The Five Ks
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In Sikhism, the Five Ks (Punjabi: ਪੰਜ ਕਕਾਰ Pañj Kakār) are five items that Guru Gobind Singh commanded Khalsa Sikhs to wear at all times in 1699. They are: Kesh (uncut hair), Kangha (a wooden comb for the hair), Kara (an iron bracelet), Kachera (a 100% cotton tieable undergarment, must not be elastic), and Kirpan (an iron dagger large enough to defend oneself ) .
The Five Ks are not just symbols, but articles of faith that collectively form the external identity and the Khalsa devotee's commitment to the Sikh rehni, "Sikh way of life". A Sikh who has taken Amrit and keeps all five Ks are known as Khalsa ("pure") or Amritdhari Sikh ("Amrit Sanskar participant"), while a Sikh who has not taken Amrit but follows the teachings of the Sri Guru Granth Sahib is called a Sahajdhari Sikh.
The Akali Nihang Uniform of the Gurus was- The Nihang Bana started with a navy or surmayee blue four foot tall Dastar Bunga with many chakrams in ascending order and a Gajgah. On the top of the turban lied a metre and a half long pharla to show that the spirit of the Khalsa would never be broken. Under the dastar Bunga was a Surmayee or navy chola with a yellow hazooria and kamar kasa. On the Nihangs back has to be a Dhal with a Vadda Chakram below. Under the Kamar Kasa (a cotton belt) should be two Kirpans, a khanda, a tegha, a shamshertegha, flails and daggers. All Nihangs had horses on which there would be a Nishan Sahib, a toradar, a Karpa Barcha and a Nagni Barcha. The Nishan Sahib should be pointed up resembling victory and should have an Ashtabhuja Dhuja on top. Nihangs which follow the original uniform should also carry modern weapons such as Ak-47s and others. Other weapons were accessories and could be useful in war.
The Kesh also known as Kesa, or uncut, long hair, is considered by Sikhs as an indispensable part of the human body. Long known as a sign of spiritual devotion, it also emulates the appearance of Guru Gobind Singh and is one of the primary signs by which a Sikh can be clearly and quickly identified. A Sikh never cuts or trims any hair as a symbol of respect for the perfection of God's creation. The uncut long hair and the beard, in the case of men, form the main kakār for Sikhs.
The turban is a spiritual crown, which is a constant reminder to the Sikh that they are sitting on the throne of consciousness and are committed to living according to Sikh principles. Guru Gobind Singh told his Sikhs:
"Khalsa mero roop hai khaas. Khalsa mai ho karo nivaas... The Khalsa is my image. Within the Khalsa I reside." Wearing a turban declares sovereignty, dedication, self-respect, courage and piety.
A noted figure in Sikh history is Bhai Taru Singh, who was martyred when he refused to get his Kesh cut.
Comb the hair twice a day, covering it with turban that is to be tied from fresh.— Tankhanama Bhai Nand Lal Singh
A Kangha is a small wooden comb that Sikhs use twice a day. It is supposed to be worn only in the hair and at all times. Combs help to clean and remove tangles from the hair, and is a symbol of cleanliness. Combing their hair reminds Sikhs that their lives should be tidy and organized.
The comb keeps the hair tidy, a symbol of not just accepting what God has given, but also an injunction to maintain it with grace. The Guru Granth Sahib said hair should be allowed to grow naturally; this precludes any shaving for both men and women. In the Guru's time, some holy men let their hair become tangled and dirty. The Guru said that this was not right; that hair should be allowed to grow but it should be kept clean and combed at least twice a day.
The Sikhs were commanded by Guru Gobind Singh at the Baisakhi Amrit Sanchar in 1699 to wear an iron bracelet called a Kara at all times. The Kara is a constant reminder to always remember that whatever a person does with their hands has to be in keeping with the advice given by the Guru. The Kara is an iron/steel circle to symbolise God as never ending. It is a symbol of permanent bonding to the community, of being a link in the chain of Khalsa Sikhs (the word for link is "kari").
ਸੀਲ ਜਤ ਕੀ ਕਛ ਪਹਿਰਿ ਪਕਿੜਓ ਹਿਥਆਰਾ ॥ The sign of true chastity is the Kachera, you must wear this and hold weapons in hand.— Bhai Gurdas Singh, Var. 41, pauri 15
The Kachera is a shalwar-undergarment with a tie-knot worn by baptized Sikhs. Originally, the Kachera was made part of the five Ks as a symbol of a Sikh soldier's willingness to be ready at a moment's notice for battle or for defence. The confirmed Sikh (one who has taken the Amrit) wears a Kachera every day. Some go to the extent of wearing a Kacheraye while bathing, to be ready to at a moment's notice, changing into the new one a single leg at a time, so as to have no moment where they are unprepared. Further, this garment allowed the Sikh soldier to operate in combat freely and without any hindrance or restriction, because it was easy to fabricate, maintain, wash and carry compared to other traditional under-garments of that era, like the dhoti. The Kachera symbolises self-respect, and always reminds the wearer of mental control over lust, one of the Five Evils in Sikh philosophy.
Kachera follow a generally practical and roomy design. It features an embedded string that circles the waist which can be tightened or loosened as desired, and then knotted securely. The Kachera can be classed between underwear and an outer garment, as in appearance it does not reveal private anatomy, and looks and wears like shorts. As with all of the Five Ks, there is equality between men and women, and so women are also expected to wear it. Considering the hot climate in India, the Kachera is often worn by men as an outer garment, keeping the wearer cool and being practical in manual work such as farming, but it is generally not considered respectful for women to wear the Kachera as an outer garment (on its own) as it is considered too revealing.
