True thrush

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True thrushes
Kos Turdus merulaRB.jpg
Male common blackbird (T. merula)
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Turdidae
Genus: Turdus
Linnaeus, 1758
Species

see text.

True thrushes are medium-sized mostly insectivorous or omnivorous birds in the genus Turdus of the wider thrush family, Turdidae. The genus name Turdus is Latin for "thrush". The term "thrush" is used for many other birds of the family Turdidae as well as for a number of species belonging to several other families (see Thrush).

The genus has a cosmopolitan distribution, with species in the Americas, Europe, Asia, Africa and Australia. Several species have also colonised some oceanic islands, and two species have been introduced to New Zealand. Some New World species are called robins, the most well known of which is the American robin. Several species are migratory.

While some species are often split out of Turdus, the two small thrushes formerly separated in Platycichla by many authors have been restored to the present genus in recent years.

Taxonomy and systematics[edit]

The genus Turdus was introduced by the Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus in 1758 in the tenth edition of his Systema Naturae.[1] The type species was subsequently designated as the mistle thrush.[2] The name Turdus is Latin word for a "thrush".[3]

Extant species[edit]

Eighty-two extant species are recognized:[4]

Image Common Name Scientific name Distribution
Turdus flavipes -Parque Estadual da Serra da Cantareira, Sao Paulo, Brazil-8.jpg Yellow-legged thrush Turdus flavipes northern Colombia, Venezuela, far northern Brazil, Trinidad, and Tobago, as well as parts of the Pakaraima Mountains in western Guyana, eastern Brazil, eastern Paraguay, and far northeastern Argentina
Flickr - Rainbirder - African Thrush (Turdus pelios).jpg Pale-eyed thrush Turdus leucops Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru, and Venezuela
Africanthrush.jpg African thrush Turdus pelios from Senegal and Gambia in the west to South Sudan, Ethiopia and Eritrea south to northwestern Zambia and western Angola
Thrush, African Bare-eyed.jpg Bare-eyed thrush Turdus tephronotus Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, and Tanzania
Kurrichane Thrush, Sakania, DRC (7001803096).jpg Kurrichane thrush Turdus libonyana Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe
São Tomé thrush Turdus olivaceofuscus São Tomé
Príncipe thrush Turdus xanthorhynchus Príncipe
Olive Thrush RWD.jpg Olive thrush Turdus olivaceus Tanzania and Zimbabwe in the north to the Cape of Good Hope
Usambara thrush Turdus roehli Tanzania
Mountain thrush.jpg Abyssinian thrush Turdus abyssinicus Africa from South Sudan south to northern Mozambique.
Turdus smithi (Karoo Thrush) on lawn (crop).jpg Karoo thrush Turdus smithi South Africa, where it is present in Little Namaqualand, the Karoo and Northern Cape, Free State, Gauteng, Limpopo, Mpumalanga and parts of the North West Province.
MerulaLudoviciaeKeulemans.jpg Somali thrush or Somali blackbird Turdus ludoviciae Somalia.
Taita thrush Turdus helleri Taita Hills in Kenya
Yemen thrush Turdus menachensis Middle East
TurdusBewsheriKeulemans.jpg Comoro thrush Turdus bewsheri Comoros Islands
Grey-backed Thrush 0739.jpg Grey-backed thrush Turdus hortulorum northeastern China and Russia Far East and winters in southern China and northern Vietnam
Tickell's Thrush male.jpg Tickell's thrush Turdus unicolor Himalayas, and peninsular India
Turdus dissimilis male - Ang Khang.jpg Black-breasted thrush Turdus dissimilis southwestern China
Wiki-kurotsugumi-1.jpg Japanese thrush Turdus cardis central China and Japan and northern Laos and Vietnam
White-collared Blackbird Khangchendzonga Biosphere Reserve West Sikkim India 15.02.2016.jpg White-collared blackbird Turdus albocinctus Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Myanmar, Nepal and Pakistan
Drozd kolohrivý (Turdus torquatus) a (4834220566).jpg Ring ouzel Turdus torquatus western and central Europe and also in the Caucasus and in the Scandinavian mountains
