The Satanic Temple

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The Satanic Temple
TSTredlogo.jpg
Abbreviation TST
Type Satanic religion, social movement, advocacy group, protest group
Spokesperson Lucien Greaves
Headquarters Salem, Massachusetts
Founder Malcolm Jarry, Lucien Greaves
Origin 2012
Official website thesatanictemple.com

The Satanic Temple is an international nontheistic religion and political activist group based in Salem, Massachusetts.[1][2][3][4] The Temple has several chapter groups throughout the world, the largest of which is in Detroit, Michigan.[5] The group uses Satanic imagery to promote egalitarianism, social justice and the separation of church and state. Their stated mission is "to encourage benevolence and empathy among all people". The group was co-founded by Lucien Greaves, the organization's spokesperson, and Malcolm Jarry.[6] The Satanic Temple has utilized satire, theatrical ploys, humor and direct legal action in their public campaigns to generate attention and prompt people to reevaluate fears and perceptions, and to highlight religious hypocrisy and encroachment on religious freedom.[7][8][9]

The organization actively participates in public affairs that have manifested in several public political actions and efforts at lobbying,[10][11] with a focus on the separation of church and state and using satire against Christian privilege that it says interferes with personal religious freedom. It considers marriage a religious sacrament that should be governed under the First Amendment’s protection of religious liberty, and which should prevail over state laws.[12] Because the group regards inviolability of the body as a key doctrine, it also views all restrictions on abortion, including mandatory waiting periods, as an infringement on the rights of Satanists to practice their religion.[13] The Satanic Temple does not believe in a supernatural Satan. The Temple uses the literary Satan as a metaphor to promote pragmatic skepticism, rational reciprocity, personal autonomy, and curiosity.[6] Satan is thus used as a symbol representing "the eternal rebel" against arbitrary authority and social norms.[14][15]

History[edit]

In an interview with The New York Times, co-founder Malcolm Jarry stated that the idea of starting a satanic faith-based organization was first conceived as one "that met all the Bush administration’s criteria for receiving funds, but was repugnant to them". The idea was inspired by then–president George W. Bush's formation of White House Office of Faith-Based and Neighborhood Partnerships, for which he thought something should be done to counter it.[6] The Satanic Temple was founded in 2012, and began public demonstrations in 2013.[16][6][3]

Mission[edit]

The Satanic Temple describes its mission as follows:

The mission of The Satanic Temple is to encourage benevolence and empathy among all people, reject tyrannical authority, advocate practical common sense and justice, and be directed by the human conscience to undertake noble pursuits guided by the individual will. Civic-minded, The Satanic Temple has been involved in a number of good works including taking a stand against the controversial and extremist Westboro Baptist Church, working on behalf of children in public school who have been subject to corporal punishment and more.[17]

Tenets[edit]

The Satanic Temple has seven fundamental tenets:

  1. One should strive to act with compassion and empathy towards all creatures in accordance with reason.
  2. The struggle for justice is an ongoing and necessary pursuit that should prevail over laws and institutions.
  3. One’s body is inviolable, subject to one’s own will alone.
  4. The freedoms of others should be respected, including the freedom to offend. To willfully and unjustly encroach upon the freedoms of another is to forgo your own.
  5. Beliefs should conform to our best scientific understanding of the world. We should take care never to distort scientific facts to fit our beliefs.
  6. People are fallible. If we make a mistake, we should do our best to rectify it and resolve any harm that may have been caused.
  7. Every tenet is a guiding principle designed to inspire nobility in action and thought. The spirit of compassion, wisdom, and justice should always prevail over the written or spoken word.[18]

Valerie Tarico of Salon wrote that the tenets were egalitarian and "truer to the words of Jesus than most Christians", referring to the tenets as expressing the primacy of compassion and empathy and conducive to a path to equanimity.[19] This sentiment was echoed in an article for Patheos, wherein editor Michael Stone called the tenets "morality superior to [the] Ten Commandments", referring to them as "a more moral, and more optimistic stance, emphasizing positive, pro-social values.[20]

Campaigns[edit]

Lucien Greaves, spokesperson for The Satanic Temple, at SASHAcon, March 2016

Individual chapters hold gatherings with rituals and activities designed to highlight and push back against the right-wing religious establishment and archaic traditions and norms. For example, one group in Detroit held a gathering that included dance music, a porn room, "surprisingly good hors d’oeuvres", and "a statue that’s either a penis and testicles or a woman gazing into a mirror, depending on your point of view", and a wine ceremony involving three naked participants.[21] The Satanic Temple has taken part in several public activities that have been the focus of public scrutiny.

