Upper East Side

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Upper East Side
Neighborhood of Manhattan
Park Avenue on the Upper East Side, lined with apartment buildings, looking north from East 74th Street (September 2016)
Park Avenue on the Upper East Side, lined with apartment buildings, looking north from East 74th Street (September 2016)

Location in New York City
Coordinates: 40°46′08″N 73°57′58″W / 40.769°N 73.966°W / 40.769; -73.966Coordinates: 40°46′08″N 73°57′58″W / 40.769°N 73.966°W / 40.769; -73.966
Country  United States
State  New York
County New York
City New York City
Borough Manhattan
Area
 • Total 1.76 sq mi (4.6 km2)
 • Land 1.76 sq mi (4.6 km2)
 • Water 0 sq mi (0 km2)
Population (2010)
 • Total 229,688
 • Density 130,504.5/sq mi (50,388.1/km2)
  2010 figures for Manhattan CB 8[1]
Ethnicity
 • White 89.3%
 • Asian or Pacific Islander 6.2%
 • Hispanic 5.6%
 • Black 1.3%
 • Other 3.3%
ZIP Codes 10021, 10028, 10029, 10065, 10075, 10128
Area code(s) 212, 917, 646

The Upper East Side is a neighborhood in the borough of Manhattan in New York City, between Central Park/Fifth Avenue, 59th Street, the East River, and 96th Street.[2] The area incorporates several smaller neighborhoods, including Lenox Hill, Carnegie Hill, and Yorkville. Once known as the Silk Stocking District,[3] it is now one of the most affluent neighborhoods in New York City.[4]

History[edit]

Development[edit]

Before the arrival of Europeans, the mouths of streams[5] that eroded gullies in the East River bluffs are conjectured to have been the sites of fishing camps used by the Lenape, whose controlled burns once a generation or so kept the dense canopy of oak–hickory forest open at ground level.[6]

In the 19th century[7] the farmland and market garden district of what was to be the Upper East Side was still traversed by the Boston Post Road and, from 1837, the New York and Harlem Railroad, which brought straggling commercial development around its one station in the neighborhood, at 86th Street, which became the heart of German Yorkville. The area was defined by the attractions of the bluff overlooking the East River, which ran without interruption from James William Beekman's "Mount Pleasant", north of the marshy squalor of Turtle Bay, to Gracie Mansion, north of which the land sloped steeply to the wetlands that separated this area from the suburban village of Harlem.[8] Among the series of villas a Schermerhorn country house overlooked the river at the foot of present-day 73rd Street and another, Peter Schermerhorn's at 66th Street,[9] and the Riker homestead was similarly sited at the foot of 75th Street.[10] By the mid-19th century the farmland had largely been subdivided, with the exception of the 150 acres (61 ha) of Jones's Wood, stretching from 66th to 76th Streets and from the Old Post Road (Third Avenue) to the river[11] and the farmland inherited by James Lenox, who divided it into blocks of houselots in the 1870s,[12] built his Lenox Library on a Fifth Avenue lot at the farm's south-west corner,[13] and donated a full square block for the Presbyterian Hospital, between 70th and 71st Streets, and Madison and Park Avenues.[14] At that time, along the Boston Post Road taverns stood at the mile-markers, Five-Mile House at 72nd Street and Six-Mile House at 97th, a New Yorker recalled in 1893.[10]

Gracie Mansion, last remaining East River villa

The fashionable future of the narrow strip between Central Park and the railroad cut was established at the outset by the nature of its entrance, in the southwest corner, north of the Vanderbilt family's favored stretch of Fifth Avenue from 50th to 59th Streets.[15] A row of handsome townhouses was built on speculation by Mary Mason Jones, who owned the entire block bounded by 57th and 58th Streets and Fifth and Madison. In 1870 she occupied the prominent corner house at 57th and Fifth, though not in the isolation described by her niece, Edith Wharton, whose picture has been uncritically accepted as history, as Christopher Gray has pointed out.[16]

It was her habit to sit in a window of her sitting room on the ground floor, as if watching calmly for life and fashion to flow northward to her solitary door... She was sure that presently the quarries, the wooden greenhouses in ragged gardens, the rocks from which goats surveyed the scene, would vanish before the advance of residences as stately as her own.[17]