Grey-winged Blackbird - Bhutan S4E0223 (17234373941).jpg Grey-winged blackbird Turdus boulboul south-eastern Asia from the Himalayas to northern Vietnam
Common Blackbird.jpg Common blackbird Turdus merula temperate Eurasia, North Africa, the Canary Islands, and South Asia
Turdus merula mandarinus Hong Kong 6.jpg Chinese blackbird Turdus mandarinus south, central and east China
Tibetan Blackbird (Turdus maximus) 1 cropped.jpg Tibetan blackbird Turdus maximus Himalayas from northern Pakistan to southeastern Tibet
Turdus simillimus Coonoor 8.jpg Indian blackbird Turdus simillimus India and Sri Lanka
Island Thrush 4352.jpg Island thrush, Turdus poliocephalus Taiwan, through South East Asia and Melanesia, to Samoa
Chestnut Thrush Khangchendzonga Biosphere Reserve West Sikkim India 21.02.2016.jpg Chestnut thrush Turdus rubrocanus western Himalayas and central/southwestern China; it winters in Eastern Himalaya and northern Southeast Asia
MerulaKessleri.jpg Kessler's thrush Turdus kessleri central China
SYT4752 Grey-sided thrush.jpg Grey-sided thrush Turdus feae north-east China and migrating to subtropical or tropical moist montane forest in India, and Indochina
Eyebrowed Thrush.jpg Eyebrowed thrush Turdus obscurus Siberia south to China and Southeast Asia.
Pale Thrush - Taiwan S4E8071 (17027483687).jpg Pale thrush Turdus pallidus south-east Siberia, north-east China and Korea and may breed in Japan
Brown-headed Thrush 6016.jpg Brown-headed thrush Turdus chrysolaus Sakhalin, the Kuril Islands, Japan, Ryukyu Islands, Taiwan, Hainan and the northern Philippines
Izu thrush Turdus celaenops Izu and Ryukyu Islands of Japan
A dark-throated Thrush female - Dhanachuli, Uttarakhand India.jpg Black-throated thrush Turdus atrogularis east of Europe to Western Siberia and north-west Mongolia.
Dark Throated Thrush in Temple of Heaven.JPG Red-throated thrush Turdus ruficollis Asia
Naumans Thrush 6805.jpg Naumann's thrush Turdus naumanni South Asia to Southeast Asia
Turdus naumanni eunomus s2.JPG Dusky thrush Turdus eunomus south to southeast Asia, principally in China and neighbouring countries
Björktrast (Turdus pilaris)-6.jpg Fieldfare Turdus pilaris northern Norway, northern Sweden, Finland, Belgium, Germany, Switzerland, Austria, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Poland and Siberia as far east as Transbaikal, the Aldan River, the Tian Shan Mountains in North West China, Anatolia, Israel, Iran and Northwest India, and occasionally Northeast India. It is a vagrant to Iceland, Greenland, Spitsbergen, the Canary Islands, the Balearic Islands, Madeira, Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily, Malta and Cyprus. It is a very rare breeder in the British Isles, but winters in large numbers in the United Kingdom, Southern Europe, North Africa and the Middle East.
Redwing Turdus iliacus.jpg Redwing Turdus iliacus Europe and Asia, from Iceland south to northernmost Scotland, and east through Scandinavia, the Baltic States, northern Poland and Belarus, and through most of Russia to about 165°E in Chukotka Autonomous Okrug
Song thrush.jpg Song thrush Turdus philomelos southern Europe, North Africa and the Middle East
Turdus mupinensis.jpg Chinese thrush Turdus mupinensis China and far northern Vietnam
Turdus viscivorus in Baikonur-town 001.jpg Mistle thrush Turdus viscivorus Europe and temperate Asia
GreatThrush.jpg Great thrush Turdus fuscater Andes in western and northern Venezuela as far as Lara and Trujillo, the Andes of Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and finally, northwest Bolivia
Chiguanco Thrush RWD5.jpg Chiguanco thrush Turdus chiguanco Ecuador and the Altiplano
Sooty Robin JCB.jpg Sooty thrush Turdus nigrescens Costa Rica and western Panama
Black thrush Turdus infuscatus El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Mexico
Glossy-black Thrush RWD3.jpg Glossy-black thrush Turdus serranus northern Venezuela to northwestern Argentina.
TurdusNigricepsSmit.jpg Andean slaty thrush Turdus nigriceps north-west Argentina, Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru
Eastern Slaty Thrush SOARA.jpg Eastern slaty thrush Turdus subalaris north-east Argentina, eastern Paraguay and southern Brazil
Plumbeous-backedThrush.jpg Plumbeous-backed thrush Turdus reevei Ecuador and Peru