Grey Faction[edit]

Prayer in schools[edit]

The organization first gained media attention in January 2013 after a group of Satanists assembled at the Florida State Capitol to show their approval over a bill Governor Rick Scott signed into law the prior year, Senate Bill 98, which allowed student-led prayer at school assemblies.[7] The group further stated that as the bill did not specify a religion, the prayers could be led by a student from any religion—including Satanism. The TST members announced they "were coming out to say how happy we were because now our Satanic children could pray to Satan in school."[16][6][3]

“Adopt-a-highway” campaign[edit]

One of the projects launched by The Satanic Temple was an attempt to raise enough money to “adopt-a-highway” in New York City. The adopt-a-highway program would have involved the group to maintain and beautify part of the public highway for up to two years. Their goal was to raise awareness about religious diversity. The group stated that “The campaign will do more than keep our highways clean. It will help send a clear message to the world reaffirming American Religious Plurality”. The group raised just over $2,000 between June 10 and August 15, 2013; short of their goal of $15,000. If their goal had been reached, the New York Department of Transportation would have approved the plan, and the funds would have been put toward the campaign. In the event that the department did not approve the project, the funds were to support contesting that decision. The organization offered different incentive levels for donations, ranging from ten dollars, for which the donor would receive a button, to ten thousand dollars, for which the donor would receive a full “Membership Package,” including the ability to choose the location of and to participate in the next Pink Mass that The Satanic Temple performed.

Pink Mass[edit]

In July 2013, The Satanic Temple held a "Pink Mass" over the grave of Catherine Johnston, the mother of Westboro Baptist Church founder Fred Phelps.[22] The mass was held after the Westboro Baptist Church announced their intention to picket the funerals of the victims of the Boston Marathon bombing.[23] The Temple said that they had based the idea of the mass on similar activities held by factions of the Latter Day Saint movement, where they would perform proxy baptisms.[22] The Pink Mass was officiated by Greaves and consisted of two gay men kissing over Johnston's grave while Greaves placed his genitals on the tombstone [24] and chanted an incantation intended to change the deceased's sexual orientation.[25] A misdemeanor charge was issued against Greaves and he was told that if he returned to Lauderdale County, Mississippi (where Johnston's grave is located), he would be arrested.[25] Shortly before Phelps's death on March 19, 2014, The Satanic Temple expressed interest in holding a similar ceremony for the church founder.[26][27]

Black Mass[edit]

In May 2014, A black mass was scheduled to be held by The Satanic Temple at the Harvard University campus, sponsored by the Harvard Extension Cultural Studies Club, but had to be relocated off campus due to significant opposition by Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Boston and school administrators.[28][29][30]

Baphomet statue[edit]

The Temple's Baphomet statue, as unveiled in Detroit in 2015[31]

In 2014, The Satanic Temple began a crowdsourcing campaign on Indiegogo for a Satanic monument depicting Baphomet with two children, with the intention to display this monument at the Oklahoma State Capitol.[32] The group's fundraising page stated that the statue was to be erected in response to a then-present Ten Commandments Monument installed by Oklahoma State Representative Mike Ritze in 2012.[32] The following year, in 2015, the satanic monument was unveiled at the Detroit chapter of The Satanic Temple amidst protests by religious organizations.[33] Vice reported that the 700 attendees at the unveiling ceremony had to sell their souls to Satan in order to receive a ticket, a tactic that the Temple stated was done in order to "keep away some of the more radical superstitious people who would try to undermine the event."[31][34]

Time noted that "the group does not 'promote a belief in a personal Satan.' By their logic, Satan is an abstraction, ... 'a literary figure, not a deity — he stands for rationality, for skepticism, for speaking truth to power, even at great personal cost.' Time also commented on the statue's unveiling, writing "Call it Libertarian Gothic, maybe — some darker permutation of Ayn Rand's crusade for free will. One witnesses in The Satanic Temple militia a certain knee-jerk reaction to encroachments upon personal liberties, especially when those encroachments come with a crucifix in hand. The Baphomet statue is the Satanic Temple’s defiant retort du jour."[34]

