Flying Spaghetti Monster
|Flying Spaghetti Monster|
|Texts||The Gospel of the Flying Spaghetti Monster, The Loose Canon, the Holy Book of the Church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster|
The Flying Spaghetti Monster (FSM) is the deity of the Church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster, or Pastafarianism, a social movement that promotes a light-hearted view of religion. It originated in opposition to the teaching of intelligent design in public schools. According to adherents, Pastafarianism (a portmanteau of pasta and Rastafarianism) is a "real, legitimate religion, as much as any other". It has received some limited recognition as such.
The "Flying Spaghetti Monster" was first described in a satirical open letter written by Bobby Henderson in 2005 to protest the Kansas State Board of Education decision to permit teaching intelligent design as an alternative to evolution in public school science classes. In the letter, Henderson demanded equal time in science classrooms for "Flying Spaghetti Monsterism", alongside intelligent design and evolution. After Henderson published the letter on his website, the Flying Spaghetti Monster rapidly became an Internet phenomenon and a symbol of opposition to the teaching of intelligent design in public schools.
Pastafarian tenets (generally satires of creationism) are presented on Henderson's Church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster website (where he is described as "prophet"), and are also elucidated in The Gospel of the Flying Spaghetti Monster, written by Henderson in 2006, and in The Loose Canon, the Holy Book of the Church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster. The central creation myth is that an invisible and undetectable Flying Spaghetti Monster created the universe after drinking heavily. Pirates are revered as the original Pastafarians. The FSM community congregates at Henderson's website to share ideas about and sightings of the Flying Spaghetti Monster, and display crafts representing images of it.
Because of its popularity and exposure, the Flying Spaghetti Monster is often used as a more modern version of Russell's teapot—an argument that the philosophic burden of proof lies upon those who make unfalsifiable claims, not on those who reject them. Pastafarians have engaged in disputes with creationists, including in Polk County, Florida, where they played a role in dissuading the local school board from adopting new rules on teaching evolution. Pastafarianism has received praise from the scientific community and criticism from proponents of intelligent design.
In January 2005, Bobby Henderson, a 24-year-old Oregon State University physics graduate, sent an open letter regarding the Flying Spaghetti Monster to the Kansas State Board of Education. In that letter, Henderson satirized creationism by professing his belief that whenever a scientist carbon-dates an object, a supernatural creator that closely resembles spaghetti and meatballs is there "changing the results with His Noodly Appendage". Henderson argued that his beliefs were just as valid as intelligent design, and called for equal time in science classrooms alongside intelligent design and evolution. The letter was sent prior to the Kansas evolution hearings as an argument against the teaching of intelligent design in biology classes. Henderson, describing himself as a "concerned citizen" representing more than ten million others, argued that intelligent design and his belief that "the universe was created by a Flying Spaghetti Monster" were equally valid. In his letter, he noted,
I think we can all look forward to the time when these three theories are given equal time in our science classrooms across the country, and eventually the world; one third time for Intelligent Design, one third time for Flying Spaghetti Monsterism, and one third time for logical conjecture based on overwhelming observable evidence.— Bobby Henderson
According to Henderson, since the intelligent design movement uses ambiguous references to a designer, any conceivable entity may fulfill that role, including a Flying Spaghetti Monster. Henderson explained, "I don't have a problem with religion. What I have a problem with is religion posing as science. If there is a god and he's intelligent, then I would guess he has a sense of humor."
In May 2005, having received no reply from the Kansas State Board of Education, Henderson posted the letter on his website, gaining significant public interest. Shortly thereafter, Pastafarianism became an Internet phenomenon. Henderson published the responses he then received from board members. Three board members, all of whom opposed the curriculum amendments, responded positively; a fourth board member responded with the comment "It is a serious offense to mock God". Henderson has also published the significant amount of hate mail, including death threats, that he has received. Within one year of sending the open letter, Henderson received thousands of emails on the Flying Spaghetti Monster, eventually totaling over 60,000, of which he has said that "about 95 percent have been supportive, while the other five percent have said I am going to hell". During that time, his site garnered tens of millions of hits.
As word of Henderson's challenge to the board spread, his website and cause received more attention and support. The satirical nature of Henderson's argument made the Flying Spaghetti Monster popular with bloggers as well as humor and Internet culture websites. The Flying Spaghetti Monster was featured on websites such as Boing Boing, Something Awful, Uncyclopedia, and Fark. Moreover, an International Society for Flying Spaghetti Monster Awareness and other fan sites emerged. As public awareness grew, the mainstream media picked up on the phenomenon. The Flying Spaghetti Monster became a symbol for the case against intelligent design in public education. The open letter was printed in several major newspapers, including The New York Times, The Washington Post, and Chicago Sun-Times, and received worldwide press attention. Henderson himself was surprised by its success, stating that he "wrote the letter for [his] own amusement as much as anything".
In August 2005, in response to a challenge from a reader, Boing Boing announced a $250,000 prize—later raised to $1,000,000—of "Intelligently Designed currency" payable to any individual who could produce empirical evidence proving that Jesus is not the son of the Flying Spaghetti Monster. It was modeled as a parody of a similar challenge issued by young-earth creationist Kent Hovind.
According to Henderson, newspaper articles on the Flying Spaghetti Monster attracted the attention of book publishers; he said that at one point, there were six publishers interested in the Flying Spaghetti Monster. In November 2005, Henderson received an advance from Villard to write The Gospel of the Flying Spaghetti Monster.
In November 2005, the Kansas State Board of Education voted to allow criticisms of evolution, including language about intelligent design, as part of testing standards. On February 13, 2007, the board voted 6–4 to reject the amended science standards enacted in 2005. This was the fifth time in eight years that the board had rewritten the standards on evolution.
With millions, if not thousands, of devout worshipers, the Church of the FSM is widely considered a legitimate religion, even by its opponents—mostly fundamentalist Christians, who have accepted that our God has larger balls than theirs.
Although Henderson has stated that "the only dogma allowed in the Church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster is the rejection of dogma," some general beliefs are held by Pastafarians. Henderson proposed many Pastafarian tenets in reaction to common arguments by proponents of intelligent design. These "canonical beliefs" are presented by Henderson in his letter to the Kansas State Board of Education, The Gospel of the Flying Spaghetti Monster, and on Henderson's website, where he is described as a "prophet." They tend to satirize creationism.
The central creation myth is that an invisible and undetectable Flying Spaghetti Monster created the universe "after drinking heavily." According to these beliefs, the Monster's intoxication was the cause for a flawed Earth. Furthermore, according to Pastafarianism, all evidence for evolution was planted by the Flying Spaghetti Monster in an effort to test the faith of Pastafarians—parodying certain biblical literalists. When scientific measurements such as radiocarbon dating are taken, the Flying Spaghetti Monster "is there changing the results with His Noodly Appendage."
The Pastafarian conception of Heaven includes a beer volcano and a stripper (or sometimes prostitute or paint stripper) factory. The Pastafarian Hell is similar, except that the beer is stale and the strippers have sexually transmitted diseases.
Pirates and global warming
According to Pastafarian beliefs, pirates are "absolute divine beings" and the original Pastafarians. Furthermore, Pastafarians believe that the concept of pirates as "thieves and outcasts" is misinformation spread by Christian theologians in the Middle Ages. Instead, Pastafarians believe that they were "peace-loving explorers and spreaders of good will" who distributed candy to small children, adding that modern pirates are in no way similar to "the fun-loving buccaneers from history." In addition, Pastafarians believe that ghost pirates are responsible for all of the mysteriously lost ships and planes of the Bermuda Triangle. Pastafarians are among those who celebrate International Talk Like a Pirate Day on September 19.