Black-hooded Thrush - Paraulata Cabecinegra (Turdus olivater olivater) Waraira Repano National Park.jpg Black-hooded thrush Turdus olivater Venezuela and Colombia
TurdusMaranonicusSmit.jpg Marañón thrush Turdus maranonicus southern Ecuador and northern Peru
Chestnut-bellied Thrush (5304204959).jpg Chestnut-bellied thrush Turdus fulviventris western Venezuela, western Colombia, Ecuador, northern Peru and northwestern Bolivia.
Flickr - Dario Sanches - SABIÁ-LARANJEIRA (Turdus rufiventris).jpg Rufous-bellied thrush Turdus rufiventris southeast Brazil from Maranhão south to Rio Grande do Sul states, Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay and northern regions of Argentina
Turdus falcklandii.jpg Austral thrush Turdus falcklandii south Argentina and south and central Chile
Flickr - Dario Sanches - SABIÁ-BARRANCO Imaturo (Turdus leucomelas).jpg Pale-breasted thrush Turdus leucomelas eastern and northern South America
SABIÁ-POCA (Turdus amaurochalinus)2.jpg Creamy-bellied thrush Turdus amaurochalinus central and eastern South America
Mountain Robin - Central Highlands - Costa Rica MG 6385 (26103585153).jpg Mountain thrush Turdus plebejus southern Mexico to western Panama.
Black-billed Thrush - Manu NP 8730 (16612461424).jpg Black-billed thrush Turdus ignobilis western Amazonia and on the Guianan Shield, occurring in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela, and Bolivia
TurdusLawrenciiKeulemans.jpg Lawrence's thrush Turdus lawrencii Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela
Turdus fumigatus 1.jpg Cocoa thrush Turdus fumigatus South America
Pale-vented thrush Turdus obsoletus Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Panama, and Peru.
Turdus hauxwelli.jpg Hauxwell's thrush Turdus hauxwelli Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela.
Unicolored thrush Turdus haplochrous Bolivia.
Costa Rica's National Bird (16506655516).jpg Clay-colored thrush Turdus grayi South Texas (where it is rapidly expanding its range) to northern Colombia; west and north of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec
Bare-eyed Thrush (5529613751).jpg Spectacled thrush Turdus nudigenis South America from Colombia and Venezuela south and east to northern Brazil. In Trinidad and Tobago
Várzea thrush Turdus sanchezorum western Amazon
Ecuadorian Thrush (Turdus maculirostris) (20081987352).jpg Ecuadorian thrush Turdus maculirostris western Ecuador and far northwestern Peru
White-eyed Thrush RWD.jpg White-eyed thrush Turdus jamaicensis Cayman Islands and Jamaica
Mirlo Garganta Blanca, White Throated Thrush, Turdus assimilis (13362733943).jpg White-throated thrush Turdus assimilis Central America
Bonner zoologische Monographien - Turdus daguae.jpg Dagua thrush Turdus daguae Panama to north-western Ecuador
Turdus albicollis -Parque Estadual da Serra da Cantareira, Sao Paulo, Brasil-8.jpg White-necked thrush Turdus albicollis eastern Brazil, far northern Uruguay, eastern Paraguay and far north-eastern Argentina
Turdus rufopalliatus.jpg Rufous-backed thrush Turdus rufopalliatus southeastern Sonora to the southeastern corner of Oaxaca along the coast and in the Río Balsas drainage. The isolated populations in Mexico City and Oaxaca City
RCRO.jpg Rufous-collared thrush Turdus rufitorques Middle America, south of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, occurring in El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Chiapas state in Mexico.
Turdus-migratorius-002.jpg American robin Turdus migratorius North America, from Alaska and Canada southward to northern Florida and Mexico
La Selle Thrush.jpg La Selle thrush Turdus swalesi Dominican Republic
White-chinned Thrush RWD2.jpg White-chinned thrush Turdus aurantius Cayman Islands and Jamaica.
Red-legged Thrush (Turdus plumbeus) RWD.jpg Red-legged thrush Turdus plumbeus the Bahamas, Cayman Brac, Cuba, Dominica, the Dominican Republic, Haiti and Puerto Rico.
Forest thrush Turdus lherminieri Dominica, Guadeloupe, Montserrat, and Saint Lucia.
Nesocichla eremita -Inaccessible Island, cropped.jpg Tristan thrush Turdus eremita British overseas territories of the isolated Tristan da Cunha archipelago

