pontifical Council for the Family [79]
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Peter Kodwo Appiah Turkson  Ghana 11 October 1948
69
Prefect of the Dicastery for Promoting Integral Human Development [80]
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Telesphore Placidus Toppo  India 15 October 1939
78
Archbishop of Ranchi [81]
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
George Pell  Australia 8 June 1941
76
Prefect of the Secretariat for the Economy [82]
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Josip Bozanić  Croatia 20 March 1949
68
Archbishop of Zagreb [83]
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Jean-Baptiste Phạm Minh Mẫn*  Vietnam 5 March 1934
83
Archbishop emeritus of Ho Chi Minh City [84]
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Philippe Barbarin  France 17 October 1950
67
Archbishop of Lyon [85]
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Péter Erdő  Hungary 25 June 1952
65
Archbishop of Esztergom-Budapest [86]
CP 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Marc Ouellet PSS  Canada 8 June 1944
73
Prefect of the Congregation for Bishops [87]
CP 24 March 2006
Benedict XVI
William Joseph Levada*  United States 15 June 1936
81
Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith [88]
CP 24 March 2006
Benedict XVI
Franc Rodé CM*  Slovenia 23 September 1934
83
Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life [89]
CP 24 March 2006
Benedict XVI
Agostino Vallini  Italy 17 April 1940
77
Archpriest emeritus of the Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran and Vicar General emeritus for Rome [90]
CP 24 March 2006
Benedict XVI
Jorge Liberato Urosa Savino  Venezuela 28 August 1942
75
Archbishop of Caracas [91]
CP 24 March 2006
Benedict XVI
Gaudencio Borbon Rosales*  Philippines 10 August 1932
85
Archbishop emeritus of Manila [92]
CP 24 March 2006
Benedict XVI
Jean-Pierre Ricard  France 25 September 1944
73
Archbishop of Bordeaux [93]
CP 24 March 2006
Benedict XVI
Antonio Cañizares Llovera  Spain 15 October 1945
72
Archbishop of Valencia [94]
CP 24 March 2006
Benedict XVI
Nicholas Cheong Jin-suk*  South Korea 7 December 1931
86
Archbishop emeritus of Seoul [95]
CP 24 March 2006
Benedict XVI
Seán Patrick O'Malley OFMCap  United States 29 June 1944
73
Archbishop of Boston and President of the Pontifical Commission for the Protection of Minors [96]
CP 24 March 2006
Benedict XVI
Stanisław Dziwisz  Poland 27 April 1939
78
Archbishop emeritus of Kraków [97]
CP 24 March 2006
Benedict XVI
Joseph Zen Ze-kiun SDB*  China 13 January 1932
86
Bishop emeritus of Hong Kong [98]
CP 24 March 2006
Benedict XVI
Albert Vanhoye SJ*  France 24 July 1923
94
Priest of the Society of Jesus [99]
CP 24 November 2007
Benedict XVI
Seán Baptist Brady  Ireland 16 August 1939
78
Archbishop emeritus of Armagh [100]
CP 24 November 2007
Benedict XVI
Lluís Martínez Sistach*  Spain 29 April 1937
80
Archbishop emeritus of Barcelona [101]
CP 24 November 2007
Benedict XVI
André Vingt-Trois  France 7 November 1942
75
Archbishop emeritus of Paris and Ordinary emeritus for Eastern Catholics in France [102]
CP 24 November 2007
Benedict XVI
Angelo Bagnasco  Italy 14 January 1943
75
Archbishop of Genoa [103]
CP 24 November 2007
Benedict XVI
Théodore-Adrien Sarr*  Senegal 28 November 1936
81
Archbishop emeritus of Dakar [104]
CP 24 November 2007
Benedict XVI
Oswald Gracias  India 24 December 1944
73
Archbishop of Bombay [105]
CP 24 November 2007
Benedict XVI
Francisco Robles Ortega  Mexico 2 March 1949
68
Archbishop of Guadalajara [106]
CP 24 November 2007
Benedict XVI
Daniel Nicholas DiNardo  United States 23 May 1949
68
Archbishop of Galveston-Houston [107]
CP 24 November 2007
