Smart city

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A smart city is an urban development vision to integrate information and communication technology (ICT) and Internet of things (IoT) technology in a secure fashion to manage a city's assets. These assets include local departments' information systems, schools, libraries, transportation systems, hospitals, power plants, water supply networks, waste management, law enforcement, and other community services. A smart city is promoted to use urban informatics and technology to improve the efficiency of services. ICT allows city officials to interact directly with the community and the city infrastructure and to monitor what is happening in the city, how the city is evolving, and how to enable a better quality of life. Through the use of sensors integrated with real-time monitoring systems, data are collected from citizens and devices – then processed and analyzed. The information and knowledge gathered are keys to tackling inefficiency.[1]

Information and communication technology (ICT) is used to enhance quality, performance and interactivity of urban services, to reduce costs and resource consumption and to improve contact between citizens and government.[2] Smart city applications are developed to manage urban flows and allow for real-time responses.[3] A smart city may therefore be more prepared to respond to challenges than one with a simple "transactional" relationship with its citizens.[4] Yet, the term itself remains unclear to its specifics and therefore, open to many interpretations.[5]

Other terms that have been used for similar concepts include cyberville, digital city, electronic communities, flexicity, information city, intelligent city, knowledge-based city, MESH city, telecity, teletopia, Ubiquitous city, wired city.

Major technological, economic and environmental changes have generated interest in smart cities, including climate change, economic restructuring, the move to online retail and entertainment, ageing populations, urban population growth and pressures on public finances.[6] The European Union (EU) has devoted constant efforts to devising a strategy for achieving 'smart' urban growth for its metropolitan city-regions.[7][8] The EU has developed a range of programmes under 'Europe's Digital Agenda".[9] In 2010, it highlighted its focus on strengthening innovation and investment in ICT services for the purpose of improving public services and quality of life.[8] Arup estimates that the global market for smart urban services will be $400 billion per annum by 2020.[10] Examples of Smart City technologies and programs have been implemented in Milton Keynes,[11] Southampton,[12] Amsterdam,[13] Barcelona,[14] Madrid,[15] Stockholm[16] and in China.[17]

Terminology[edit]

Due to the breadth of technologies that have been implemented under the smart city label, it is difficult to distill a precise definition of a smart city. Deakin and Al Wear[18] list four factors that contribute to the definition of a smart city:

  1. The application of a wide range of electronic and digital technologies to communities and cities
  2. The use of ICT to transform life and working environments within the region
  3. The embedding of such Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs) in government systems
  4. The territorialisation of practices that brings ICTs and people together to enhance the innovation and knowledge that they offer.

Deakin defines the smart city as one that utilises ICT to meet the demands of the market (the citizens of the city), and that community involvement in the process is necessary for a smart city.[19] A smart city would thus be a city that not only possesses ICT technology in particular areas, but has also implemented this technology in a manner that positively impacts the local community.

Alternative definitions include:

  • Giffinger et al. 2007: "Regional competitiveness, transport and Information and Communication Technologies economics, natural resources, human and social capital, quality of life, and participation of citizens in the governance of cities."[20]
  • Smart Cities Council[when?]: "A smart city is one that has digital technology embedded across all city functions."[21][full citation needed]
  • Caragliu and Nijkamp 2009: "A city can be defined as 'smart' when investments in human and social capital and traditional (transport) and modern (ICT) communication infrastructure fuel sustainable economic development and a high quality of life, with a wise management of natural resources, through participatory action and engagement."[22]
  • Frost & Sullivan 2014: "We identified eight key aspects that define a Smart City: smart governance, smart energy, smart building, smart mobility, smart infrastructure, smart technology, smart healthcare and smart citizen."[23]
  • Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Smart Cities: "A smart city brings together technology, government and society to enable the following characteristics: smart cities, a smart economy, smart mobility, a smart environment, smart people, smart living, smart governance."[24][when?]
  • Business Dictionary: "A developed urban area that creates sustainable economic development and high quality of life by excelling in multiple key areas; economy, mobility, environment, people, living, and government. Excelling in these key areas can be done so through strong human capital, social capital, and/or ICT infrastructure."[25][when?]
  • Indian Government 2014 : "Smart City offers sustainability in terms of economic activities and employment opportunities to a wide section of its residents, regardless of their level of education, skills or income levels."[26]
  • Department for Business, Innovation and Skills, UK 2013: "The concept is not static, there is no absolute definition of a smart city, no end point, but rather a process, or series of steps, by which cities become more 'liveable' and resilient and, hence, able to respond quicker to new challenges."[27][when?]