Protect Children Project[edit]

The Protect Children Project is an initiative launched by The Satanic Temple in the spring of 2014. The project's aims are stated to offer "First Amendment protection to support children who may be at risk for being subjected to mental or physical abuse in school by teachers and administrators through the use of solitary confinement, restraints, and corporal punishment."[35] The Protect Children Project's website asked participants to print out pre-written letters to send to their respective school boards on a day designated as "Protect Children Day" as a form of protest.[36][37] In March 2017, The Satanic Temple launched an anti-spanking campaign against corporal punishment in schools, as part of the Protect Children Project. They unveiled billboards in Texas which read "Never be hit in school again. Exercise your religious rights."[38]

Planned Parenthood protests[edit]

On August 22, 2015 the Detroit chapter of The Satanic Temple held a counter-protest outside of a Ferndale Planned Parenthood location in response to anti-abortionist groups that were planning to protest Planned Parenthood on that same date.[39] As part of the protest the Temple held a guerrilla theatre performance that included two men dressed as clergy pouring milk on kneeling actresses.[40] This was not the first protest of this type that the Temple had held in support of the organization, as they had previously held a 2013 protest where they brought children to the Texas State Capitol who chanted "Fuck You" and "Hail Satan", while holding signs reading "Stay Out Of My Mommy's Vagina".[41]

On April 23, 2016, members of the Detroit chapter of the Temple counter protested the Citizens for a Pro-Life Society's protest of Planned Parenthood. Temple members dressed in bondage fetish clothing, wearing baby masks and diapers while engaging in flagellation. The Temple said that the reason for the protest was to "expose the anti-choice protest as an act of fetal idolatry, highlighting the fetishization and abstraction of the 'baby.'"[42]

Muslim refugee activism[edit]

In November 2015 the Temple received media attention for offering to take in Muslims or refugees that were afraid of experiencing backlash over the 2015 terrorist attacks in Paris.[43][3]

Demonization of Junipero Serra[edit]

The Temple's Los Angeles Chapter has also protested the canonization of Junípero Serra by Pope Francis and in October 2015 they held a ceremony where they "demonized" the Christian missionary,[44] stating that Serra helped enslave thousands of Native Americans and that he "also led The Spanish Inquisition in his territories, trying residents of the Missions for the crimes of sorcery, witchcraft and devil worship."[45]

Pentagram Ritual[edit]

On June 6, 2016, the Temple performed a Pentagram Ritual[46] around the California city of Lancaster in Los Angeles County to protest Mayor R. Rex Parris calling it a Christian city. TST was met with hundreds of protestors. A sky writer was hired to draw a cross over the protest, but ended up looking like an upside down one. The event trended on Twitter. The event was to also support California State Senate candidate Steve Hill who is the first person to run openly as a Satanist.[47] Hill received 13% of the vote, more than one Republican candidate. The Temple issued a video of the event.

After School Satan[edit]

After School Satan is an after school program sponsored by The Satanic Temple. It was created in July 2016 as an alternative to the Christian-based after school group called the Good News Club.[48][49][50]

Los Angeles Satanic Mass[edit]

On January 14, 2017, a week before the Trump presidential inauguration, the Temple hosted what it billed as the largest Satanic gathering in history, hoping to double the attendance of the 2015 gathering in Detroit for the Baphomet unveiling. Film crews from VICE and NatGeo were on hand to document the event. Hard Working Movies is making a feature-length documentary about the Temple. The mass included three parts: Invocation Ritual, Destruction Ritual and a Bloodletting Ritual.[51] Local Los Angeles media was also on hand to cover the event, calling the event "a bloody good time".[52]

Membership[edit]

Membership in The Satanic Temple is free and open to anyone and can be obtained by signing up on the official website.[53] Membership cards can be purchased for $25. Additionally members can apply to join local chapters and according to Draco Ignis and Hofman A Turing, members of the NYC chapter, the requirements for each chapter may differ. "If there’s a local chapter where you are, to join you do have to be accepted, but there’s no initiation or anything. You don’t even have to be a Satanist, you can just be a strong ally who believes in the political and secular actions without being super stoked about all the aesthetic aspects."[54]Membership is subject to renewal, revocation, or termination "for a member’s failure to conduct him or herself in a manner consistent with the spirit of The Satanic Temple and its tenets".[55]