The inclusion of pirates in Pastafarianism was part of Henderson's original letter to the Kansas State Board of Education, in an effort to illustrate that correlation does not imply causation. Henderson presented the argument that "global warming, earthquakes, hurricanes, and other natural disasters are a direct effect of the shrinking numbers of pirates since the 1800s." A deliberately misleading graph accompanying the letter (with numbers humorously disordered on the x-axis) shows that as the number of pirates decreased, global temperatures increased. This parodies the suggestion from some religious groups that the high numbers of disasters, famines, and wars in the world is due to the lack of respect and worship toward their deity. In 2008, Henderson interpreted the growing pirate activities at the Gulf of Aden as additional support, pointing out that Somalia has "the highest number of pirates and the lowest carbon emissions of any country."
Pastafarian beliefs extend into lighthearted religious ceremony. Pastafarians celebrate every Friday as a holy day. Prayers are concluded with a final declaration of affirmation, "R'amen" (or "rAmen"); the term is a parodic portmanteau of the terms "Amen" and "Ramen", referring to a Japanese noodle dish and to the "noodly appendages" of their deity. The celebration of "Pastover" requires consuming large amounts of pasta, and during "Ramendan," only Ramen noodles are consumed; International Talk Like a Pirate Day is observed as a holiday.
Around the time of Christmas, Hanukkah, and Kwanzaa, Pastafarians celebrate a vaguely defined holiday named "Holiday." Holiday does not take place on "a specific date so much as it is the Holiday season, itself." According to Henderson, as Pastafarians "reject dogma and formalism," there are no specific requirements for Holiday. Pastafarians celebrate Holiday in any manner they please. Pastafarians interpret the increasing usage of "Happy Holidays," rather than more traditional greetings (such as "Merry Christmas"), as support for Pastafarianism. In December 2005, George W. Bush's White House Christmas greeting cards wished people a happy "holiday season," leading Henderson to write the President a note of thanks, including a "fish" emblem depicting the Flying Spaghetti Monster for his limousine or plane. Henderson also thanked Walmart for its use of the phrase.
The Gospel of the Flying Spaghetti Monster
In December 2005 Bobby Henderson received a reported US$80,000 advance from Villard to write The Gospel of the Flying Spaghetti Monster. Henderson said he planned to use proceeds from the book to build a pirate ship, with which he would spread the Pastafarian religion. The book was released on March 28, 2006, and elaborates on Pastafarian beliefs established in the open letter. Henderson employs satire to present perceived flaws with evolutionary biology and discusses history and lifestyle from a Pastafarian perspective. The gospel urges readers to try Pastafarianism for thirty days, saying, "If you don't like us, your old religion will most likely take you back". Henderson states on his website that more than 100,000 copies of the book have been sold.
Scientific American described the gospel as "an elaborate spoof on Intelligent Design" and "very funny". In 2006, it was nominated for the Quill Award in Humor, but was not selected as the winner. Wayne Allen Brenner of The Austin Chronicle characterized the book as "a necessary bit of comic relief in the overly serious battle between science and superstition". Simon Singh of The Daily Telegraph wrote that the gospel "might be slightly repetitive...but overall it is a brilliant, provocative, witty and important gem of a book".
Casey Luskin of the Discovery Institute, which advocates intelligent design, labeled the gospel "a mockery of the Christian New Testament".
The Loose Canon
In September 2005, before Henderson had received an advance to write the Gospel of the Flying Spaghetti Monster, a Pastafarian member of the Venganza forums known as Solipsy, announced the beginning of a project to collect texts from fellow Pastafarians to compile into The Loose Canon, the Holy Book of the Church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster, essentially analogous to the Bible. The book was completed in 2010 and was made available for download.
Some excerpts from The Loose Canon include:
I am the Flying Spaghetti Monster. Thou shalt have no other monsters before Me (Afterwards is OK; just use protection). The only Monster who deserves capitalization is Me! Other monsters are false monsters, undeserving of capitalization.— Suggestions 1:1
"Since you have done a half-ass job, you will receive half an ass!" The Great Pirate Solomon grabbed his ceremonial scimitar and struck his remaining donkey, cleaving it in two.— Slackers 1:51–52
The New Testament of The Flying Spaghetti Monster; Dinner 2.0: The New and Improved Recipe!
The New Testament of The Flying Spaghetti Monster: Dinner 2.0 (also known as the New and Improved Recipe) was published on June 1, 2018. It is the Holy Book of The Unitarian Church of Pasta and The FSM Revival Church of Ziti.
Some excerpts from The New Testament of The Flying Spaghetti Monster: Dinner 2.0 include:
We need never doubt our Divine Carbohydrate, for even our DNA is shaped like a noodle so we know that pasta is holy— Book One: The Holy Book of Lasagna
It's Better If You Do's
- . It's Better If You Find A Thing You Are Good At
- . It's Better If You Live in Harmony With the World
- . It's Better If You Make Art
- . It's Better If You Lead An Untethered Life
- . It's Better If You Work Together
It's Better If You Don't's
- . It's Better If You Don't Put People In Cages
- . It's Better If You Don't Work Too Much
- . It's Better If You Don't Value Possessions
- . It's Better If You Don't Hurt Others
- . It's Better If You Don't Censor Things— Book Four: The Holy Book of Tortellini
As a cultural phenomenon
The Church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster consisted of thousands of followers, primarily concentrated on college campuses in North America and Europe. According to the Associated Press, Henderson's website has become "a kind of cyber-watercooler for opponents of intelligent design". On it, visitors track meetings of pirate-clad Pastafarians, sell trinkets and bumper stickers, and sample photographs that show "visions" of the Flying Spaghetti Monster.
In August 2005,[failed verification] the Swedish concept designer Niklas Jansson created an adaptation of Michelangelo's The Creation of Adam, superimposing the Flying Spaghetti Monster over God. This became and remains the Flying Spaghetti Monster's de facto brand image. The Hunger Artists Theatre Company produced a comedy called The Flying Spaghetti Monster Holiday Pageant in December 2006, detailing the history of Pastafarianism. The production has spawned a sequel called Flying Spaghetti Monster Holy Mug of Grog, performed in December 2008. This communal activity attracted the attention of three University of Florida religious scholars, who assembled a panel at the 2007 American Academy of Religion meeting to discuss the Flying Spaghetti Monster.
In November 2007, four talks about the Flying Spaghetti Monster were delivered at the American Academy of Religion's annual meeting in San Diego. The talks, with titles such as Holy Pasta and Authentic Sauce: The Flying Spaghetti Monster's Messy Implications for Theorizing Religion, examined the elements necessary for a group to constitute a religion. Speakers inquired whether "an anti-religion like Flying Spaghetti Monsterism [is] actually a religion". The talks were based on the paper, Evolutionary Controversy and a Side of Pasta: The Flying Spaghetti Monster and the Subversive Function of Religious Parody, published in the GOLEM Journal of Religion and Monsters. The panel garnered an audience of one hundred of the more than 9,000 conference attendees, and conference organizers received critical e-mails from Christians offended by it.