Benedict XVI
Odilo Pedro Scherer  Brazil 21 September 1949
68
Archbishop of São Paulo [108]
CP 24 November 2007
Benedict XVI
John Njue  Kenya 31 December 1944
73
Archbishop of Nairobi [109]
CP 24 November 2007
Benedict XVI
Estanislao Esteban Karlic*  Argentina 7 February 1926
91
Archbishop emeritus of Paraná [110]
CP 20 November 2010
Benedict XVI
Raúl Eduardo Vela Chiriboga*  Ecuador 1 January 1934
84
Archbishop emeritus of Quito [111]
CP 20 November 2010
Benedict XVI
Laurent Monsengwo Pasinya  Democratic Republic of the Congo 7 October 1939
78
Archbishop of Kinshasa [112]
CP 20 November 2010
Benedict XVI
Paolo Romeo  Italy 20 February 1938
79
Archbishop emeritus of Palermo [113]
CP 20 November 2010
Benedict XVI
Donald William Wuerl  United States 12 November 1940
77
Archbishop of Washington [114]
CP 20 November 2010
Benedict XVI
Raymundo Damasceno Assis*  Brazil 15 February 1937
80
Archbishop emeritus of Aparecida [115]
CP 20 November 2010
Benedict XVI
Kazimierz Nycz  Poland 1 February 1950
67
Archbishop of Warsaw and Ordinary for Eastern Catholics in Poland [116]
CP 20 November 2010
Benedict XVI
Albert Malcolm Ranjith Patabendige Don  Sri Lanka 15 November 1947
70
Archbishop of Colombo [117]
CP 20 November 2010
Benedict XVI
Reinhard Marx  Germany 21 September 1953
64
Archbishop of Munich and Freising and Coordinator of the Council for the Economy [118]
CP 20 November 2010
Benedict XVI
José Manuel Estepa Llaurens*  Spain 1 January 1926
92
Military archbishop emeritus of Spain [119]
CP 18 February 2012
Benedict XVI
George Alencherry  India 19 April 1945
72
Major archbishop of Ernakulam-Angamaly
(Syro-Malabar Catholic Church)
[120]
CP 18 February 2012
Benedict XVI
Thomas Christopher Collins  Canada 16 January 1947
71
Archbishop of Toronto [121]
CP 18 February 2012
Benedict XVI
Dominik Duka OP  Czech Republic 26 April 1943
74
Archbishop of Prague [122]
CP 18 February 2012
Benedict XVI
Willem Jacobus Eijk  Netherlands 22 June 1953
64
Archbishop of Utrecht [123]
CP 18 February 2012
Benedict XVI
Giuseppe Betori  Italy 25 February 1947
70
Archbishop of Florence [124]
CP 18 February 2012
Benedict XVI
Timothy Michael Dolan  United States 6 February 1950
67
Archbishop of New York [125]
CP 18 February 2012
Benedict XVI
Rainer Maria Woelki  Germany 18 August 1956
61
Archbishop of Cologne [126]
CP 18 February 2012
Benedict XVI
John Tong Hon  China 31 July 1939
78
Bishop emeritus of Hong Kong [127]
CP 18 February 2012
Benedict XVI
Lucian Mureșan*  Romania 23 May 1931
86
Major archbishop of Făgăraș and Alba Iulia
(Romanian Greek Catholic Church)
[128]
CP 24 November 2012
Benedict XVI
Baselios Cleemis Thottunkal  India 15 June 1959
58
Major archbishop of Trivandrum
(Syro-Malankara Catholic Church)
[129][130]
CP 24 November 2012
Benedict XVI
John Olorunfemi Onaiyekan  Nigeria 29 January 1944
73
Archbishop of Abuja [131][132]
CP 24 November 2012
Benedict XVI
Rubén Salazar Gómez  Colombia 22 September 1942
75
Archbishop of Bogotá [133][134]
CP 24 November 2012
Benedict XVI
Luis Antonio Gokim Tagle  Philippines 21 June 1957
60
Archbishop of Manila [135][136]
CP 22 February 2014
Francis
Pietro Parolin  Italy 17 January 1955
63
Secretary of State [137]
CP 22 February 2014
Francis
Vincent Gerard Nichols  Great Britain 8 November 1945
72
Archbishop of Westminster [138]
CP 22 February 2014
Francis
Leopoldo José Brenes Solórzano  Nicaragua 7 March 1949
68
Archbishop of Managua [139]
CP 22 February 2014
Francis
Gérald Cyprien Lacroix ISPX  Canada 27 July 1957
60
Archbishop of Quebec [140]
CP 22 February 2014
Francis
Jean-Pierre Kutwa  Ivory Coast 22 December 1945
72
Archbishop of Abidjan [141]
CP 22 February 2014
Francis
Orani João Tempesta OCist  Brazil 23 June 1950