Extinct species[edit]

Former species[edit]

Formerly, some authorities also considered the following species (or subspecies) as species within the genus Turdus:

References[edit]

  1. ^ Linnaeus, Carl (1758). Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis (in Latin). Volume 1 (10th ed.). Holmiae:Laurentii Salvii. p. 168. 
  2. ^ Mayr, Ernst; Paynter, Raymond A. Jr, eds. (1964). Check-list of Birds of the World. Volume 10. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Museum of Comparative Zoology. p. 177. 
  3. ^ Jobling, James A (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. p. 293. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4. 
  4. ^ Gill, Frank; Donsker, David, eds. (2018). "Thrushes". World Bird List Version 8.1. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 10 May 2018. 
  5. ^ Australia, Atlas of Living. "Pachycephala (Alisterornis) rufiventris rufiventris | Atlas of Living Australia". bie.ala.org.au. Retrieved 2017-02-06. 
  6. ^ "Colluricincla harmonica - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-02-17. 
  7. ^ The Ibis. British Ornithologists' Union. 1873-01-01. 
  8. ^ "Oriolus monacha - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-02-28. 
  9. ^ "Myiagra inquieta - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-01-26. 
  10. ^ "Brachypodius atriceps - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-03-10. 
  11. ^ "Pycnonotus dispar - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-03-11. 
  12. ^ "Pycnonotus cafer - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-03-25. 
  13. ^ "Pycnonotus aurigaster - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-03-25. 
  14. ^ "Pycnonotus nigricans - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-03-26. 
  15. ^ "Pycnonotus capensis - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-03-27. 
  16. ^ "Pycnonotus barbatus barbatus - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-03-27. 
  17. ^ "Pycnonotus barbatus arsinoe - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-03-27. 
  18. ^ "Pycnonotus bimaculatus - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-03-29. 
  19. ^ "Pycnonotus goiavier analis - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-03-30. 
  20. ^ "Andropadus importunus - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-04-10. 
  21. ^ "Hypsipetes borbonicus (Reunion Bulbul) - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-10-25. 
  22. ^ Newton, Alfred (1870). Extracts from the Record of Zoological Literature, Vols. I-VI: Containing the Portions Relating to Aves, from 1864 to 1869. Taylor & Francis. 
  23. ^ "Hypsipetes madagascariensis (Madagascar Bulbul) - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-10-29. 
  24. ^ "Hypsipetes leucocephalus (Himalayan Black Bulbul) - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-11-01. 
  25. ^ "Hypsipetes philippinus (Philippine Bulbul) - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-11-03. 
  26. ^ "Hypsipetes amaurotis (Brown-eared Bulbul) - Avibase". avibase.bsc-eoc.org. Retrieved 2017-11-06. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Voelker, G.; Rohwer, S.; Bowie, R.C.K.; Outlaw, D.C. (2007). "Molecular systematics of a speciose, cosmopolitan songbird genus: defining the limits of, and relationships among, the Turdus thrushes". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 42 (2): 422–434. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2006.07.016. PMID 16971142. 

External links[edit]