Chapters[edit]

The Temple has chapters across the United States, with large groups in Los Angeles, California and Detroit, Michigan. As of July 2015 they had about 20 chapters.[6][45]

In September 2014, Jex Blackmore launched a chapter of The Satanic Temple in Detroit, Michigan.[56] She held a membership and information booth at the community festival Dally in the Alley, where she reported that she received good support and turnout.[57] On December 21 of that same year the chapter constructed a holiday display for "Snaketivity" on the lawn of the Michigan State Capitol as a way to counteract and protest a nativity scene that was placed on the state grounds only days earlier.[58] The holiday display depicted a snake, a pentagram, a book, and a cross with the words “Knowledge is the Greatest Gift of All” prominently displayed.[58] In 2015 the chapter commented that they were interested in re-erecting the Snaketivity display or a similar live display after learning that United States Senator Ted Cruz planned to host a live nativity scene at the Capitol on December 19.[59]

Blackmore has stated that the chapter has a core group of about 15 to 20 followers, depending on the project, and that "there's another group, depending on the activity or what we're doing, that's about one tier larger -- probably about 50 or more."[57] The chapter does not have a physical office or building and operates primarily out of rented or borrowed spaces along with other locations.[57]

Comparison to LaVeyan Satanism[edit]

Lucien Greaves has described the Temple as being a progressive and updated version of LaVey's Satanism.[60] The Temple sees itself as separate and distinct from LaVeyan Satanists, and feels that its principles and tenets represent "a natural evolution in Satanic thought". Greaves has said that the elements of Social Darwinism and Nietzscheanism within LaVeyan Satanism is incongruent with game theory, reciprocal altruism, and cognitive science.[61] He has also criticized the Church of Satan for its lack of political lobbying and what he sees as their exclusivity, referring to them as autocratic and hierarchical, and saying that the Church fetishizes authoritarianism.[11][14] Conversely, The Church of Satan has made statements claiming that The Satanic Temple are only "masquerading as Satanists"[62] and do not represent Satanism.[63]

Reception[edit]

The Satanic Temple has received criticism for their actions, most notably from religious organizations and figures.[64] Many critics state that they believe that the Temple is not a serious organization and is instead meant to be a prank, form of satire, or elaborate trolling attempt. Greaves and Blackmore have both dismissed these claims, as Greaves stated in a 2013 interview with Vice that the Temple could be both satanic and satirical.[11][not in citation given] Blackmore has also stated that people believe that they are only "trying to cause trouble for no reason except to just be shocking", but the Temple says they are "adding to the dialogue that's already there and asking for rights -- just like anyone else."[57]