Characteristics[edit]

It has been suggested that a smart city (also community, business cluster, urban agglomeration or region) uses information technologies to:

  1. Make more efficient use of physical infrastructure (roads, built environment and other physical assets) through artificial intelligence and data analytics to support a strong and healthy economic, social, cultural development.[28]
  2. Engage effectively with local people in local governance and decision by use of open innovation processes and e-participation,[29] improving the collective intelligence of the city's institutions through e-governance,[3] with emphasis placed on citizen participation and co-design.[30][31][32]
  3. Learn, adapt and innovate and thereby respond more effectively and promptly to changing circumstances by improving the intelligence of the city.[3][33]

They evolve towards a strong integration of all dimensions of human intelligence, collective intelligence, and also artificial intelligence within the city.[34][35] The intelligence of cities "resides in the increasingly effective combination of digital telecommunication networks (the nerves), ubiquitously embedded intelligence (the brains), sensors and tags (the sensory organs), and software (the knowledge and cognitive competence)".[36]

These forms of intelligence in smart cities have been demonstrated in three ways:

Bletchley Park often considered to be the first smart community.
  1. Orchestration intelligence:[3] Where cities establish institutions and community-based problem solving and collaborations, such as in Bletchley Park, where the Nazi Enigma cypher was decoded by a team led by Alan Turing. This has been referred to as the first example of a smart city or an intelligent community.[37]
  2. Empowerment intelligence: Cities provide open platforms, experimental facilities and smart city infrastructure in order to cluster innovation in certain districts. These are seen in the Kista Science City in Stockholm and the Cyberport Zone in Hong Kong. Similar facilities have also been established in Melbourne.[38]
    Hong Kong Cyberport 1 and Cyberport 2 Buildings
  3. Instrumentation intelligence: Where city infrastructure is made smart through real-time data collection, with analysis and predictive modelling across city districts. There is much controversy surrounding this, particularly with regards to surveillance issues in smart cities. Examples of Instrumentation intelligence have been implemented in Amsterdam.[13] This is implemented through:[3]
    1. A common IP infrastructure that is open to researchers to develop applications.
    2. Wireless meters and devices transmit information at the point in time.
    3. A number of homes being provided with smart energy meters to become aware of energy consumption and reduce energy usage
    4. Solar power garbage compactors, car recharging stations and energy saving lamps.

Some major fields of intelligent city activation are:

Innovation economy Urban infrastructure Governance
Innovation in industries, clusters, districts of a city Transport Administration services to the citizen
Knowledge workforce: Education and employment Energy / Utilities Participatory and direct democracy
Creation of knowledge-intensive companies Protection of the environment / Safety Services to the citizen: Quality of life

Frameworks[edit]

In order to achieve an accurate description and explanation of the concept of Smart City it is needed to first analyse the topic through a specific framework. The framework is divided into 3 main dimensions:

Technology framework[edit]

Several concepts of the Smart city rely heavily on the use of technology; a technological Smart City is not just one concept but there are different combinations of technological infrastructure that build a concept of smart city.