67
Archbishop of São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro [142]
CP 22 February 2014
Francis
Gualtiero Bassetti  Italy 7 April 1942
75
Archbishop of Perugia-Città della Pieve [143]
CP 22 February 2014
Francis
Mario Aurelio Poli  Argentina 29 November 1947
70
Archbishop of Buenos Aires and Ordinary for Eastern Catholics in Argentina [144]
CP 22 February 2014
Francis
Andrew Yeom Soo-jung  South Korea 5 December 1943
74
Archbishop of Seoul [145]
CP 22 February 2014
Francis
Ricardo Ezzati Andrello SDB  Chile 7 January 1942
76
Archbishop of Santiago de Chile [146]
CP 22 February 2014
Francis
Philippe Nakellentuba Ouédraogo  Burkina Faso 25 January 1945
72
Archbishop of Ouagadougou [147]
CP 22 February 2014
Francis
Orlando Beltran Quevedo OMI  Philippines 11 March 1939
78
Archbishop of Cotabato [148]
CP 22 February 2014
Francis
Chibly Langlois  Haiti 29 November 1958
59
Bishop of Les Cayes [149]
CP 22 February 2014
Francis
Fernando Sebastián Aguilar CMF*  Spain 14 December 1929
88
Archbishop emeritus of Pamplona y Tudela [150]
CP 22 February 2014
Francis
Kelvin Edward Felix*  Saint Lucia[d] 15 February 1933
84
Archbishop emeritus of Castries [151]
CP 14 February 2015
Francis
Manuel José Macário do Nascimento Clemente  Portugal 16 July 1948
69
Patriarch of Lisbon [152]
CP 14 February 2015
Francis
Berhaneyesus Demerew Souraphiel CM  Ethiopia 14 July 1948
69
Archbishop of Addis Abeba
(Ethiopian Catholic Church)
[153]
CP 14 February 2015
Francis
John Atcherley Dew  New Zealand 5 May 1948
69
Archbishop of Wellington and Military ordinary of New Zealand [154]
CP 14 February 2015
Francis
Edoardo Menichelli  Italy 14 October 1939
78
Archbishop emeritus of Ancona-Osimo [155]
CP 14 February 2015
Francis
Pierre Nguyễn Văn Nhơn  Vietnam 1 April 1938
79
Archbishop of Hanoi [156]
CP 14 February 2015
Francis
Alberto Suárez Inda  Mexico 30 January 1939
78
Archbishop emeritus of Morelia [157]
CP 14 February 2015
Francis
Charles Maung Bo SDB  Myanmar 29 October 1948
69
Archbishop of Yangon [158]
CP 14 February 2015
Francis
Francis Xavier Kriengsak Kovithavanij  Thailand 27 June 1949
68
Archbishop of Bangkok [159]
CP 14 February 2015
Francis
Francesco Montenegro  Italy 22 May 1946
71
Archbishop of Agrigento [160]
CP 14 February 2015
Francis
Daniel Fernando Sturla Berhouet SDB  Uruguay 4 July 1959
58
Archbishop of Montevideo [161]
CP 14 February 2015
Francis
Ricardo Blázquez Pérez  Spain 13 April 1942
75
Archbishop of Valladolid [162]
CP 14 February 2015
Francis
José Luis Lacunza Maestrojuán OAR  Panama 24 February 1944
73
Bishop of David [163]
CP 14 February 2015
Francis
Arlindo Gomes Furtado  Cape Verde 15 November 1949
68
Bishop of Santiago de Cabo Verde [164]
CP 14 February 2015
Francis
Soane Patita Paini Mafi  Tonga 19 December 1961
56
Bishop of Tonga [165]
CP 14 February 2015
Francis
José de Jesús Pimiento Rodríguez*  Colombia 18 February 1919
98
Archbishop emeritus of Manizales [166]
CP 14 February 2015
Francis
Luis Héctor Villalba*  Argentina 11 October 1934
83
Archbishop emeritus of Tucumán [167]
CP 14 February 2015
Francis
Júlio Duarte Langa*  Mozambique 27 October 1927
90
Bishop emeritus of Xai-Xai [168]
CP 19 November 2016
Francis
Dieudonné Nzapalainga CSSp  Central African Republic 14 March 1967
50
Archbishop of Bangui [169][170]
CP 19 November 2016
Francis
Carlos Osoro Sierra  Spain 16 May 1945
72
Archbishop of Madrid and Ordinary for Eastern Catholics in Spain [171][172]
CP 19 November 2016
Francis
Sérgio da Rocha  Brazil 21 October 1959
58
Archbishop of Brasília [173][174]
CP 19 November 2016
Francis
Blase Joseph Cupich  United States 19 March 1949
68
Archbishop of Chicago [175][176]
CP 19 November 2016