Since October 2008, the local chapter of the Church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster has sponsored an annual convention called Skepticon on the campus of Missouri State University. Atheists and skeptics give speeches on various topics, and a debate with Christian experts is held. Organizers tout the event as the "largest gathering of atheists in the Midwest".
The Moldovan-born poet, fiction writer, and culturologist Igor Ursenco entitled his 2012 poetry book The Flying Spaghetti Monster (thriller poems).
On the nonprofit microfinancing site, Kiva, the Flying Spaghetti Monster group is in an ongoing competition to top all other "religious congregations" in the number of loans issued via their team. The group's motto is "Thou shalt share, that none may seek without funding", an allusion to the Loose Canon which states "Thou shalt share, that none may seek without finding." As of October 2018[update] it reported to have funded US$4,002,350 in loans.
Bathyphysa conifera, a Siphonophorae, has been called "Flying Spaghetti Monster" in reference to the FSM.
The 2019 documentary I, Pastafari examines the Church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster and its fight for legal recognition.
In September 2019, the Pastafarian pastor Barrett Fletcher offered an opening prayer on behalf of the Church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster at an Assembly meeting of the local government in Kenai Peninsula Borough, Alaska.
Use in religious disputes
Owing to its popularity and media exposure, the Flying Spaghetti Monster is often used as a modern version of Russell's teapot. Proponents argue that, since the existence of the invisible and undetectable Flying Spaghetti Monster—similar to other proposed supernatural beings—cannot be falsified, it demonstrates that the burden of proof rests on those who affirm the existence of such beings. Richard Dawkins explains, "The onus is on somebody who says, I want to believe in God, Flying Spaghetti Monster, fairies, or whatever it is. It is not up to us to disprove it." Furthermore, according to Lance Gharavi, an editor of The Journal of Religion and Theater, the Flying Spaghetti Monster is "ultimately...an argument about the arbitrariness of holding any one view of creation", since any one view is as plausible as the Flying Spaghetti Monster. A similar argument was discussed in the books The God Delusion and The Atheist Delusion.
In December 2007 the Church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster was credited with spearheading successful efforts in Polk County, Florida, to dissuade the Polk County School Board from adopting new science standards on evolution. The issue was raised after five of the seven board members declared a personal belief in intelligent design. Opponents describing themselves as Pastafarians e-mailed members of the Polk County School Board demanding equal instruction time for the Flying Spaghetti Monster. Board member Margaret Lofton, who supported intelligent design, dismissed the e-mail as ridiculous and insulting, stating, "they've made us the laughing stock of the world". Lofton later stated that she had no interest in engaging with the Pastafarians or anyone else seeking to discredit intelligent design. As the controversy developed, scientists expressed opposition to intelligent design. In response to hopes for a new "applied science" campus at the University of South Florida in Lakeland, university vice president Marshall Goodman expressed surprise, stating, "[intelligent design is] not science. You can't even call it pseudo-science." While unhappy with the outcome, Lofton chose not to resign over the issue. She and the other board members expressed a desire to return to the day-to-day work of running the school district.
National branches of the Church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster have been striving in many countries to have Pastafarianism become an officially (legally) recognized religion, with varying degrees of success. In New Zealand, Pastafarian representatives have been authorized as marriage celebrants, as the movement satisfies criteria laid down for organisations that primarily promote religious, philosophical, or humanitarian convictions.
A federal court in the US state of Nebraska ruled that Flying Spaghetti Monster is a satirical parody religion, rather than an actual religion, and as a result, Pastafarians are not entitled to religious accommodation under the Religious Land Use and Institutionalized Persons Act:
"This is not a question of theology", the ruling reads in part. "The FSM Gospel is plainly a work of satire, meant to entertain while making a pointed political statement. To read it as religious doctrine would be little different from grounding a 'religious exercise' on any other work of fiction."
Pastafarians have used their claimed faith as a test case to argue for freedom of religion, and to oppose government discrimination against people who do not follow a recognized religion.
The Church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster operates an ordination mill on their website which enables officiates in jurisdictions where credentials are needed to officiate weddings. Pastafarians say that in jurisdictions where church and state are separated the government is precluded from arbitrarily labelling one denomination religiously valid but another an ordination mill. In November 2014, Rodney Michael Rogers and Minneapolis-based Atheists for Human Rights sued Washington County, Minnesota under the Fourteenth Amendment equal protection clause and the First Amendment free speech clause, with their attorney claiming discrimination against atheists: "When the statute clearly permits recognition of a marriage celebrant whose religious credentials consist of nothing more than a $20 'ordination' obtained from the Church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster... the requirement is absolutely meaningless in terms of ensuring the qualifications of a marriage celebrant." A few days before a hearing on the matter, Washington County changed its policy to authorise Rogers to officiate weddings. This action was done in an effort to deny the court jurisdiction on the underlying claim. On May 13, 2015 the Federal Court held that the issue had become moot, and dismissed the case. The first legally recognized Pastafarian wedding was celebrated in New Zealand on April 16, 2016.
In March 2007, Bryan Killian, a high school student in Buncombe County, North Carolina, was suspended for wearing "pirate regalia" which he said was part of his Pastafarian faith. Killian protested the suspension, saying it violated his First Amendment rights to religious freedom and freedom of expression. "If this is what I believe in, no matter how stupid it might sound, I should be able to express myself however I want to", he said.
In March 2008, Pastafarians in Crossville, Tennessee, were permitted to place a Flying Spaghetti Monster statue in a free speech zone on the courthouse lawn, and proceeded to do so. The display gained national interest on blogs and online news sites and was even covered by Rolling Stone magazine. It was later removed from the premises, along with all the other long-term statues, as a result of the controversy over the statue. In December 2011, Pastafarianism was one of the multiple denominations given equal access to placing holiday displays on the Loudoun County courthouse lawn, in Leesburg, Virginia.
In 2012, Tracy McPherson of the Pennsylvanian Pastafarians petitioned the Chester County, Pennsylvania Commissioners to allow representation of the FSM at the county courthouse, equally with a Jewish menorah and a Christian nativity scene. One commissioner stated that either all religions should be allowed or no religion should be represented, but without support from the other commissioners the motion was rejected. Another commissioner stated that this petition garnered more attention than any he had seen before.
On September 21, 2012, Pastafarian Giorgos Loizos was arrested in Greece on charges of malicious blasphemy and offense of religion for the creation of a satirical Facebook page called "Elder Pastitsios", based on a well-known deceased Greek Orthodox monk, Elder Paisios, where his name and face were substituted with pastitsio – a local pasta and béchamel sauce dish. The case, which started as a Facebook flame, reached the Greek Parliament and created a strong political reaction to the arrest.
In August 2013, Christian Orthodox religious activists from an unregistered group known as "God's Will" attacked a peaceful rally that Russian Pastafarians had organized. Activists as well as police knocked some rally participants to the ground. Police arrested and charged eight of the Pastafarians with attempting to hold an unsanctioned rally. One of the Pastafarians later complained that they were arrested "just for walking".
In February 2014, student union officials at London South Bank University forbade an atheist group from displaying posters of the Flying Spaghetti Monster at a student orientation conference, and later banned the group from the conference, leading to complaints about interference with free speech. The students' union subsequently apologized.
In November 2014, the Church of the FSM obtained city signage in Templin, Germany, announcing the time of Friday's weekly Nudelmesse ("pasta mass"), alongside signage for various Catholic and Protestant Sunday services. However, a decision by the regional court in Frankfurt an der Oder forced the Pastafari to take down their signs.