  • Digital city: it combines service oriented infrastructure, innovation services and communication infrastructure; Yovanof, G. S. & Hazapis, G. N.[39] define a digital city “a connected community that combines broadband communications infrastructure; a flexible, service-oriented computing infrastructure based on open industry standards; and, innovative services to meet the needs of governments and their employees, citizens and businesses”.
The main purpose is to create an environment in which citizens are interconnected and easily share information anywhere in the city.
  • Virtual city: In these kinds of cities functions are implemented in a cyberspace; it includes the notion of hybrid city, which consists of a reality with real citizens and entities and a parallel virtual city of real entities and people. Have a smart city that is virtual means that in some cities it is possible the coexistence between these two reality, however the issue of physical distance and location is still not easy to manage. The vision of the world without distance still remains unmet in many ways. In practice this idea is hold up through physical IT infrastructure of cables, data centers, and exchanges.
  • Information city: It collects local information and delivered them to the public portal; In that city, many inhabitants are able to live and even work on the Internet because they could obtain every information through IT infrastructures, thanks to the sharing information method among citizens themselves. Using this approach, an information city could be an urban centre both economically and socially speaking; the most important thing is the linkage among civic services, people interactions and government institutions.
  • Intelligent city: it involves function as research or technological innovation to support learning and innovation procedure. The notion emerges in a social context in which knowledge, learning process and creativity have great importance and the human capital is considered the most precious resource within this type of technological city. In particular one of the most significant feature of an intelligent city is that every infrastructure is up to date, that means have the latest technology in telecommunications, electronic and mechanical technology. According to Komninos and Sefertzi,[40] the attempt to build an “intelligent” Smart City is more a radical innovation rather than an incremental innovation owing to a big quantity of efforts to use IT trying to transform the daily life.
  • Ubiquitous city (U-city): It creates an environment that connect citizens to any services through any device. According to Anthopoulos, L., & Fitsilis, P.,[41] U-city is a further extension of digital city concept because of the facility in terms of accessibility to every infrastructure. This makes easier to the citizen the use of any available devices to interconnect them. Its goal is to create a city where any citizen can get any services anywhere and anytime through any kind of devices. It is important to highlights that the ubiquitous city is different from the above virtual city: while the virtual city creates another space by visualizing the real urban elements within the virtual space, U-city is given by the computer chips inserted to those urban elements.

Human framework[edit]

Human infrastructure (i.e., creative occupations and workforce, knowledge networks, voluntary organisations) is a crucial axis for city development.

  • Creative city: creativity is recognized as a key driver to smart city and it represents also a version of it. Social infrastructures, like for instance intellectual and social capital are indispensable factors to build a city that is smart according to the human framework. These infrastructures concern people and their relationship. Smart City benefits from social capital and it could be possible and easier to create a Smart city concept if there are mix of education and training, culture and arts, business and commerce as Bartlett, L.[42] said.
  • Learning city: according to Moser, M. A.,[43] learning city is involved in building skilled workforce. This type of city in the human context improves the competitiveness in the global knowledge economy and Campbell [16] established a typology of cities that are learning to be smart: individually proactive city, city cluster, one-to-one link between cities, and city network. That lead a city to learn how it should be possible and realistic to be smart trough learning process followed by city workforce.
  • Humane city: It exploits human potential, in particular the knowledge workforce. Following this approach, it is possible focus on education and builds a center of higher education, which is the city, obtaining better-educated individuals. According to Glaeser, E. L., & Berry, C. R,[44] this view moves a smart city concept in a city full of skilled workforces; the same reasoning could be make for those high tech knowledge-sensitive industries which want to migrate in a so dynamic and proactive community. As a consequence of the above movement, the difference between Smart City and not are getting wider; Smart places are getting smarter while other places getting less smarter because such places act as a magnet for creative people and workers (Malanga, S. 2004 [45]).
  • Knowledge city: It is related to knowledge economy and innovation process; this type of Smart City is very similar to a learning city, the only difference refers to “a knowledge city is heavily related to knowledge economy, and its distinction is stress on innovation” (Dirks, S., Gurdgiev, C., & Keeling, M.[46]).
The concept of knowledge city is linked with similar evolving concepts of Smart City such as intelligent city and educating city. The most important feature of this city is the fundamental concept of knowledge-based urban development, which has become an important and widespread mechanism for the development of knowledge cities.

Institutional framework[edit]

According to Moser, M. A.,[43] since 1990s the Smart Communities movement took shape as a strategy to broaden the base of users involved in IT. Members of these Communities are people that share their interest and work in a partnership with govern and other institutional organizations to push the use of IT to improve the quality of daily life as a consequence of different worsening in daily actions. Eger, J. M.[47] said that a smart community makes a conscious and agreed-upon decision to deploy technology as a catalyst to solving its social and business needs. It is very important to understand that this use of IT and the consequent improvement could be more demanding without the institutional help; indeed institutional involvement is essential to the success of smart community initiatives. Again Moser, M. A.[43] explained that “building and planning a smart community seeks for smart growth”; a smart growth is essential what the partnership between citizen and institutional organizations try to do that is a reaction to worsening trends in daily things, like for instance traffic congestion, school overcrowding and air pollution. However it is important noticed that technological propagation is not an end in itself, but only a means to reinventing cities for a new economy and society. To sum up, it could possible to assert that any Smart City initiatives necessitate the governance support for their success.