Francis
Patrick D'Rozario CSC  Bangladesh 1 October 1943
74
Archbishop of Dhaka [177][178]
CP 19 November 2016
Francis
Baltazar Enrique Porras Cardozo  Venezuela 10 October 1944
73
Archbishop of Mérida [179][180]
CP 19 November 2016
Francis
Jozef De Kesel  Belgium 17 June 1947
70
Archbishop of Mechelen-Brussels and Military ordinary of Belgium [181][182]
CP 19 November 2016
Francis
Maurice Piat CSSp  Mauritius 17 July 1941
76
Bishop of Port-Louis [183][170]
CP 19 November 2016
Francis
Carlos Aguiar Retes  Mexico 9 January 1950
68
Archbishop of Mexico [184][185]
CP 19 November 2016
Francis
John Ribat MSC  Papua New Guinea 9 February 1957
60
Archbishop of Port Moresby [186][187]
CP 19 November 2016
Francis
Joseph William Tobin CSsR  United States 3 May 1952
65
Archbishop of Newark and Ecclesiastical superior of the Turks and Caicos Islands [188][189]
CP 19 November 2016
Francis
Anthony Soter Fernandez*  Malaysia 22 April 1932
85
Archbishop emeritus of Kuala Lumpur [190][191]
CP 19 November 2016
Francis
Renato Corti*  Italy 1 March 1936
81
Bishop emeritus of Novara [192][193]
CP 19 November 2016
Francis
Sebastian Koto Khoarai OMI*  Lesotho 11 September 1929
88
Bishop emeritus of Mohale's Hoek [194][195]
CP 28 June 2017
Francis
Jean Zerbo  Mali 27 December 1943
74
Archbishop of Bamako [196][197]
CP 28 June 2017
Francis
Juan José Omella Omella  Spain 21 April 1946
71
Archbishop of Barcelona [198][199]
CP 28 June 2017
Francis
Anders Arborelius OCD  Sweden 24 September 1949
68
Bishop of Stockholm [200][201]
CP 28 June 2017
Francis
Louis-Marie Ling Mangkhanekhoun IVD  Laos 8 April 1944
73
Apostolic vicar of Vientiane [202][203]
CP 28 June 2017
Francis
Gregorio Rosa Chávez  El Salvador 3 September 1942
75
Auxiliary bishop of San Salvador [204][205]
CD 21 October 2003
John Paul II
Renato Raffaele Martino*  Italy 23 November 1932
85
President emeritus of the Pontifical Councils for Justice and Peace and for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerants, Protodeacon of the College of Cardinals [206]
CD 24 November 2007
Benedict XVI
Leonardo Sandri  Argentina 18 November 1943
74
Prefect of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches [207]
CD 24 November 2007
Benedict XVI
Giovanni Lajolo*  Italy 3 January 1935
83
President emeritus of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State [208]
CD 24 November 2007
Benedict XVI
Paul Josef Cordes*  Germany 5 September 1934
83
President emeritus of the Pontifical Council Cor Unum [209]
CD 24 November 2007
Benedict XVI
Angelo Comastri  Italy 17 September 1943
74
Archpriest of the Basilica of Saint Peter, Vicar General for Vatican City and President of the Fabric of Saint Peter [210]
CD 24 November 2007
Benedict XVI
Stanisław Ryłko  Poland 4 July 1945
72
Archpriest of the Basilica of Saint Mary Major [211]
CD 24 November 2007
Benedict XVI
Raffaele Farina SDB*  Italy 24 September 1933
84
Archivist and Librarian emeritus of the Holy Roman Church [212]
CD 20 November 2010
Benedict XVI
Angelo Amato SDB  Italy 8 June 1938
79
Prefect of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints [213]
CD 20 November 2010
Benedict XVI
Robert Sarah  Guinea 15 June 1945
72
Prefect of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments [214]
CD 20 November 2010
Benedict XVI
Francesco Monterisi*  Italy 28 May 1934
83
Archpriest emeritus of the Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls [215]
CD 20 November 2010
Benedict XVI
Raymond Leo Burke  United States 30 June 1948
69
Patron of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta [216]
CD 20 November 2010
Benedict XVI
Kurt Koch   Switzerland 15 March 1950
67
President of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity [217]