Famous residents move in[edit]

Before the Park Avenue Tunnel was covered (finished in 1910), fashionable New Yorkers shunned the smoky railroad trench up Fourth Avenue (now Park Avenue), to build stylish mansions and townhouses on the large lots along Fifth Avenue, facing Central Park, and on the adjacent side streets. The latest arrivals were the rich Pittsburghers Andrew Carnegie and Henry Clay Frick. The classic phase of Gilded Age Fifth Avenue as a stretch of private mansions was not long-lasting: the first apartment house to replace a private mansion on upper Fifth Avenue was 907 Fifth Avenue (1916), at 72nd Street, the neighborhood's grand carriage entrance to Central Park.[18]

Most members of New York's upper-class families have made residences on the Upper East Side, including the oil-rich Rockefellers,[19] political Roosevelts,[20] political dynastic Kennedys,[21] thoroughbred racing moneyed Whitneys,[22][23] and tobacco and electric power fortuned Dukes.[24]

Transportation constructed[edit]

Construction of the Third Avenue El, opened from 1878 in sections, followed by the Second Avenue El, opened in 1879, linked the Upper East Side's middle class and skilled artisans closely to the heart of the city, and confirmed the modest nature of the area to their east. The ghostly "Hamilton Square", which had appeared as one of the few genteel interruptions of the grid plan on city maps since the Commissioners' Plan of 1811, was intended to straddle what had now become the Harlem Railroad right-of-way between 66th and 69th Streets; it never materialized, though during the Panic of 1857 its unleveled ground was the scene of an open-air mass meeting called in July to agitate for the secession of the city and its neighboring counties from New York State, and the city divided its acreage into house lots and sold them.[25] From the 1880s the neighborhood of Yorkville became a suburb of middle class Germans.[26]

Gracie Mansion, the last remaining suburban villa overlooking the East River at Carl Schurz Park, became the home of New York's mayor in 1942.[27] The East River Drive, designed by Robert Moses, was extended south from the first section, from 125th Street to 92nd Street, which was completed in 1934 as a boulevard, an arterial highway running at street level; reconstruction designs from 1948 to 1966 converted FDR Drive, as it was renamed after Franklin Delano Roosevelt, into the full limited-access parkway that is in use today.[28]

45 East 66th Street, a designated New York City landmark
45 East 66th Street, a designated New York City landmark, as seen across Madison Avenue

Demolishing the elevated railways on Third and Second Avenues opened these tenement-lined streets to the construction of high-rise apartment blocks starting in the 1950s. However, it had an adverse effect on transportation, because the IRT Lexington Avenue Line was now the only subway line in the area.[29] The construction of the Second Avenue Subway has brought up the price of houses in the Upper East Side somewhat.

Geography[edit]

Neighborhood boundaries in New York City are not officially set, but according to the Encyclopedia of New York City, the Upper East Side is bounded by 59th Street in the south, 96th Street on the north, Fifth Avenue to the west and the East River to the east.[30] The AIA Guide to New York City extends the northern boundary to 106th Street near Fifth Avenue.[31]

The area's north-south avenues are Fifth, Madison, Park, Lexington, Third, Second, First, York, and East End Avenues, with the latter running only from East 79th Street to East 90th Street. The major east-west streets are 59th Street, 72nd Street, 79th Street, 86th Street and 96th Street.

Some real estate agents use the term "Upper East Side" instead of "East Harlem" to describe areas that are slightly north of 96th Street and near Fifth Avenue, in order to avoid associating these areas with the negative connotations of the latter, a neighborhood which is generally perceived as less prestigious.[32]

Historic district[edit]

The Upper East Side Historic District is one of New York City's largest districts, as is the neighborhood. This district runs from 59th to 78th Streets along Fifth Avenue, and up to 3rd Avenue at some points. In the decades after the Civil War, the once decrepit district transitioned into a thriving middle class residential neighborhood. At the start of the 20th century, the neighborhood transformed again, but this time into a neighborhood of mansions and townhouses. As the century continued, and living environments altered, a lot of these single-family homes were replaced by lavish apartment buildings.[33]