The importance of these three different dimensions consist that only a link, correlation among them make possible a development of a real concept of Smart City. According to the definition of Smart City given by Caragliu, A., Del Bo, C., & Nijkamp, P.,[48] a city is smart when investments in human/social capital and IT infrastructure fuel sustainable growth and enhance quality of life, through participatory governance.

Platforms and technologies[edit]

New Internet technologies promoting cloud-based services, the Internet of Things (IoT), real-world user interfaces, use of smart phones [49] and smart meters, networks of sensors and RFIDs, and more accurate communication based on the semantic web, open new ways to collective action and collaborative problem solving.

Online collaborative sensor data management platforms are on-line database services that allow sensor owners to register and connect their devices to feed data into an on-line database for storage and allow developers to connect to the database and build their own applications based on that data.[50][51]

In London, a traffic management system known as SCOOT optimises green light time at traffic intersections by feeding back magnetometer and inductive loop data to a supercomputer, which can co-ordinate traffic lights across the city to improve traffic throughput.[52]

The city of Santander in Cantabria, northern Spain, has 20,000 sensors connecting buildings, infrastructure, transport, networks and utilities, offers a physical space for experimentation and validation of the IoT functions, such as interaction and management protocols, device technologies, and support services such as discovery, identity management and security[53] In Santander, the sensors monitor the levels of pollution, noise, traffic and parking.

Electronic cards (known as smart cards) are another common platform in smart city contexts. These cards possess a unique encrypted identifier that allows the owner to log into a range of government provided services (or e-services) without setting up multiple accounts. The single identifier allows governments to aggregate data about citizens and their preferences to improve the provision of services and to determine common interests of groups. This technology has been implemented in Southampton.[18]

Roadmap[edit]

A smart city roadmap consists of four/three (the first is a preliminary check) major components:[1]

  1. Define exactly what is the community: maybe that definition can condition what you are doing in the subsequent steps; it relates to geography, links between cities and countryside and flows of people between them; maybe – even – that in some Countries the definition of City/community that is stated does not correspond effectively to what – in fact – happens in the real life
  2. Study The Community: Before deciding to build a smart city, first we need to know why. This can be done by determining the benefits of such an initiative. Study the community to know the citizens, the business's needs – know the citizens and the community's unique attributes, such as the age of the citizens, their education, hobbies, and attractions of the city.
  3. Develop a Smart City Policy: Develop a policy to drive the initiatives, where roles, responsibilities, objective, and goals, can be defined. Create plans and strategies on how the goals will be achieved.
  4. Engage The Citizens: This can be done by engaging the citizens through the use of e-government initiatives, open data, sport events, etc.

In short, People, Processes, and Technology (PPT) are the three principles of the success of a smart city initiative. Cities must study their citizens and communities, know the processes, business drivers, create policies, and objectives to meet the citizens' needs. Then, technology can be implemented to meet the citizens' need, in order to improve the quality of life and create real economic opportunities.This requires a holistic customized approach that accounts for city cultures, long-term city planning, and local regulations.

Research[edit]

University research labs developed prototypes for intelligent cities. IGLUS is an action research project led by EPFL focused on developing governance systems for urban infrastructures. IGLUS announced a MOOC through Coursera.[54] MIT Smart Cities Lab[55] focuses upon intelligent, sustainable buildings, mobility systems (GreenWheel Electric Bicycle, Mobility-on-Demand, CityCar, Wheel Robots); the IntelCities[56] research consortium for electronic government, planning systems and citizen participation; URENIO developed intelligent city platforms for the innovation economy[57] focusing on strategic intelligence, technology transfer, collaborative innovation, and incubation, while it promotes intelligent cities research and planning;[58] the Smart Cities Academic Network[59] is working on e-governance and e-services in the North Sea region. The MK:Smart project[11] is focusing on issues of sustainable energy use, water use and transport infrastructure alongside exploring how to promote citizen engagement[60] alongside educating citizens about smart cities.[61][62]

Commercialisation[edit]

Large IT, telecommunication and energy management companies such as Cisco, Schneider Electric, IBM and Microsoft market initiatives for intelligent cities. Cisco, launched the Global Intelligent Urbanization initiative[63] to help cities using the network as the fourth utility for integrated city management, better quality of life for citizens, and economic development. IBM announced its SmarterCities[64] to stimulate economic growth and quality of life in cities and metropolitan areas with the activation of new approaches of thinking and acting in the urban ecosystem. Sensor developers and startup companies are continually developing new smart city applications.