CD 20 November 2010
Benedict XVI
Paolo Sardi*  Italy 1 September 1934
83
Patron emeritus of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta [218]
CD 20 November 2010
Benedict XVI
Mauro Piacenza  Italy 15 September 1944
73
Major Penitentiary of the Apostolic Penitentiary [219]
CD 20 November 2010
Benedict XVI
Gianfranco Ravasi  Italy 18 October 1942
75
President of the Pontifical Council for Culture [220]
CD 20 November 2010
Benedict XVI
Elio Sgreccia*  Italy 6 June 1928
89
President emeritus of the Pontifical Academy for Life [221]
CD 20 November 2010
Benedict XVI
Walter Brandmüller*  Germany 5 January 1929
89
President emeritus of the Pontifical Committee for Historical Sciences [222]
CD 18 February 2012
Benedict XVI
Fernando Filoni  Italy 15 April 1946
71
Prefect of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples [223]
CD 18 February 2012
Benedict XVI
Manuel Monteiro de Castro  Portugal 29 March 1938
79
Major Penitentiary emeritus of the Apostolic Penitentiary [224]
CD 18 February 2012
Benedict XVI
Santos Abril y Castelló*  Spain 21 September 1935
82
Archpriest emeritus of the Basilica of Saint Mary Major [225]
CD 18 February 2012
Benedict XVI
Antonio Maria Vegliò  Italy 3 February 1938
79
President emeritus of the Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerants [226]
CD 18 February 2012
Benedict XVI
Giuseppe Bertello  Italy 1 October 1942
75
President of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State [227]
CD 18 February 2012
Benedict XVI
Francesco Coccopalmerio  Italy 6 March 1938
79
President of the Pontifical Council for Legislative Texts [228]
CD 18 February 2012
Benedict XVI
João Braz de Aviz  Brazil 24 April 1947
70
Prefect of the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life [229]
CD 18 February 2012
Benedict XVI
Edwin Frederick O'Brien  United States 8 April 1939
78
Grand Master of the Order of the Holy Sepulchre [230]
CD 18 February 2012
Benedict XVI
Domenico Calcagno  Italy 3 February 1943
74
President of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See [231]
CD 18 February 2012
Benedict XVI
Giuseppe Versaldi  Italy 30 July 1943
74
Prefect of the Congregation for Catholic Education [232]
CD 18 February 2012
Benedict XVI
Prosper Grech OSA*  Malta 24 December 1925
92
Titular archbishop emeritus of San Leone [233]
CD 24 November 2012
Benedict XVI
James Michael Harvey  United States 20 October 1949
68
Archpriest of the Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls [234][235]
CD 22 February 2014
Francis
Lorenzo Baldisseri  Italy 29 September 1940
77
Secretary-General of the Synod of Bishops [236]
CD 22 February 2014
Francis
Gerhard Ludwig Müller  Germany 31 December 1947
70
Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith [237]
CD 22 February 2014
Francis
Beniamino Stella  Italy 18 August 1941
76
Prefect of the Congregation for the Clergy [238]
CD 14 February 2015
Francis
Dominique Mamberti  France 7 March 1952
65
Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura [239]
CD 14 February 2015
Francis
Luigi de Magistris*  Italy 23 February 1926
91
Pro-Major Penitentiary emeritus of the Apostolic Penitentiary [240]
CD 14 February 2015
Francis
Karl-Josef Rauber*  Germany 11 April 1934
83
Apostolic nuncio emeritus to Belgium and to Luxembourg [241]
CD 19 November 2016
Francis
Mario Zenari  Italy 5 January 1946
72
Apostolic nuncio to Syria [242][243]
CD 19 November 2016
Francis
Kevin Joseph Farrell  United States 2 September 1947
70
Prefect of the Dicastery for the Laity, Family and Life [244][245]
CD 19 November 2016
Francis
Ernest Simoni*  Albania 18 October 1928
89
Priest of the Archdiocese of Shkodër-Pult [246][247]