Headgear in identity photos
Origins and overview
In July 2011, Austrian pastafarian Niko Alm won the legal right to be shown in his driving license photo wearing a pasta strainer on his head, after three years spent pursuing permission and obtaining an examination certifying that he was psychologically fit to drive. He got the idea after reading that Austrian regulations allow headgear in official photos only when it is worn for religious reasons. Some sources report that the colander in the form of pasta strainer, was recognised by Austrian authorities as a religious headgear of Pastafarianism in 2011. This was denied by Austrian authorities, saying that religious motives were not the reason to grant the permission of wearing the headgear in a passport.
Alm's initiative has since been replicated in several (mostly Western) countries around the world, with mixed successes. Many national or subnational authorities (such as U.S. states) granted driver's licences, identity cards or passports featuring photos of citizens wearing a colander, while other authorities rejected applications on grounds that either Pastafarianism was 'not a (real) religion' and reflected satire rather than sincerity or seriousness, or that wearing a colander could not be demonstrated to be a religious obligation as other head-covering items were claimed to be in other religions, such as the hijab in Islam and the kippah/yarmulke in Judaism. Applicants and their attorneys retorted by arguing – also with mixed successes – that Pastafarianism did constitute a real religion, or that it was not up to the government to decide what qualifies as a religion, nor whether certain religious beliefs are valid or invalid, nor whether certain practices within religions had the status of obligation, established doctrine, recommendation, or personal choice. Moreover, some Pastafarians argued, satire and parody themselves are or could be a religious practice or an integral part of a religion such as Pastafarianism, and the government has no right to decide which beliefs should be taken seriously and which should not, and that it is only up to the individual believers themselves to decide which elements of their religion to take seriously, and to what degree.
On August 9, 2011 the chairman of the church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster Germany, Rüdiger Weida, obtained a driver's license with a picture of him wearing a pirate bandana. In contrast with the reasons given by the Austrian officials in the case of Niko Alm, the German officials allowed the headgear as a religious exception.
Some anti-clerical protesters wore colanders to Piazza XXIV Maggio square in Milan, Italy, on June 2, 2012, in mock obedience to the Flying Spaghetti Monster.
In March 2013 a Belgian's identity photos were refused by the local and national administrations because he wore a pasta strainer on his head.
The Czech Republic recognised Pastafarian religious headgear in 2013. In July that year, Lukáš Nový, a member of the Czech Pirate Party from Brno was given permission to wear a pasta strainer on his head for the photograph on his official Czech Republic ID card.
A man's Irish driving licence photograph including a colander was rejected by the Road Safety Authority (RSA) in December 2013. In March 2016, an Equality Officer of the Workplace Relations Commission reviewed the RSA's decision under the Equal Rights Acts and upheld it, on the basis that the complaint did "not come within the definition of religion and/or religious belief".
In January 2016 Russian Pastafarian Andrei Filin got a driver's license with his photo in a colander.
In the Netherlands, Dirk Jan Dijkstra applied for a Dutch passport c. 2015 using a colander on his identity photo, which was rejected by the municipality of Emmen, after which Dijkstra successfully registered the Church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster as a church association (kerkgenootschap) at the – initially hesitant – Dutch Chamber of Commerce in January 2016. However, the municipality continued rejecting his application, arguing that registering as a church association did not mean that Pastafarianism was now a (recognised) religion, leading Dijkstra to sue the municipality for discrimination, and gathering dozens of colander-wearing FSM Church members and sympathisers at the trial in Groningen on July 7, 2016. Meanwhile, other Pastafarians succeeded in obtaining colander-featuring passports and driver's licences from the municipalities of Leiden and The Hague. On August 1, 2016, the Groningen court ruled that, although Pastafarianism is a life stance, it is not a religion, nor is there a duty in Pastafarianism to wear the colander, and therefore the religious exemption to the prohibition on wearing headgear in identity photos did not apply to Pastafarians. In January 2017, Nijmegen Pastafarian and law student Mienke de Wilde petitioned the Arnhem court to be allowed to wear a colander in her driver's licence photo. She lost the petition, both at first instance in February 2017 and on appeal at the Council of State in August 2018.
In February 2013, a Pastafarian was denied the right to wear a spaghetti strainer on his head for his driver's license photo by the New Jersey Motor Vehicle Commission, which stated that a pasta strainer was not on a list of approved religious headwear.
In August 2013 Eddie Castillo, a student at Texas Tech University, got approval to wear a pasta strainer on his head in his driver's license photo. He said, "You might think this is some sort of a gag or prank by a college student, but thousands, including myself, see it as a political and religious milestone for all atheists everywhere."
In January 2014 a member of the Pomfret, New York Town Council wore a colander while taking the oath of office.
In November 2014 former adult film star Asia Carrera obtained an identity photo with the traditional Pastafarian headgear from a Department of Motor Vehicles office in Hurricane, Utah. The director of Utah's Driver License Division says that about a dozen Pastafarians have had their state driver's license photos taken with a similar pasta strainer over the years.
In November 2015 Massachusetts resident Lindsay Miller was allowed to wear a colander on her head in her driver's license photo after she cited her religious beliefs. Miller (who resides in Lowell) said on Friday, November 13 that she "absolutely loves the history and the story" of Pastafarians, whose website says has existed in secrecy for hundreds of years and entered the mainstream in 2005. Ms. Miller was represented in her quest by The American Humanist Association's Appignani Humanist Legal Center.
In February 2016, a man from Madison, Wisconsin won a legal struggle against the state, which, reasoning that Pastafarianism was not a religion, had initially refused him a colander photo on his driver's licence. The man's attorney successfully defended his request on the basis of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, arguing that it was 'not up to the government to decide what qualifies as a religion'.
After the Drivers Services of Schaumburg, Illinois initially granted Rachel Hoover, a student at Northern Illinois University, a colander-featuring photo in her driver's licence in June 2016, the Illinois Secretary of State's office overturned the decision in July 2016, stating that such a photo was 'incorrect' and a new one had to be taken before her old licence expired on 29 July. The office did not recognise Pastafarianism as a religion, with a spokesperson saying 'If you look into their history, it's more of a mockery of religion than a practice itself'. Hoover lodged a religious discrimination complaint with the American Civil Liberties Union, but was unsure to pursue further legal action since it did not fit into her college budget. Previously, Pastafarian David Hoover from Pekin, Illinois had his request for a driving license featuring a colander picture rejected in May 2013.
In June 2017, Sean Corbett from Chandler, Arizona succeeded in obtaining a driver's license with a colander picture after trying several Arizona motor vehicle locations for two years.
In October 2019, the Ohio Bureau of Motor Vehicles rejected a Cincinnati man's driver's license colander photo, saying its policy allows people to wear religious head coverings in driver's licence photos only if they wear them in public in daily life.
Commonwealth of Nations
In June 2014 a New Zealand man called Russell, an ordained minister obtained a driver's license with a photograph of himself wearing a blue spaghetti strainer on his head. This was granted under a law allowing the wearing of religious headgear in official photos.
In October 2014, Obi Canuel, an ordained minister in the Church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster residing in Surrey, British Columbia, Canada, effectively lost his right to drive. After initially refusing Canuel's request for a licence renewal in autumn 2013 because he insisted on wearing a colander on the photo, the Insurance Corporation of British Columbia granted him temporary driving permits while it was considering whether to definitively reject or grant his request. ICBC claimed their October 2014 definitive refusal was based on the fact that it would only 'accommodate customers with head coverings where their faith prohibits them from removing it', and that 'Mr. Canuel was not able to provide us with any evidence that he cannot remove his head covering for his photo'.