ਸ਼ਸਤਰ ਹੀਨ ਕਬਹੂ ਨਹਿ ਹੋਈ, ਰਿਹਤਵੰਤ ਖਾਲਸਾ ਸੋਈlsa with excellent rehats.— Rehatnama Bhai Desa Singh
The Kirpan is a dagger which symbolises a Sikh's duty to come to the defence of those in peril. All Sikhs should wear kirpan on their body at all times as a defensive side-arm, just as a police officer is expected to wear a side-arm when on duty. Its use is only allowed in the act of self-defense and the protection of others. It stands for bravery and protecting the weak and innocent.
The kirpan is kept sharp and is actually used to defend others, such as those who are oppressed by harsh rulers, or a person who is being robbed, raped, or beaten. The true Sikh cannot turn a blind eye to such evils, thinking that they are "someone else's concern." It is the duty of the true Sikh to help those who suffer unjustly, by whatever means available, whether that means alerting the police, summoning help, or literally defending those who cannot defend themselves, even if that means putting oneself in harm's way.
5 K’s are the bare minimum and are not the full extent of Khalsa uniform, the Panj Kapde is also part of Khalsa uniform. It is part of the tradition of panj kapare (five garments), comprising dastaar (turban), hazooria (long white scarf worn around the neck), long chola (dress), kamar-kasaa (material tied around the waist like a belt) and kachhara (under-garment). Reference to this has been made by Varan Bhai Gurdas as well. The Dastaar and Kachera are mandatory for Sikhs although more spiritual Sikhs also have the other Kapde.
A dastār (Punjabi: ਦਸਤਾਰ, from Persian: دستار) which derives from dast-e-yār or "the hand of God", is an item of headwear associated with Sikhism, and is an important part of Sikh culture. The word is loaned from Persian through Punjabi. In Persian, the word dastār can refer to any kind of turban and replaced the original word for turban, dolband (دلبند), from which the English word is derived.
Among the Sikhs, the dastār is an article of faith that represents equality, honour, self-respect, courage, spirituality, and piety. The Khalsa Sikh men and women, who keep the Five Ks, wear the turban to cover their long, uncut hair (kesh). The Sikhs regard the dastār as an important part of the unique Sikh identity. After the ninth Sikh Guru, Tegh Bahadur, was sentenced to death by the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb, Guru Gobind Singh, the tenth Sikh Guru created the Khalsa and gave five articles of faith, one of which is unshorn hair, which the dastār covers.
Sikh Chola is traditional dress worn by Sikhs. It is a martial attire which gives freedom of movement to a Sikh warrior. Sikh Chola is also unisex attire, and may also be decorated with heavy embroidery all over it. It is meant to be either Yellow, white or Electric blue with many pockets to hold maclocks and other weapons.
Kamar Kasa is a sash bound around waist to hold weapons a essential part of Nihang dress. It is also called cumberband or Belt or waist sash or waistband. The Kamar Kasa is meant to be yellow in colour if wearing blue chola or blue if wearing white chola.
A hazooria is a sign of humility and that’s why when doing ardaas it’s grasped. It is a constant reminder of surrendering your mind to your Guru, along with your 5 K’s. A Hazooria is very practical. It helps you keep ‘suchamta’ (cleanliness) when during seva or reading Gurbani. If you want to keep your hands clean when scratching face or picking up something, you can use your hazooria. It was also worn by servants and symbolises the Sikh surrendering to Waheguruji as their master.
The Panj Shastar are the five weapons that all Sikhs should carry, there was no formal weapons until the advent of the Sikh empire. It became the Kirpan, Pesh-Kabz, Katar, Matchlock Pistol or six shooter and the Chakram. These were used until the Indian government banned matchlocks and Sikhs were brainwashed into being more patriotic to their country then their faith. The Kirpan is a kakkar and is mandatory as it is a kakkar.
The pesh-kabz or Kard (Persian: پیش قبض, Hindi: पेश क़ब्ज़) is a type of Indo-Persian knife designed to penetrate mail armour and other types of armor. The word is also spelled pesh-qabz or pish-ghabz and means "fore-grip" in the Persian language; it was borrowed into the Hindustani language. Originally created during Safavid Persia, it became widespread in Central Asia and the Indian subcontinent during Mughal period.
The khanda is a double-edge straight sword originating from the Indian subcontinent. It is often featured in religious iconography, theatre and art depicting the ancient history of India. It is a common weapon in Indian martial arts.
The Che-Nishanebazi (ਛੇ - ਨਿਸ਼ਾਨੇਬਾਜ਼ lit. six pistol) is a type of revolver that carries six cartridges and it is a old design of a modern day pistol.
The chakram (Punjabi: chakkar) is a throwing weapon from the Indian subcontinent. One of its major purpose is also to protect the turban and the head from sword/melee attacks. It is circular with a sharpened outer edge and a diameter of 12–30 centimetres (4.7–11.8 in). It is also known as chalikar meaning "circle", and was sometimes referred to in English writings as a "war-quoit". The Chakram is primarily a throwing weapon but can also be used hand-to-hand. A smaller variant called chakri was worn on the wrist. A related weapon is the chakri dong, a bamboo staff with a chakri attached at one end.
- "The Five K's". Retrieved October 9, 2012.
- "The Five Ks". bbc.co.uk. Retrieved October 9, 2012.
- As Khalsa, Wearing the Five K’s; Posted March 30, 2016 by Sikh Dharma International
- Singh, Harjinder (2015). Sikh Code of Conduct. English: Akaal Publishers; 4th Revised edition. p. 26. ISBN 978-0955458743.