Demographics of the College of Cardinals[edit]

This table shows the number of living cardinals created by each pope and belonging to each order.

Currently, 55.6% of all cardinals are eligible to participate in a papal conclave.

Created by Cardinal bishops
(CB)
Cardinal priests
(CP)
Cardinal deacons
(CD)
Total Percentage of total
Total Electors Total Electors Total Electors Total Electors Total Electors
John Paul II
16 October 19782 April 2005
7 0 73 19 1 0 81 19 37.5% 15.8%
Benedict XVI
19 April 200528 February 2013
2 1 45 32 28 19 75 52 34.7% 43.3%
Francis
13 March 2013 – present
0 0 51 43 9 6 60 49 27.8% 40.8%
Total 9 1 169 94 38 25 216 120 100.0% 100.0%
Percentage of total 4.2% 0.8% 78.2% 78.3% 17.6% 20.8% 100.0% 100.0%

Cardinals by particular church sui iuris[edit]

While most cardinals belong to the Latin Church, which encompasses the vast majority of the Catholic faithful (97.7%),[248] a small number of cardinals belong to one of the twenty-three autonomous (sui iuris) Eastern Catholic Churches comprising the other 2.3% of Catholics.[248]

For Eastern particular churches, bracketed percentages indicate the proportion in relation to all Eastern Churches as a whole.

Particular church sui iuris Total cardinals Cardinal electors
Number Percentage Number Percentage
Latin Church
(Western)
209 96.8% 116 96.7%
Eastern Churches Coptic Catholic Church 1 0.5%
(14.3%)
0 0.0%
(0.0%)
Ethiopian Catholic Church 1 0.5%
(14.3%)
1 0.8%
(25.0%)
Romanian Greek Catholic Church 1 0.5%
(14.3%)
0 0.0%
(0.0%)
Syriac Maronite Church 2 0.9%
(28.6%)
1 0.8%
(25.0%)
Syro-Malabar Catholic Church 1 0.5%
(14.3%)
1 0.8%
(25.0%)
Syro-Malankara Catholic Church 1 0.5%
(14.3%)
1 0.8%
(25.0%)
Total 7 3.2%
(100.0%)
4 3.3%
(100.0%)
Total 216 100.0% 120 100.0%

There are seven Eastern Catholic cardinals:

Cardinals by continent[edit]

As of 2015, 17.7% of the world population is Catholic.[248]

Continent Total cardinals Cardinal electors Percentage
Catholic (2015)[248]
Percentage of global
Catholic population (2015)[248]
Number Percentage Number Percentage
Europe 102 47.2% 52 43.3% 39.9% 22.2%
North America 34 15.7% 22 18.3% 63.7% 48.9%
South America 26 12.0% 12 10.0%
Africa 25 11.6% 15 12.5% 19.4% 17.3%
Asia 23 10.6% 15 12.5% 3.2% 10.8%
Oceania 6 2.8% 4 3.3% 26.4% 0.8%
Total 216 100.0% 120 100.0% 100.0%

Cardinals by country[edit]

There are currently 82 countries that have cardinals, 62 of which have cardinal electors.