Demographics[edit]

Based on data from the 2010 United States Census, the combined population of the Upper East Side (Carnegie Hill, Yorkville, and Lenox Hill) and Roosevelt Island[a] was 219,920, an increase of 2,857 (1.3%) from the 217,063 counted in 2000. Covering an area of 1,291.51 acres (522.66 ha), the neighborhoods had a population density of 170.3 inhabitants per acre (109,000/sq mi; 42,100/km2).[34] , The racial makeup of the neighborhoods were 79% (173,711) White, 3.2% (7,098) African American, 0.1% (126) Native American, 8.6% (18,847) Asian, 0% (98) Pacific Islander, 0.3% (609) from other races, and 1.8% (3,868) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 7.1% (15,563) of the population.[35]

As of the 2000 census, twenty-one percent of the population was foreign born; of this, 45.6% came from Europe, 29.5% from Asia, 16.2% from Latin America and 8.7% from other. The female-male ratio was very high with 125 females for 100 males.[36] The Upper East Side contains a large and affluent Jewish population estimated at 56,000.[37] Traditionally, the Upper East Side has been dominated by wealthy White Anglo-Saxon Protestant families.[38][39][40]

Given its very high population density and per capita income ($85,081 in 2000), the neighborhood contains the greatest concentration of individual wealth in Manhattan. As of 2011, the median household income for the Upper East Side was $117,903.[41] As of 2011, 60.6% of adults (25+) had earned a bachelor's degree or higher.[41]

The Upper East Side maintains the highest pricing per square foot in the United States. A 2002 report cited the average cost per square meter as $8,856; however, that price has noticed a substantial jump, increasing to almost as much as $11,200 per square meter as of 2006. There are some buildings which cost about $125 per square foot (~$1345/㎡).[42][43] The only public housing projects for those of low to moderate incomes on the Upper East Side are located just south of the neighborhood's northern limit at 96th Street, the Holmes Towers and Isaacs Houses. It borders East Harlem, which has the highest concentration of public housing in the United States.[44]

Politics[edit]

The Upper East Side is one of few areas of Manhattan where Republicans constitute more than 20% of the electorate. In the southwestern part of the neighborhood, Republican voters equal Democratic voters (the only such area in Manhattan), whereas in the rest of the neighborhood Republicans make up between 20 and 40% of registered voters.[45]

The Upper East Side is notable as a significant location of political fundraising in the United States. Four of the top five ZIP codes in the nation for political contributions are in Manhattan. The top ZIP Code, 10021, is on the Upper East Side and generated the most money for the 2004 presidential campaigns of both George W. Bush and John Kerry.[46]

The Metropolitan Museum of Art at Fifth Avenue and 82nd Street
The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum at Fifth Avenue and 89th Street
The Jewish Museum on Fifth Avenue at 92nd St. The Museum Mile Festival

Landmarks and cultural institutions[edit]

Museums[edit]

The area is host to some of the most famous museums in the world. The string of museums along Fifth Avenue fronting Central Park has been dubbed "Museum Mile", running between 82nd and 105th Streets. It was once named "Millionaire's Row". The following are among the cultural institutions on the Upper East Side:

Art galleries[edit]

Hotels[edit]

Houses of worship[edit]

Diplomatic missions[edit]

Many diplomatic missions are located in former mansions on the Upper East Side:

Other missions to the United Nations in the Upper East Side include:[53]

Post offices[edit]

The United States Postal Service operates post offices at Lenox Hill Station (ZIP code 10021), 221 East 70th Street; Cherokee Station (10075), 1483 York Avenue;[54] Gracie Station (10028), 229 East 85th Street;[55] and Yorkville Station (10128), 1617 Third Avenue.[3][56] New ZIP codes now include 10065, 10029 and 10075.