The states of Australia have differed in dealing with applications for official documents featuring colander photos. Sydney science student Preshalin Moodley got a provisional driver's licence from New South Wales in September 2014, while Brisbane tradesman Simon Leadbetter was denied a licence renewal by Queensland's Department of Transport and Main Roads the same month. Earlier in 2014, South Australia refused Adelaide resident Guy Ablon a gun licence with a photo of him wearing a colander; the authorities even seized his legally obtained guns, questioned his religion and forced him to undergo a psychiatric evaluation before his weapons were returned. State of Victoria issued the first strainer-featuring driver's licence in November 2016.
With regard to Henderson's 2005 open letter, according to Justin Pope of the Associated Press:
Between the lines, the point of the letter was this: there's no more scientific basis for intelligent design than there is for the idea an omniscient creature made of pasta created the universe. If intelligent design supporters could demand equal time in a science class, why not anyone else? The only reasonable solution is to put nothing into sciences classes but the best available science.
Pope praised the Flying Spaghetti Monster as "a clever and effective argument". Simon Singh reviewing The Gospel of the Flying Spaghetti Monster for The Daily Telegraph described the Flying Spaghetti Monster as "a masterstroke, which underlined the absurdity of Intelligent Design", and applauded Henderson for "galvanis[ing] a defence of science and rationality". Sarah Boxer of The New York Times said that Henderson "has wit on his side". In addition, the Flying Spaghetti Monster was mentioned in an article footnote of the Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review as an example of evolution "enter[ing] the fray in popular culture", which the author deemed necessary for evolution to prevail over intelligent design. The abstract of the paper, Evolutionary Controversy and a Side of Pasta: The Flying Spaghetti Monster and the Subversive Function of Religious Parody, describes the Flying Spaghetti Monster as "a potent example of how monstrous humor can be used as a popular tool of carnivalesque subversion". Its author praised Pastafarianism for its "epistemological humility". Moreover, Henderson's website contains numerous endorsements from the scientific community. As Jack Schofield of The Guardian noted, "The joke, of course, is that it's arguably more rational than Intelligent Design."
Conservative columnist Jeff Jacoby wrote in The Boston Globe that intelligent design "isn't primitivism or Bible-thumping or flying spaghetti. It's science." This view of science, however, was rejected by the United States National Academy of Sciences. Peter Gallings of Answers in Genesis, a Young Earth Creationist ministry said, "Ironically enough, Pastafarians, in addition to mocking God himself, are lampooning the Intelligent Design Movement for not identifying a specific deity—that is, leaving open the possibility that a spaghetti monster could be the intelligent designer... Thus, the satire is possible because the Intelligent Design Movement hasn't affiliated with a particular religion, exactly the opposite of what its other critics claim!"
- Church of the SubGenius
- Creation and evolution in public education
- Evolution as fact and theory
- Intelligent falling
- Invisible Pink Unicorn
- Missionary Church of Kopimism
- Reductio ad absurdum
- ^ Jansson, Arne Niklas. "Touched by His Noodly Appendage". Android Arts. Retrieved November 25, 2012.
- ^ "Profile of Arne Niklas Jansson". Android Arts. Retrieved November 25, 2012.
- ^ "Pastafarian can wear strainer on head in license photo". USA Today.
- ^ a b c d e Henderson, Bobby. "About". The Church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster. Retrieved August 10, 2012.
- ^ a b Jones, Nicholas (February 26, 2016). "First Pastafarian celebrant can help couples get noodley knotted". New Zealand Herald. Retrieved June 24, 2016.
- ^ a b c "NZ approves Pastafarian marriages". BBC News. December 16, 2015.
- ^ "New Zealand stages first Pastafarian wedding on pirate boat". BBC. April 16, 2016. Retrieved April 16, 2016.
- ^ Wofford, Taylor (April 13, 2016). "Flying Spaghetti Monster Not Divine, Says Court". Newsweek. Retrieved May 3, 2019.
- ^ a b Henley, Jon (August 16, 2018). "Spaghetti injunction: Pastafarianism is not a religion, Dutch court rules". The Guardian. Retrieved August 16, 2018.
- ^ a b c d e "In the beginning there was the Flying Spaghetti Monster". The Daily Telegraph. London. September 11, 2005. Archived from the original on January 11, 2022. Retrieved December 19, 2009.
- ^ a b c d e f g Henderson, Bobby (2005). "Open Letter To Kansas School Board". Venganza.org. Archived from the original on April 7, 2007.
- ^ a b c d e f Boxer, Sarah (August 29, 2005). "But Is There Intelligent Spaghetti Out There?". The New York Times Arts article. Retrieved February 5, 2007.
- ^ a b "Austrian Pastafarian dons colander as religious headgear for drivers license". english.alarabiya.net. 2011. Archived from the original on July 18, 2011.
- ^ a b Billy Townsend (March 27, 2013). "Polk Needled, Noodled In Evolution Flap". The Tampa Tribune. Archived from the original on July 4, 2018. Retrieved September 7, 2016.
- ^ a b "Discussion of the Open Letter". Henderson, Bobby. Retrieved April 7, 2007.
- ^ Carole M. Cusack (September 15, 2010). Invented Religions: Imagination, Fiction and Faith. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 113. ISBN 978-0-7546-6780-3.
- ^ "Verbatim: Noodle This, Kansas". The Washington Post. August 28, 2005.
- ^ Page, Clarence (November 15, 2005). "Keeping ID out of science classes". The Dallas Morning News. Archived from the original on June 4, 2008.
- ^ a b c d e f g Vergano, Dan (March 27, 2006). ""Spaghetti Monster" is noodling around with faith". USA Today Science & Space article. Retrieved February 5, 2007.
- ^ a b c d Pitts, Russ (September 16, 2005). "In His Name We Pray, Ramen". Escapist magazine. Archived from the original on October 31, 2013. Retrieved November 26, 2009.
- ^ "Kansas School Board Responses to the Open Letter". Henderson, Bobby. June 25, 2005. Retrieved January 9, 2006.
- ^ "The Flying Spaghetti Monster". h2g2. BBC. February 1, 2007. Retrieved November 26, 2009.
- ^ Frauenfelder, Mark (July 31, 2006). "FSM hate mail". BoingBoing. Retrieved December 31, 2009.
- ^ Scrivener, Leslie (January 7, 2007). "In praise of an alternate creation theory: The Church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster gains infamy and faith". Toronto Star. Retrieved December 31, 2009.
- ^ a b c d Henderson, Bobby (August 2006). "Comment on the Open Letter". Church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster. Retrieved December 30, 2009.
- ^ "DIY Flying Spaghetti Monster bumper sticker". Archived from the original on November 26, 2005.
- ^ "Flying Spaghetti Monster bumper sticker, Version 1.1". Archived from the original on August 22, 2005.
- ^ "A Tangled Tale of a Pasta-based Prophet". Der Spiegel. August 24, 2005. Retrieved September 8, 2007.
[FSM] has certainly caught the imagination of the online community [...] Henderson receives over 150 emails from supporters every day.
- ^ a b Narizny, Laurel (October 2009). Ha Ha, Only Serious: A Preliminary Study of Joke Religions. Department of Religious Studies And the Honors College of the University of Oregon (Thesis). University of Oregon. pp. 42–49. Retrieved November 25, 2009.