Country Total cardinals Cardinal electors
 Albania 1 0
 Angola 1 0
 Argentina 4 2
 Australia 2 1
 Austria 1 1
 Bangladesh 1 1
 Belgium 2 1
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 1 1
 Brazil 10 4
 Burkina Faso 1 1
 Cameroon 1 0
 Canada 3 3
 Cape Verde 1 1
 Central African Republic 1 1
 Chile 3 1
 China 2 1
 Colombia 4 1
 Democratic Republic of the Congo 1 1
 Croatia 1 1
 Cuba 1 0
 Czech Republic 1 1
 Dominican Republic 1 0
 Ecuador 1 0
 Egypt 1 0
 El Salvador 1 1
 Ethiopia 1 1
 France 8 5
 Germany 9 3
 Ghana 1 1
 Great Britain 2 1
 Guinea 1 1
 Haiti 1 1
 Honduras 1 1
 Hungary 1 1
 India 4 4
 Indonesia 1 0
 Ireland 1 1
 Italy 41 23
 Ivory Coast 1 1
 Kenya 1 1
 South Korea 2 1
 Laos 1 1
 Latvia 1 0
 Lebanon 2 1
 Lesotho 1 0
 Lithuania 1 0
 Malaysia 1 0
 Mali 1 1
 Malta 1 0
 Mauritius 1 1
 Mexico 6 4
 Mozambique 2 0
 Myanmar 1 1
 Netherlands 2 1
 New Zealand 2 1
 Nicaragua 2 1
 Nigeria 3 1
 Panama 1 1
 Papua New Guinea 1 1
 Peru 1 1
 Philippines 3 2
 Poland 6 4
 Portugal 3 2
 Romania 1 0
 Saint Lucia 1 0
 Senegal 1 0
 Slovakia 1 0
 Slovenia 1 0
 South Africa 1 1
 Spain 13 4
 Sri Lanka 1 1
 Sudan 1 1
 Sweden 1 1
  Switzerland 2 1
 Tanzania 1 1
 Thailand 2 1
 Tonga 1 1
 Uganda 1 0
 United States 16 10
 Uruguay 1 1
 Venezuela 2 2
 Vietnam 2 1
Total 216 120

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Cardinal bishop since 10 January 1994
  2. ^ Cardinal bishop since 1 October 2002
  3. ^ Cardinal bishop since 24 June 1998
  4. ^ Cardinal bishop since 25 April 2005
  5. ^ Cardinal bishop since 10 May 2008
  6. ^ Cardinal bishop since 24 February 2009
  1. ^ a b Created in pectore; revealed in the consistory of 21 February 2001
  2. ^ Archbishop in  Ukraine
  3. ^ Resigned the rights and privileges of a cardinal on 20 March 2015[4]
  4. ^ Born in  Dominica

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Pope John Paul II (22 February 1996). "Universi Dominici Gregis". The Holy See. Libreria Editrice Vaticana. 33. Retrieved 28 February 2013. The right to elect the Roman Pontiff belongs exclusively to the Cardinals of Holy Roman Church, with the exception of those who have reached their eightieth birthday before the day of the Roman Pontiff's death or the day when the Apostolic See becomes vacant. The maximum number of Cardinal electors must not exceed one hundred and twenty. The right of active election by any other ecclesiastical dignitary or the intervention of any lay power of whatsoever grade or order is absolutely excluded. 
  2. ^ "Announcement of Consistory on 28 June for the creation of new cardinals". Holy See Press Office. 21 May 2017. Retrieved 21 May 2017. 
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External links[edit]