Transportation[edit]

The Upper East Side is served by two subway lines, the four-track IRT Lexington Avenue Line (4, ​5, ​6, and <6> trains) under Lexington Avenue and the two-track Second Avenue Subway (N, ​Q, and ​R trains) under Second Avenue.[57] There are also local and limited MTA Regional Bus Operations routes M1, M2, M3, M4, M15, M15 SBS, M31, M98, M101, M102, M103 going uptown and downtown, as well as the crosstown M66, M72, M79 SBS, M86 SBS, and M96.[58]

The Second Avenue Line serves to relieve congestion on the Lexington Avenue Line. The first phase of the line opened on January 1, 2017, consisting of three new stations and a renovated fourth station. The line terminates at 96th Street and connects to the BMT 63rd Street Line at Lexington Avenue–63rd Street station before continuing to 57th Street–Seventh Avenue on the BMT Broadway Line.[59][60] The planned Second Avenue Line includes three additional phases to be built at a later date, which will extend the line north to 125th Street/Park Avenue in Harlem and south to Hanover Square in the Financial District, and a new T train will run its entire length.[61]

Education[edit]

Primary and secondary schools[edit]

Public schools[edit]

The New York City Department of Education operates public schools in the city.

Public lower and middle schools

  • PS 6  – Lillie Devereux Blake School
  • PS 77 – The Lower Lab school
  • PS 158 – Bayard Taylor
  • PS 183 – Robert Louis Stevenson School
  • PS 267 – East Side Elementary
  • PS 290 – The New School of Manhattan
  • MS 114 – East Side Middle School
  • JHS 167 – Senator Robert F. Wagner Middle School

Public high schools

Other schools

The West Building of Hunter College

Private schools[edit]

Coeducational schools

Girls' schools

Boys' schools

Colleges and universities[edit]

Public libraries[edit]

The New York Public Library operates the 67th Street Branch Library at 328 East 67th Street, near First Avenue,[68] the Yorkville Branch Library, 222 East 79th Street[69] and the 96th Street Branch Library at 112 East 96th Street, near Lexington Avenue.[70]

In popular culture[edit]

The Upper East Side has been a setting for many films, television shows, and other media.

Films[edit]

Television shows[edit]

Books[edit]

Fictional places and characters[edit]

Notable people[edit]

The neighborhood has a long tradition of being home to some of the world's most wealthy, powerful and influential families and individuals. Some of the notable people who have lived here include:

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I & J

K

L

M

N & O

P

R

S

T

U & V

W

Y & Z

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Informational notes

  1. ^ Figures for Lenox Hill are tabulated alongside those for Roosevelt Island, and so Lenox Hill's precise population cannot be ascertained on its own.