- ^ "The Flying Spaghetti Monster". New Scientist. August 6, 2005. Archived from the original on October 5, 2008.
- ^ Rothschild, Scott (August 24, 2005). "Evolution debate creates monster". Lawrence Journal-World.
- ^ a b c d Singh, Simon (September 3, 2006). "Was the world created by god, evolution or pasta?". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on January 11, 2022. Retrieved November 28, 2009.
- ^ "Boing Boing's $250,000 Intelligent Design challenge". BoingBoing.net. August 19, 2005. Retrieved June 11, 2006.
- ^ Kent Hovind. "Dr. Hovind's $250,000 Offer". Retrieved March 14, 2012.
- ^ a b Wolff, Eric (November 16, 2005). "The Case For Intelligent Design: Spaghetti as the Creator". New York.
- ^ Slevin, Peter (November 9, 2005). "Kansas Education Board First to Back "Intelligent Design"". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 2, 2010.
- ^ "Kansas board boosts evolution education". NBC News. February 14, 2007.
- ^ Thierman, Jessica (September 18, 2005). "Touched by his Noodly Appendage". Gelf Magazine.
- ^ a b DuBay, Tim (2005). "Guide to Pastafarianism" (Shockwave Flash). Retrieved August 26, 2006.
- ^ a b c Van Horn, Gavin; Lucas Johnston (2007). "Evolutionary Controversy and a Side of Pasta: The Flying Spaghetti Monster and the Subversive Function of Religious Parody". GOLEM: Journal of Religion and Monsters. 2 (1).
- ^ Carrier, Richard (July 25, 2013). "Reformed Pastafarianism". Richard carrier.
- ^ The Gospel of the Flying Spaghetti Monster, p.83.
- ^ The Gospel of the Flying Spaghetti Monster, p.124.
- ^ a b Savino, John; Marie D. Jones (2007). "Wrath of the Gods". Supervolcano: The Catastrophic Event That Changed the Course of Human History: Could Yellowstone Be Next. Career Press. p. 56. ISBN 978-1-56414-953-4. Retrieved November 25, 2009.
- ^ "Somalia — Lots of pirates, low carbon emissions". www.venganza.org. April 14, 2008. Retrieved December 10, 2008.
- ^ Ellis, Iain (August 3, 2018). Humorists vs. Religion: Critical Voices from Mark Twain to Neil DeGrasse Tyson. McFarland. p. 207. ISBN 978-1-4766-3401-2.
- ^ "RD Magazine". July 18, 2011.
- ^ a b Henderson, Bobby (December 1, 2006). "Happy Holiday Season Everyone". Church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster. Retrieved November 25, 2009.
- ^ Cooperman, Alan (December 7, 2005). "'Holiday' Cards Ring Hollow for Some on Bushes' List". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 25, 2009.
- ^ Henderson, Bobby (December 2006). "FSM Card for Bush". Church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster. Retrieved November 25, 2009.
- ^ The Gospel of the Flying Spaghetti Monster, p.125.
- ^ Craig, Katleen (December 22, 2005). "Passion of the Spaghetti Monster". Wired News.
- ^ "The Gospel of the Flying Spaghetti Monster". Random House. 2009. Archived from the original on July 23, 2012.
- ^ a b Brenner, Wayne (April 14, 2006). "The Gospel of the Flying Spaghetti Monster". The Austin Chronicle. Retrieved October 18, 2009.
- ^ The Gospel of the Flying Spaghetti Monster, p.xiv.
- ^ a b Henderson, Bobby (2006). "The FSM Book". Church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster. Venganza.org. Archived from the original on April 27, 2010.
- ^ Luskin, Casey (December 25, 2006). ""Celebrating" Christmas at the "Church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster"". Evolution News & Views. Discovery Institute. Retrieved November 26, 2009.
- ^ "The Big Announcement". Venganza.org. 2005. Archived from the original on April 27, 2010.
- ^ The Most Inspired DaveL (2010). "The Loose Canon, A Really Important Collection of Words" (PDF). Evangelical Pastafarian Church. Retrieved January 9, 2014.
- ^ "Unitarian Church of Pasta". Unitarian Church of Pasta.
- ^ "The FSM Revival Church of Ziti". The FSM Revival Church of Ziti.
- ^ a b c d Pope, Justin (November 16, 2007). "Pasta monster gets academic attention". NBC News. Associated Press. Retrieved October 25, 2009.
- ^ a b "Religious Scholars to Discuss 'Flying Spaghetti Monster'". Fox News. Associated Press. November 16, 2007. Retrieved November 26, 2009.
- ^ "The Flying Spaghetti Monster Holiday Pageant". Hunger Artists Theatre Company. December 2006. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007.
- ^ "Hunger Artists Theatre Company's 2008 Season". Hunger Artists Theatre Company. November 2007. Archived from the original on May 28, 2008.
- ^ "Flying Spaghetti Monster Inspires Wonky Religious Debate". Wired. Associated Press. November 20, 2007. Retrieved May 4, 2010.
- ^ Dotinga, Randy (November 20, 2007). "Flying Spaghetti Monster Inspires Wonky Religious Debate". Wired Magazine. San Diego. Archived from the original on December 2, 2009.
- ^ "About the Event". Skepticon Productions. Springfield, MO: Missouri State Church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster. 2009. Archived from the original on March 18, 2009.
- ^ "Atheists to gather at MSU for Skepticon this weekend". The News Leader. November 19, 2009. Archived from the original on August 17, 2014.
- ^ "Kiva - Kiva Lending Team: Church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster". Kiva.
- ^ "The Random Number of Not Commandments, Suggestions". Loose-canon.info. The Loose Canon. Retrieved April 24, 2017.
- ^ Jones, Brent (July 31, 2009). "Atheists, 'Monster' fans say No to God, Yes to giving". USA Today. Retrieved December 27, 2009.
Sort by 'Religious Congregations' to find that, topping Kiva Mormons ($57,425) and Kiva Catholics ($59,625) is the squadron devoted to The Flying Spaghetti Monster ($81,725) who sign on to give because 'Thou shalt share, that none may seek without finding.'
- ^ "Kiva Lending Team: Church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster". Kiva. Retrieved September 7, 2016. Loans, updated hourly.
- ^ "F*cking Strange Creature Discovered, Researchers Dub It 'The Flying Spaghetti Monster'". Viralthread.com. August 17, 2015. Archived from the original on August 17, 2017.
- ^ "'Flying Spaghetti Monster' Caught on Camera off Coast of Angola | Biology". Sci-News.com. August 15, 2015. Retrieved August 28, 2015.
- ^ "'"I, Pastafari", a Documentary Film About the Church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster". kottke.org. May 8, 2019. Retrieved July 8, 2019.
- ^ "'"Documentary follows Pastafarians as they strain for recognition". The Guardian. September 18, 2019. Retrieved September 18, 2019.
- ^ O'Sullivan, Michael (July 9, 2020). "New movies to stream this week: 'The Tobacconist,' 'I, Pastafari' and more". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 12, 2020.
- ^ "'"Pastafarian pastor leads prayer at Alaska government meeting". Associated Press. September 18, 2019. Retrieved September 19, 2019.
- ^ a b Wolf, Gary (November 14, 2006). "The Church of the Non-Believers". Wired News.