Both Greaves and Blackmore have stated that they have received death threats in response to their activities with The Satanic Temple.[57][65]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Satanists emerge as advocate as Planned Parenthood restores Missouri abortion services; Kansas City Star; Lisa Gutierrez; September 13, 2017: "the Satanic Temple, a political activist organization and religion based in Massachusetts."
  2. ^ The Oxford Handbook of New Religious Movements, Volume 2; James R. Lewis, Inga B. Tollefsen; Oxford University Press, 2016; pgs. 441-453
  3. ^ a b c d "Why the Satanic Temple Is Opening Its Doors to American Muslims". Esquire. 2015-11-21. Retrieved 2015-12-02. co-founded the Temple in 2012 ... The Satanic Temple is an openly atheistic religion that Mesner says does not advocate for any supernatural belief. Really, the "Satanic" term is only there because they have the right to use it, as does any other religion. 
  4. ^ "The Satanic Temple to open international headquarters in Salem". Fox 25 News Boston. 2016-09-16. 
  5. ^ "Why Detroit Has the Largest Satanist Temple Chapter in the US". ABC News. 2015-07-28. Retrieved 2015-12-02. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f Oppenheimer, Mark (2015-07-10). "A Mischievous Thorn in the Side of Conservative Christianity". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2015-12-02. 
  7. ^ a b "Trolling Hell: Is the Satanic Temple a Prank, the Start of a New Religious Movement -- or Both?". Village Voice. Retrieved 2015-12-02. 
  8. ^ Ohlheiser, Abby (2015-07-01). "The Satanic Temple's giant statue of a goat-headed god is looking for a home". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2015-12-02. 
  9. ^ "The Satanic Temple Is Suing Missouri Over Its Abortion Law". Vice.com. Vice News. Retrieved 29 November 2015. 
  10. ^ Massoud Hayoun (2013-12-08). "Group aims to put 'Satanist' monument near Oklahoma capitol | Al Jazeera America". Al Jazeera America. Retrieved 2014-03-25. 
  11. ^ a b c Bugbee, Shane (2013-07-30). "Unmasking Lucien Greaves, Leader of the Satanic Temple | VICE United States". Vice.com. Retrieved 2014-03-25. 
  12. ^ When It Comes to The Satanic Temple, Christians Seem to Love Bearing False Witness; Hemant Mehta; Patheos; January 13, 2016
  13. ^ Kutner, Jenny (May 1, 2015). "Satanist challenges Missouri's 72-hour abortion wait: It's "a burden on my sincerely held religious beliefs"". Salon. Retrieved July 11, 2015. 
  14. ^ a b "FAQ". The Satanic Temple. Retrieved 2015-12-02. 
  15. ^ "What does Satan mean to the Satanic Temple? - CNN Video". CNN. Retrieved 2015-12-02. 
  16. ^ a b "Bashir: Satanists hail Florida Gov. Rick Scott". MSNBC. 2013-01-14. 
  17. ^ "The Satanic Temple: About us". The Satanic Temple. The Satanic Temple. Retrieved 29 November 2015. 
  18. ^ "Tenets". The Satanic Temple. Retrieved 2015-12-02. 
  19. ^ Tarico, Valerie (29 November 2015). "The greatest trick the satanists ever pulled: They may be truer to the words of Jesus than most Christians". Salon. 
  20. ^ Stone, Michael (22 January 2016). "Satanic Temple's Seven Tenets Are Morally Superior To Ten Commandments". Patheos.com. 
  21. ^ Kaffer, Nancy (February 17, 2015). "Can the Satanic Temple Save America?". The Daily Beast. Retrieved July 11, 2015. 
  22. ^ a b "Satanic Temple Makes Deceased Westboro Baptists "Gay Forever" In Pink Mass Ceremony". Queerty. Retrieved 2015-12-02. 
  23. ^ "Satanic Temple Turns Westboro Baptist Church Founder's Mom Gay, 'Pink Mass' Performed On Catherine Idalette Johnston [PHOTO]". International Business Times. Retrieved 2015-12-02. 
  24. ^ "More Photos of Fred Phelps' Moms Gravesite". The Gauntlet. Retrieved 2017-11-10. 
  25. ^ a b "Arrest Warrants Issued For Satanists That Performed Ritual At Westboro Gravesite". Queerty. Retrieved 2015-12-02. 
  26. ^ "NY Satanic Temple Wants to Posthumously Make Fred Phelps Gay". Mediaite. Retrieved 2015-12-02. 
  27. ^ "Satanic Group Plans to Turn Westboro Baptist Church Founder Gay in the Afterlife". Christian Post. Retrieved 2015-12-02. 
  28. ^ A Response from the Organizers of the Black Mass; Harvard Political Review; May 11, 2014
  29. ^ Amid outcry, black mass at Harvard is called off; Travis Andersen and Derek J. Anderson; Boston Globe; May 12, 2014