Citations

  1. ^ "Fiscal Year 2013: Manhattan Community Board 8 Needs Statement" (PDF). City of New York. Retrieved October 10, 2017.
  2. ^ Gronowicz, Anthony. ""Upper East Side in Jackson, Kenneth T., ed. (2010), The Encyclopedia of New York City (2nd ed.), New Haven: Yale University Press, ISBN 978-0-300-11465-2 p.1352
  3. ^ a b The City Review Upper East Side, the Silk Stocking District
  4. ^ Plitt, Amy. "The richest neighborhoods in New York City; Where do the wealthiest New Yorkers live? The answers may surprise you (or not)", Curbed New York, June 27, 2017. Accessed September 3, 2017. "That the Upper East Side is No. 1 should come as no surprise, given the concentration of wealth found along the westernmost border of the neighborhood (i.e., Museum Mile and the Gold Coast)."
  5. ^ Noted at East 53rd, 62nd, 74th Streets (the Saw Kill, dammed to form the Lake in Central Park) and 80th Street (Eric W. Sanderson, Mannahatta: A Natural History of New York City, 2009, p. 261`"Lenape sites and place-names").
  6. ^ A reconstructed map of the patchwork ecologies of Manhattan island before Europeanization is presented in Sanderson 2009; map p. 139.
  7. ^ The history of the Upper East Side, in the broader citywide context, is repeatedly noted in Edwin G. Burrows and Mike Wallace, Gotham: A History of New York City to 1898 (1999).
  8. ^ The original ecology of Manhattan Island and its evolution is now thoroughly explored in Eric W. Sanderson, Mannahatta: A Natural History of New York City (New York: Abrams, 2009), based in part on a British army map detailing the island's natural terrain at the time of the American Revolution.
  9. ^ In 1818, with a purchase to the south, Peter Schermerhorn enlarged the property given him by his father-in-law, John Jones ("History of the Schermerhorn family", The New York Genealogical and Biographical Record,, 36 (July 1905:204)), now the site of Rockefeller University (Rockefeller University: history).
  10. ^ a b ""Early New York History: Old Days In Yorkville And Harlem", 1893". Oldandsold.com. Retrieved May 12, 2011.
  11. ^ Jones's Wood, owned by the Joneses and their Schermerhorn cousins and operated as a popular beer-garden resort, was briefly touted as a possible location for a public park before Central Park was established (Roy Rosenzweig and Elizabeth Blackmar, The Park and the People: A History of Central Park, New York, 1992, pp 20–21, map p. 38, et passim).
  12. ^ "Realty Romance in Old Lenox Farm". The New York Times. December 15, 1918. The occasion was the auction of the auction sale an 1874 map of the section of Robert Lenox's farm, bought in 1818 that lay between 71st and 74th Streets, from Fifth Avenue to the railroad right-of-way that became Park Avenue.
  13. ^ When the library was consolidated with Astor and Tilden trusts to form the New York Public Library, a unique block-long stretch of Fifth Avenue frontage was liberated for the latecomer Henry Clay Frick to build his grand residence, now the Frick Collection.
  14. ^ "Founded by James Lenox, the chief features of the Presbyterian hospital...". The New York Times. July 3, 1892.
  15. ^ Arthur T. Vanderbilt 2nd, Fortune's Children: The Fall of the House of Vanderbilt (New York, 1989).
  16. ^ Gray, Christopher. "Streetscapes: Edith Wharton; In The Age of Innocence, Fiction Was Not Truth", The New York Times, August 27, 1995. Accessed September 3, 2017.
  17. ^ Wharton, The Age of Innocence
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  19. ^ "The Upper East Side Book: Fifth Avenue: 834 Fifth Avenue". Thecityreview.com. Retrieved May 12, 2011.
  20. ^ "Home". Brown Harris Stevens. Retrieved May 12, 2011.
  21. ^ "Clos Mimi". Clos Mimi. March 22, 2007. Archived from the original on April 26, 2011. Retrieved May 12, 2011.
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  23. ^ "Natives of New York Still Own Upper Fifth Avenue – In Spite of the Influx of Outsiders, Knickerbocker Families Easily Remain In the Ascendant. The Majority, Who Are Not Knickerbockers, Hail from New England and the Eastern States" (PDF). The New York Times. May 26, 1907. Retrieved May 12, 2011.
  24. ^ "at". Divasthesite.com. Archived from the original on July 28, 2010. Retrieved May 12, 2011.
  25. ^ Edwin G. Burrows and Mike Wallace, Gotham: a history of New York City to 1898, 1999, pp. 421, 840, 849.
  26. ^ Croton-On-Hudson Historical Society (2001). Images of America Series. Arcadia Publishing. pp. 41, 128. ISBN 0738505439.
  27. ^ Barron, james; and Roberts, Sam. "New York Mayor's Mansion Seeks a Missing Item (the Mayor)", The New York Times, November 2, 2013. Accessed September 3, 2017. "Gracie Mansion, home to the mayors of New York since movers delivered the La Guardias' own furniture in 1942, was never quite right for the billionaire mayor, who shunned it even as he shined it up, donating millions for repairs, renovations and the occasional antique."