- ^ MacKenzie, Richard (2008). "Is Faith the Enemy of Science?". Physics in Canada. 64 (103): 103. arXiv:0807.3670. Bibcode:2008arXiv0807.3670M.
- ^ Dawkins, Richard (2006). "The God Hypothesis". The God delusion. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 53. ISBN 978-0-618-68000-9.
I have found it an amusing strategy, when asked whether I am an atheist, to point out that the questioner is also an atheist when considering Zeus, Apollo, Amon Ra, Mithras, Baal, Thor, Wotan, the Golden Calf and the Flying Spaghetti Monster. I just go one god further.
- ^ Fernandes, Phil (2009). "The New, Militant Atheism". The Atheist Delusion. Xulon Press. p. 18. ISBN 978-1-60791-582-9.
The new atheists have made their choice—apparently, no amount of evidence for God will change their minds. They claim that the existence of God is as ridiculous as the existence of a flying spaghetti monster.
- ^ John Chambliss (December 11, 2007). "Satirical Monsters More Competition for Darwin". The Ledger. Archived from the original on August 31, 2016. Retrieved December 13, 2007.
- ^ "Cavanaugh v Bartelt". United States District Court for the District of Nebraska. April 12, 2016. Retrieved April 14, 2016.
- ^ Wright, Kimberly (January 8, 2014). "You, too, can become a minister - online - KPTV - FOX 12". KPTV. Archived from the original on November 24, 2015. Retrieved August 28, 2015.
- ^ "Atheists sue Washington County over denial to perform marriages". Star-Tribune.
- ^ Atheists for Human Rights v. County of Washington, MN (D. Minn. 2015) ("Court holds case is mooted.").Text
- ^ Schrader, Jordan (March 29, 2007). "School: Pirates are not welcome". Citizen-Times. Retrieved November 26, 2009.
- ^ "Student punished for spaghetti beliefs". Metro. Associated Newspapers Ltd. March 29, 2007. Archived from the original on January 6, 2010. Retrieved December 31, 2009.
- ^ "Flying Spaghetti Monster statue at Tennessee courthouse". CNET Networks. April 2008. Archived from the original on September 7, 2012. Retrieved April 2, 2008.
- ^ "Flying Spaghetti Monster takes up residence at county courthouse " Crossville Chronicle, Crossville, TN". Archived from the original on April 19, 2012.
- ^ Movies (April 1, 2008). "Flying Spaghetti Monster Lands Outside Tennessee Courthouse". WIRED. Retrieved August 28, 2015.
- ^ Nelson, Gary (April 15, 2008). "Courthouse No Longer Hosting Free Speech Displays". The Crossville Chronicle. Archived from the original on April 15, 2009.
- ^ "Virginia Holiday Battle Includes Church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster - ABC News". Abcnews.go.com. December 21, 2011. Retrieved August 28, 2015.
- ^ "Pennsylvanian Pastafarians fight for Holiday Display". Retrieved December 2, 2012.
- ^ "Pasta-loving 'church' tests Pa. holiday display". SF Gate. Archived from the original on December 2, 2012.
- ^ "24-09-2012:H Δίωξη Ηλεκτρονικού Εγκλήματος συνέλαβε 27χρονο ημεδαπό για κακόβουλη βλασφημία και καθύβριση θρησκευμάτων, μέσω του Facebook" [Cyber Crimes Division arrested 27-year-old local for malicious blasphemy and offense of religion, via Facebook] (in Greek). Greek Police. September 24, 2012. Retrieved October 2, 2012.
- ^ Fidalgo, Paul (September 28, 2012). ""Elder Pastitsios" Arrest Rekindles Debate on Blasphemy Laws in Greece". Center For Inquiry. Retrieved September 30, 2012.
- ^ ΔΗΜΑΡ: Με τη σύλληψη του "Παστίτσιου" το κράτος ακολουθεί τη Χρυσή Αυγή [Democratic Left: With the arrest of "Pastitsios" the State follows Golden Dawn] (in Greek). iefimerida. September 24, 2012. Retrieved September 30, 2012.
- ^ Ερώτηση ΣΥΡΙΖΑ στη Βουλή για τον "Γέροντα Παστίτσιο" [SYRIZA Questions Parliament on "Geron Pastitsios"] (in Greek). newsbomb.gr. September 26, 2012. Retrieved September 30, 2012.
- ^ Στη Βουλή το θέμα του Γέροντα Παστίτσιου ["Geron Pastitsios" discussed in Greek Parliament] (in Greek). newsit.gr. September 26, 2012. Retrieved November 21, 2019.
- ^ Blogger supporters angry at blasphemy arrest in Greece. Athens, Greece: athensnewsweb. September 28, 2012. Archived from the original on October 28, 2021. Retrieved September 30, 2012.
- ^ Περιφορά Ιερού Σκηνώματος (τάβλα) Γέροντος Παστίτσιου στη χριστεπώνυμη συνοικία των Εξαρχείων (Procession of the Holy Relic (stiff) of Elder Pastitsios in the christian named Athenian neighborhood of Exarchia). Athens, Greece: risinggalaxy. September 28, 2012. Archived from the original on October 28, 2021. Retrieved September 30, 2012.
- ^ "Humor failure in Russia: Crackdown on 'Pastafarians' shows Kremlin-church ties - NBC News". NBC News.
- ^ "Russia Pastafarian Rally Of Church Of The Flying Spaghetti Monster Attacked By Police". The Huffington Post. August 26, 2013.
- ^ First they began gunning for The Gays, now religious Russian zealots are attacking ... Pastafarians. Archived July 4, 2017, at the Wayback Machine The Freethinker
- ^ "Satirical spaghetti monster image banned by London South Bank University as 'religiously offensive'". February 10, 2014.
- ^ "Flying Spaghetti Monster Poster Removed From London South Bank University Atheist Society Stall". The Huffington Post UK. February 10, 2014.
- ^ Ian Dunt. "Union apologises for censoring atheist 'Spaghetti Monster' poster". politics.co.uk. Archived from the original on March 2, 2014. Retrieved February 13, 2014.
- ^ 11/29/14 6:43am (November 28, 2014). "The world's First Official Church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster". Observationdeck.io9.com. Archived from the original on January 28, 2015. Retrieved August 28, 2015.
- ^ a b "Austrian driver allowed 'pastafarian' headgear photo". BBC News. July 14, 2011. Retrieved July 26, 2011.
- ^ Alm, N. (July 12, 2011). "Heiliger Führerschein (transl: Holy License)". Niko Alm. Archived from the original on August 12, 2011.
- ^ "Holy headgear! 'Pastafarian' wins legal fight". NBC News. July 14, 2011.
- ^ Der Standard, Innenministerium zu Nudelsieb am Kopf: Fall "Alm" bei Reisepässen möglich, July 15, 2011 (in German)
- ^ a b Cusack, Carmen M. (2016). Hair and Justice: Sociolegal Significance of Hair in Criminal Justice, Constitutional Law, and Public Policy. Springfield, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas Publisher. p. 7. ISBN 9780398090968.
- ^ a b c d e Hemant Mehta (June 22, 2013). "Illinois Pastafarian Wants to Wear a Colander on his Head for His Driver's License Picture, but Gets Rejected". Patheos. Retrieved March 13, 2020.
- ^ a b c d e Siobhán O'Grady (August 17, 2018). "Sorry, Dutch Pastafarians, but you still can't wear a colander on your government ID ... yet". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 13, 2020.