  30. ^ Even after Harvard Group Drops Sponsorship, Black Mass Takes Place at Hong Kong; Theodore R. Delwiche and Alexander H. Patel; The Harvard Crimson; May 12, 2014
  31. ^ a b "Inside the Satanic Temple's Secret Baphomet Monument Unveiling". VICE. Retrieved 2015-12-02. 
  32. ^ a b "Put a Satanic Monument at OK Capitol". Indiegogo. Retrieved 2015-12-02. 
  33. ^ "Protesters: Don't turn Detroit over to Satanists". Detroit Free Press. Retrieved 2015-12-02. 
  34. ^ a b Jenkins, Nash. "Hundreds Gather for Unveiling of Satanic Statue in Detroit". TIME.com. Retrieved 2015-12-02. 
  35. ^ "Protect Children Project". www.protectchildrenproject.com. Retrieved 2015-12-02. 
  36. ^ "The Satanic Temple, Now Wooing Kids and Moms". Vocativ. Retrieved 2015-12-02. 
  37. ^ "Satanic Temple launches school campaign to "protect" children and permit them to pray to Satan". Christian Today. Retrieved 2015-12-02. 
  38. ^ "Satanic Temple launches school anti-spanking campaign in Texas (PHOTO, VIDEO)". RT International. Russia Today. Retrieved 27 March 2017. 
  39. ^ "The Satanic Temple countered Planned Parenthood protests with some guerrilla theatre". Detroit Metro Times. Retrieved 2015-12-02. 
  40. ^ "Satan worshipers drown women with milk in Planned Parenthood counter-protest". Washington Examiner. Retrieved 2015-12-02. 
  41. ^ "Planned Parenthood Supporters: Satanists Drench Women in 'Breast' Milk To Stand Against 'Forced Motherhood' (VIDEO)". Headlines & Global News. 2015-08-26. Retrieved 2015-12-02. 
  42. ^ Zavala-Offman, Alysa (23 April 2016). "The Satanic Temple will interrupt Planned Parenthood protests in classic Satanic Temple fashion". Detroit Metro Times. 
  43. ^ "Satanic Temple offers help to Muslims amid post-Paris backlash". The Washington Times. Retrieved 2015-12-02. 
  44. ^ "Nice try, Pope Francis, but to many, Junipero Serra is no saint". Daily Kos. Retrieved 2015-12-02. 
  45. ^ a b Rylah, Juliet Bennett. "The Satanic Temple Is 'Demonizing' St. Junipero Serra Next Week". LAist. Archived from the original on 2015-10-09. Retrieved 2015-12-02. 
  46. ^ Romero, Dennis (2016-05-26). "Satanists Plan to Celebrate 6/6/16 in L.A." L.A. Weekly. Retrieved 2017-01-14. 
  47. ^ Sanburn, Josh. "He's an Atheist. A Satanist. And He Wants Your Vote". TIME.com. Retrieved 2017-01-14. 
  48. ^ "FAQ". After School Satan. Retrieved 5 January 2017. 
  49. ^ Anderson, Rick. "Yes, an after-school Satan Club could be coming to your kid's grade school". LA Times. Retrieved 5 January 2017. 
  50. ^ "Portland OKs "After School Satan" for elementary kids". CBS News. Retrieved 5 January 2017. 
  51. ^ "Satanic Mass ft. 3teeth, Author & Punisher, Coven of Ashes". www.facebook.com. Retrieved 2017-01-14. 
  52. ^ The Satanic Black Mass was a Bloody Good Time; LA Weekly; January 13, 2017
  53. ^ "The Satanic Temple Join Us". The Satanic Temple. Retrieved 18 January 2018. 
  54. ^ "The Satanic Temple of NYC is Fighting For Your Liberty and Your Uterus". Broke Ass Stuart. Broke Ass Stuart. Retrieved 18 October 2017. 
  55. ^ "The Satanic Temple Join Us". The Satanic Temple. Retrieved 18 January 2018. 
  56. ^ "Satanic Temple launches Detroit chapter; same-sex wedding ceremonies, location in city part of plans". MLive.com. Retrieved 2015-12-02. 
  57. ^ a b c d e "Q&A: Satanic Temple of Detroit's Jex Blackmore explains group's purpose, growth potential". MLive.com. Retrieved 2015-12-02. 
  58. ^ a b "'Snaketivity' display set up at Michigan Capitol draws supporters, opponents". MLive.com. Retrieved 2015-12-02. 
  59. ^ "Satanic Temple to counter Ted Cruz nativity in Lansing". Detroit Free Press. Retrieved 2015-12-03. 
  60. ^ The Invention of Satanism & Dyrendal, Lewis, Petersen 2016, p. 220.
  61. ^ The David Pakman Show, interview with Lucien Greaves (October 9, 2014)
  62. ^ "THIRD SIDE INTELLIGENCE: MISSOURI ABORTIONS". Retrieved 2018-01-18. 
  63. ^ "The Satanic Temple Fact Sheet". Retrieved 2018-01-18. 
  64. ^ "Satanic Temple Group Raising Money for On-Demand Abortions Echos Satanist History of 'Child Sacrifice,' Says Theologian". Christian Post. Retrieved 2015-12-02. 
  65. ^ "Lucien Greaves of the Satanic Temple". Detroit Metro Times. Retrieved 2015-12-02. 

External links[edit]