Smart city technological companies exist in Israel, with Tel Aviv getting an award in 2014.[65][66][67][68]

Kingsun Optoelectronic is the major supplier for smart street light in China.[69]

Examples[edit]

Major strategies and achievements related to the spatial intelligence of cities are listed in the Intelligent Community Forum awards from 1999 to 2010, in the cities of Suwon (South Korea), Stockholm (Sweden), Gangnam District of Seoul (South Korea), Waterloo, Ontario (Canada), Taipei (Taiwan), Mitaka (Japan), Glasgow (Scotland, UK), Calgary (Alberta, Canada), Seoul (South Korea), New York City (USA), LaGrange, Georgia (USA), and Singapore, which were recognized for their efforts in developing broadband networks and e-services sustaining innovation ecosystems, growth, and inclusion.[70] There are a number of cities actively pursuing a smart city strategy:

Amsterdam[edit]

Street lamps in Amsterdam have been upgraded to allow municipal councils to dim the lights based on pedestrian usage.[71]

The Amsterdam Smart City initiative[13] which began in 2009 currently includes 170+ projects collaboratively developed by local residents, government and businesses.[19] These projects run on an interconnected platform through wireless devices to enhance the city's real time decision making abilities. The City of Amsterdam (City) claims the purpose of the projects is to reduce traffic, save energy and improve public safety.[72] To promote efforts from local residents, the City runs the Amsterdam Smart City Challenge annually, accepting proposals for applications and developments that fit within the City's framework.[73] An example of a resident developed app is Mobypark, which allows owners of parking spaces to rent them out to people for a fee.[74] The data generated from this app can then be used by the City to determine parking demand and traffic flows in Amsterdam. A number of homes have also been provided with smart energy meters, with incentives provided to those that actively reduce energy consumption.[3][75] Other initiatives include flexible street lighting (smart lighting)[76] which allows municipalities to control the brightness of street lights, and smart traffic management[77] where traffic is monitored in real time by the City and information about current travel time on certain roads is broadcast to allow motorists to determine the best routes to take.

Barcelona[edit]

A new bus network was implemented in Barcelona due to smart city data analytics.

Barcelona has established a number of projects that can be considered 'smart city' applications within its "CityOS" strategy.[78] For example, sensor technology has been implemented in the irrigation system in Parc del Centre de Poblenou, where real time data is transmitted to gardening crews about the level of water required for the plants.[14][79] Barcelona has also designed a new bus network based on data analysis of the most common traffic flows in Barcelona, utilising primarily vertical, horizontal and diagonal routes with a number of interchanges.[80] Integration of multiple smart city technologies can be seen through the implementation of smart traffic lights[81] as buses run on routes designed to optimise the number of green lights. In addition, where an emergency is reported in Barcelona, the approximate route of the emergency vehicle is entered into the traffic light system, setting all the lights to green as the vehicle approaches through a mix of GPS and traffic management software, allowing emergency services to reach the incident without delay. Much of this data is managed by the Sentilo Platform.[82][83]


Smart Dublin[edit]

Dublin finds itself as an unexpected capital for smart cities. [84] The smart city programme for the city is run by Smart Dublin [85] an initiative of the four Dublin Local Authorities to engage with smart technology providers, researchers and citizens to solve city challenges and improve city life. It includes Dublinked- Dublin’s open data platform that hosts open source data to smart city applications.

Laguna Croatá[edit]

PLANET is a project which has been designed by professionals, experts in urban planning and 'smart utilities', and a project characterised by developments in the Smart City concept. The 'smart' city is now becoming more inclusive, opening up to a new target: low-medium income brackets. One of the universal concepts key to the Smart City project is its eco-sustainability: PLANET extends this concept strategically at an economic level. The sustainability of the costs and the investments becomes an essential priority of the 'Social Smart City'. PLANET creates and implements this project while staying within the economic parameters imposed by government Social Housing programs (Brazilian Minha Casa, Minha Vida). The Smart City does not need to be close to a pre-existing city: it is a new autonomous and functional city and, as such, it can attract both individuals and businesses.[86]

Madrid[edit]

Madrid, Spain's pioneering smart city,[87] has adopted the MiNT Madrid Inteligente/Smarter Madrid platform to integrate the management of local services. These include the sustainable and computerized management of infrastructure, garbage collection and recycling, and public spaces and green areas, among others.[88] The programme is run in partnership with IBMs INSA, making use of the latter's Big Data and analytics capabilities and experience.[89] Madrid is considered to have taken a bottom-up approach to smart cities, whereby social issues are first identified and individual technologies or networks are then identified to address these issues.[90] This approach includes support and recognition for start ups through the Madrid Digital Start Up programme.[91]