- ^ a b Jeff Lawrence (October 6, 2014). "B.C. Pastafarian officially loses driver's licence over holy colander". CTV News. Retrieved March 13, 2020.
- ^ a b "Wis. Man Can Wear Pasta Strainer In License Pic". CBS Television Stations. February 18, 2016. Retrieved March 13, 2020.
- ^ Quass, Ursula (August 29, 2011). "Satire-Religion schlägt Behörden ein Schnippchen". Focus Online. Focus. Retrieved January 17, 2017.
- ^ Weida, Rüdiger (August 28, 2011). "Done". Kirche des fliegenden Spaghettimonsters Deutschland - Der Blog. Kirche des fliegenden Spaghettimonsters Deutschland e.V. Retrieved January 17, 2017.
- ^ "Pastafarian protester carries an icon of the Flying Spaghetti Monster at Piazza XXIV Maggio square in Milan, Italy, on June 2 2012". Wikimedia Commons. June 2, 2012.
- ^ Tom Windey. "Limburger mag geen pastavergiet op zijn hoofd dragen voor pasfoto". De Morgen. Archived from the original on April 10, 2013.
- ^ Liz Fields (August 2, 2013). ""Pastafarian" wins right to wear strainer on government ID". Salon. Retrieved March 13, 2020.
- ^ Pirate Party of the Czech Republic website, accessed August 9, 2013.
- ^ a b "Equal Status Acts Decision No. DEC-S2016-018; Parties Noel Mulryan And Road Safety Authority". Home / Cases / 2016 / March. Workplace relations commission. March 9, 2016. Retrieved April 20, 2017.
- ^ "'Pastafarian' wins right to wear colander in driving licence photo". BBC. January 13, 2016. Retrieved January 14, 2016.
- ^ "Kerk Vliegend Spaghettimonster uit Emmen erkend als religie". RTV Drenthe (in Dutch). January 27, 2016. Retrieved March 13, 2020.
- ^ Chris Klomp (July 7, 2016). "Pastafari eisen recht om met vergiet op de foto te mogen". Algemeen Dagblad (in Dutch). Retrieved March 13, 2020.
- ^ Bas van Sluis (July 19, 2016). "Paspoortpasfoto met vergiet op hoofd: in Leiden kan het gewoon". Dagblad van het Noorden (in Dutch). Retrieved March 13, 2020.
- ^ "Pastafarians mogen nog niet met vergiet op ID-kaart". NOS op 3 (in Dutch). August 1, 2016. Retrieved March 13, 2020.
- ^ "Student wil mét vergiet op rijbewijs - Vox magazine". Vox magazine (in Dutch). January 14, 2017. Retrieved January 21, 2017.
- ^ Rechtbank Oost-Brabant 15 February 2017, ECLI:NL:RBOBR:2017:762
- ^ Knowles, David (February 22, 2013). "New Jersey 'Pastafarian' denied right to wear spaghetti strainer on his head for drivers' license photo". New York Daily News. Archived from the original on November 2, 2014. Retrieved February 24, 2013.
- ^ Langston, Taylor (August 26, 2013). "Texas Tech student allowed to wear pasta strainer in driver's license photo". KTLV. Archived from the original on August 30, 2013.
- ^ Fox, Greg (January 3, 2014). "'Strainer' things have happened". The Observer, Dunkirk, NY. Retrieved January 8, 2014.
- ^ Pastafarian politician takes oath of office wearing colander on his head - Daily News, January 7, 2014.
- ^ Pastafarian minister Christopher Schaeffer is sworn into New York Town Council - The Independent, January 7, 2014.
- ^ Sadlier, Samantha (November 18, 2014). "Ex-porn star OK'd to wear colander in DMV photo". The (St. George, Utah) Spectrum. USA Today. Retrieved November 19, 2014.
- ^ "Pastafarian Wins License Battle". U.S. News & World Report. November 13, 2015. Retrieved January 14, 2016.
- ^ "Massachusetts Pastafarian Wins Right to Wear a Colander in Driver's License Photo, Thanks to Humanist Group". AHA News. American Humanist Association. November 13, 2015. Retrieved January 14, 2016.
- ^ Angela Stewart (July 10, 2016). "'Pastafarian' fights to wear pasta strainer in license photo". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved March 13, 2020.
- ^ Doug Criss (June 2, 2017). "Man wears strainer on his head in driver's license photo". CNN. Retrieved March 13, 2020.
- ^ Danae King (October 31, 2020). "Colander-wearing 'Pastafarian' claims religious discrimination over Ohio driver's license photo". Burlington County Times. Retrieved March 13, 2020.
- ^ "Church of Flying Spaghetti Monster approved to perform marriages". Stuff. December 14, 2015. Retrieved July 2, 2021.
- ^ Atheist, Friendly (June 19, 2014). "New Zealand Pastafarian Wears Colander in Driver's License Picture, Much to the Delight of Everyone". Retrieved March 13, 2020.
- ^ a b "Tradie refused 'religious right' to wear pasta strainer on head in licence photo". Nine News. October 3, 2014. Retrieved March 13, 2020.
- ^ Tom Cowie (November 29, 2016). "This guy got a Victorian driver's licence with a pasta strainer on his head". The Age. Retrieved March 13, 2020.
- ^ Lee, Brendan (2006). "Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District: Teaching Intelligent Design in Public Schools" (PDF). Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review. Harvard Law School. 41: 10. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 11, 2009.
- ^ "Pass notes No 2,637 The Flying Spaghetti Monster". The Guardian. London. September 1, 2005. Retrieved December 28, 2009.
- ^ Schofield, Jack (August 20, 2005). "'Intelligent Design' and Pastafarianism". The Guardian. London. Retrieved September 19, 2010.
- ^ Jacoby, Jeff (October 2, 2005). "The timeless truth of creation". The Boston Globe. Globe Newspaper Company. Retrieved November 26, 2009 – via Boston.com.
- ^ National Academy of Sciences (US) (1999), Science and Creationism: A View from the National Academy of Sciences (2nd ed.), National Academy of Sciences, doi:10.17226/6024, ISBN 978-0-309-06406-4, PMID 25101403,
Creationism, intelligent design, and other claims of supernatural intervention in the origin of life or of species are not science because they are not testable by the methods of science.
- ^ Gallings, Peter (January 22, 2008). "The Flying Spaghetti Monster: A harmless joke, a substantial misunderstanding, or a sacrilegious quasi-caricature of the one true God?". Answers in Genesis. Retrieved June 17, 2020.
- Henderson, Bobby (2006). The Gospel of the Flying Spaghetti Monster. Villard Books. ISBN 0-8129-7656-8.
- Church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster
- The FSM Revival Church of Ziti Discord
- Eight really rather you didn'ts
- The Loose Canon a Holy Book of the Church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster
- Henderson's open letter to the Kansas Board of Education
- People for the Advancement of Spaghetti Tolerance and Appreciation (P.A.S.T.A) Foundation Archived March 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine
- Church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster Australia
- Russian Pastafarian Church
- I, Pastafari: A Flying Spaghetti Monster Story at IMDb
- Flying Spaghetti Monster
- Criticism of religion
- Fictional food characters
- Fictional monsters
- Intelligent design parodies
- Internet memes introduced in 2005
- Religious parodies and satires
- Mascots introduced in 2005
- Metaphors referring to spaghetti
- New Atheism
- Parody religion deities
- Fictional characters introduced in 2005
- Internet meme characters