  28. ^ FDR Drive, New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. Accessed September 3, 2017.
  29. ^ "www.nycsubway.org: Second Avenue Subway: The Line That Almost Never Was". www.nycsubway.org. New York City Transit Authority. 1972. Retrieved September 30, 2015.
  30. ^ Gronowicz, Anthony. "Upper East Side" in Jackson, Kenneth T., ed. (2010), The Encyclopedia of New York City (2nd ed.), New Haven: Yale University Press, ISBN 978-0-300-11465-2, p.1352
  31. ^ White, Norval; Willensky, Elliot & Leadon, Fran (2010), AIA Guide to New York City (5th ed.), New York: Oxford University Press, ISBN 9780195383867, p.416
  32. ^ Depalma, Anthony (January 31, 1988). "Is the Upper East Side Moving North?". The New York Times. Retrieved May 12, 2011.
  33. ^ "The Upper East Side" (PDF). Citi Habitats. 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 17, 2012.
  34. ^ Table PL-P5 NTA: Total Population and Persons Per Acre - New York City Neighborhood Tabulation Areas*, 2010, Population Division - New York City Department of City Planning, February 2012. Accessed June 16, 2016.
  35. ^ Table PL-P3A NTA: Total Population by Mutually Exclusive Race and Hispanic Origin - New York City Neighborhood Tabulation Areas*, 2010, Population Division - New York City Department of City Planning, March 29, 2011. Accessed June 14, 2016.
  36. ^ "Social Explorer 2000 Demography Map: Median Income in Upper East Side". Socialexplorer.com. Retrieved May 12, 2011.
  37. ^ Baila Olidort (February 17, 2014). "Jewish Identity Grows On Manhattan's Upper East Side". lubavitch.com. Retrieved June 23, 2014.
  38. ^ Craig J. Calhoun; Donald Light; Suzanne Keller (1997). Sociology. McGraw-Hill. p. 178. ISBN 9780070380691.
  39. ^ Paul Schlueter; Dorothy Nyren Curley (1998). Modern American literature: volume V second supplement to the fourth edition. Gale Group. p. 13. ISBN 9780804432658.
  40. ^ Briton Hadden; Henry Robinson Luce (1998). Time, Volume 110, Edizioni 1–9. Time Incorporated. p. 156.
  41. ^ a b "Upper East Side (UES) neighborhood in New York, New York (NY), 10021, 10028, 10128 detailed profile". city-data.com. Retrieved June 23, 2014.
  42. ^ Hevesi, Dennis (May 17, 2002). "Residential Real Estate; TriBeCa Is Priciest Neighborhood". The New York Times. Retrieved June 7, 2007.
  43. ^ "Charts". Miller Samuel. February 14, 2011. Archived from the original on July 14, 2011. Retrieved May 12, 2011.
  44. ^ "Low-Income Parents Worry Cuts to Childcare Will Force Them Out of Work". Archived from the original on October 8, 2012.
  45. ^ "Who Are NYC's Republicans?". Gothamgazette.com. Retrieved May 12, 2011.
  46. ^ "Big Donors Still Rule The Roost" Archived March 3, 2016, at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved July 18, 2006.
  47. ^ Mission & History, 92nd Street Y. Accessed September 3, 2017.
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  50. ^ "Welcome to the website of the Consulate General of Italy in New York." Consulate-General of Italy in New York. Retrieved January 26, 2009.
  51. ^ "Contact Us Archived August 5, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.." Consulate-General of India in New York. Retrieved January 26, 2009.
  52. ^ Home. Consulate-General of Pakistan in New York. Retrieved January 26, 2009.
  53. ^ "United Nations Member States." United Nations. Retrieved January 26, 2009.
  54. ^ "Post Office Location – Cherokee". United States Postal Service. ZIP code 10021, a widely used ZIP code and spoken as a "prestigious zip code indicating status", was recently split up by the post office. Retrieved January 30, 2009.
  55. ^ "Post Office Location – Gracie." United States Postal Service. Retrieved January 30, 2009.
  56. ^ "Post Office Location – Yorkville Station" Archived July 15, 2012, at Archive.is. United States Postal Service. Retrieved January 30, 2009.
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  62. ^ 68th Street Campus Map, Hunter College. Accessed May 15, 2016.
  63. ^ Facts and Figures, Marymount Manhattan College. Accessed May 15, 2016.
  64. ^ Campus Map Archived April 4, 2015, at the Wayback Machine., Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Accessed May 15, 2016.
  65. ^ Our Campus Archived May 23, 2016, at the Wayback Machine., New York School of Interior Design. Accessed May 15, 2016.
  66. ^ Building Overview, Institute for the Study of the Ancient World. Accessed May 15, 2016.
  67. ^ Welcome, New York University Institute of Fine Arts. Accessed May 15, 2016.
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  70. ^ "96th Street Branch Library". New York Public Library. Retrieved January 30, 2009.
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External links[edit]