Manchester[edit]

In December 2015, Manchester's CityVerve project was chosen as the winner of a government-led technology competition and awarded £10m to develop an Internet of Things (IoT) smart cities demonstrator.[92]

Established in July 2016, the project is being carried out by a consortium of 22 public and private organisations, including Manchester City Council, and is aligned with the city's on-going devolution commitment.[93]

The project has a two-year remit to demonstrate the capability of IoT applications and address barriers to deploying smart cities, such as city governance, network security, user trust and adoption, interoperability, scalability and justifying investment.

CityVerve is based on an open data principle that incorporates a 'platform of platforms'[94] which ties together applications for its four key themes: transport and travel; health and social care; energy and the environment; culture and the public realm. This will also ensure that the project is scalable and able to be redeployed to other locations worldwide.

Milton Keynes[edit]

Milton Keynes has a commitment to making itself a Smart City. Currently the mechanism through which this is approached is the MK:Smart initiative,[11] a collaboration of local government, businesses, academia and 3rd sector organisations. The focus of the initiative is on making energy use, water use and transport more sustainable whilst promoting economic growth in the city. Central to the project is the creation of a state-of-the-art 'MK Data Hub' which will support the acquisition and management of vast amounts of data relevant to city systems from a variety of data sources. These will include data about energy and water consumption, transport data, data acquired through satellite technology, social and economic datasets, and crowdsourced data from social media or specialised apps.

The MK:Smart initiative has two aspects which extend our understanding of how Smart Cities should operate. The first, Our MK,[60] is a scheme for promoting citizen-led sustainability issues in the city. The scheme provides funding and support to engage with citizens and help turn their ideas around sustainability into a reality. The second aspect is in providing citizens with the skills to operate effectively in a Smart City. The Urban Data school[61] is an online platform to teach school students about data skills while the project has also produced a MOOC[62] to inform citizens about what a Smart City is.

New Songdo City[edit]

[95][96]

Santa Cruz[edit]

An alternative use of smart city technology can be found in Santa Cruz, California, where local authorities analyse historical crime data in order to predict police requirements and maximise police presence where it is required.[97] The analytical tools generate a list of 10 places each day where property crimes are more likely to occur, and then placing police efforts on these regions when officers are not responding to any emergency. This use of ICT technology is different to the manner in which European cities utilise smart city technology, possibly highlighting the breadth of the smart city concept in different parts of the world.

Smart cities in India[edit]

It's a retrofitting and urban renewal program being spearheaded by the Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India. The Government of India has the ambitious vision of developing 100 cities by modernizing existing mid-sized cities.[98]

Smart Nation Singapore[edit]

Despite its size and lack of natural resources, Singapore has overcome many of its challenges in 50 short years to become one of the world's most advanced and liveable countries. It has embarked on its next phase of transformation towards a Smart Nation, and endeavours to harness the power of networks, data and info-comm technologies to improve living, create economic opportunities and build closer communities.

Stockholm[edit]

The Kista Science City from above.

Stockholm's smart city technology is underpinned by the Stokab dark fibre system[99] which was developed in 1994 to provide a universal fibre optic network across Stockholm.[100] Private companies are able to lease fibre as service providers on equal terms. The company is owned by the City of Stockholm itself.[16] Within this framework, Stockholm has created a Green IT strategy.[101] The Green IT program seeks to reduce the environmental impact of Stockholm through IT functions such as energy efficient buildings (minimising heating costs), traffic monitoring (minimising the time spent on the road) and development of e-services (minimising paper usage). The e-Stockholm platform is centred on the provision of e-services, including political announcements, parking space booking and snow clearance.[102] This is further being developed through GPS analytics, allowing residents to plan their route through the city.[102] An example of district-specific smart city technology can be found in the Kista Science City region.[103] This region is based on the triple helix concept of smart cities,[28] where university, industry and government work together to develop ICT applications for implementation in a smart city strategy.

Criticism[edit]

The criticisms of smart cities revolve around:[28]

  • A bias in strategic interest may lead to ignoring alternative avenues of promising urban development.[104]
  • A smart city, as a scientifically planned city, would defy the fact that real development in cities is often haphazard. In that line of criticism, the smart city is seen as unattractive for citizens as they "can deaden and stupefy the people who live in its all-efficient embrace".[105] Instead, people would prefer cities they can participate to shape.
  • The focus of the concept of smart city may lead to an underestimation of the possible negative effects of the development of the new technological and networked infrastructures needed for a city to be smart.[106]
  • As a globalized business model is based on capital mobility, following a business-oriented model may result in a losing long term strategy: "The 'spatial fix' inevitably means that mobile capital can often 'write its own deals' to come to town, only to move on when it receives a better deal elsewhere. This is no less true for the smart city than it was for the industrial, [or] manufacturing city."[28]
  • The high level of big data collection and analytics has raised questions regarding surveillance in smart cities, particularly as it relates to predictive policing.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Sam Musa. "Smart City Roadmap". 
  2. ^ "Building a Smart City, Equitable City - NYC Forward". 
  3. ^ a b c d e f Komninos, Nicos (2013-08-22). "What makes cities intelligent?". In Deakin, Mark. Smart Cities: Governing, Modelling and Analysing the Transition. Taylor and Francis. p. 77. ISBN 978-1135124144. 
  4. ^ Dept Business(2013) Page 7 "As consumers of private goods and services we have been empowered by the Web and, as citizens, we expect the same quality from our public services. In turn, public authorities are seeking to reduce costs and raise performance by adopting similar approaches in the delivery of public services. However, the concept of a Smart City goes way beyond the transactional relationships between citizen and service provider. It is essentially enabling and encouraging the citizen to become a more active and participative member of the community"
  5. ^ "MDPI Sciforum - The platform for open scholarly exchange". sciforum.net. Retrieved 2016-03-16. 
  6. ^ Dept Business(2013) Page 5 "Challenges Faced by Cities and the Need for Smarter Approaches"
  7. ^ Komninos(2009) Pages 337–355
  8. ^ a b Paskaleva, K (25 January 2009). "Enabling the smart city:The progress of e-city governance in Europe". International Journal of Innovation and Regional Development. 1 (4): 405–422(18). doi:10.1504/ijird.2009.022730. 
  9. ^ European Commission. "Digital Agenda for Europe". Retrieved 2015-05-30. 
  10. ^ Dept Business(2013) Page 3 Arup estimates that the global market for smart urban systems for transport, energy, healthcare, water, food and waste will amount to around $400 Billion pa. by 2020
  11. ^ a b c "The MK:Smart Project". www.mksmart.org. Retrieved 2015-10-27. 
  12. ^ Southampton City Council. "SmartCities card". Retrieved 2015-05-30. 
  13. ^ a b c Amsterdam Smart City. "Amsterdam Smart City ~ Projects". Retrieved 2015-05-30. 
  14. ^ a b Ajuntament de Barcelona. "Barcelona Smart City". Retrieved 2015-05-30. 
  15. ^ Ayuntamiento de Madrid. "Buenas Practicas de la Ciudad de Madrid" (PDF). Retrieved 2016-11-23. 
  16. ^ a b City of Stockholm. "The Smart City". Stockholms stad. Retrieved 2015-05-30. 
  17. ^ http://www.rcrwireless.com/20160630/asia-pacific/zte-involved-150-smart-city-projects-across-china
  18. ^ a b Deakin, Mark; Al Waer, Husam. "From Intelligent to Smart Cities". Journal of Intelligent Buildings International: From Intelligent Cities to Smart Cities. 3 (3). doi:10.1080/17508975.2011.586671. 
  19. ^ a b Deakin, Mark (2013-08-22). "From intelligent to smart cities". In Deakin, Mark. Smart Cities: Governing, Modelling and Analysing the Transition. Taylor and Francis. p. 15. ISBN 978-1135124144. 
  20. ^ Giffinger, Rudolf; Christian Fertner; Hans Kramar; Robert Kalasek; Nataša Pichler-Milanovic; Evert Meijers (2007). "Smart cities – Ranking of European medium-sized cities" (PDF). Smart Cities. Vienna: Centre of Regional Science. 
  21. ^ "Definitions and overviews". Smart Cities Council. The smart city sector is still in the "I know it when I see it" phase, without a universally agreed definition. The Council defines a smart city as one that has digital technology embedded across all city functions 
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Bibliography

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

National initiatives

Intelligent Communities