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The Wali Sanga (also transcribed as Wali Songo) are revered saints of Islam in Indonesia, especially on the island of Java, because of their historic role in the Spread of Islam in Indonesia. The word wali is Arabic for "trusted one" ("guardian" in other contexts in Indonesia) or "friend of God" ("saint" in this context), while the word songo is Javanese for the number nine. Thus, the term is often translated as "9 saints".
Most of the wali were also called raden during their lifetimes, because they were members of royal houses. (See "Style and Title" section of Yogyakarta Sultanate for an explanation of Javanese nobility terms.)
Some Muslim mystics came to Java from Gujarat, India via Samudera Pasai (part of what is now Aceh). The earliest wali songo was Maulana Malik Ibrahim (originally from Samarkand) who arrived on Java in 1419 CE.
Tracing the lineage back further than Maulana Malik Ibrahim is problematic, but most scholars agree all of them are of Arab descendants. Although silsila are listed in various Javanese royal chronicles (such as Sejarah Banten) to denote ancestral lineage, the term in Sufism refers to a lineage of teachers. Some of these spiritual lineages are cited by van Bruinessen in his study of the Banten Sultanate, particularly in regard to Sunan Gunung Jati who was an initiate of various Sufi orders.
Although popular belief sometimes refers to the wali songo as "founders" of Islam on Java, the religion was present by the time the Chinese Muslim admiral Zheng He arrived during his first voyage (1405-1407 CE).
The composition of the nine saints varies, depending on different sources. The following list is widely accepted, but its authenticity relies much on repeated citations of a handful of early sources, reinforced as "facts" in school textbooks and other modern accounts. This list differs somewhat from the names suggested in the Babad Tanah Jawi manuscripts.
One theory about the variation of composition is: "The most probable explanation is that there was a loose council of nine religious leaders, and that as older members retired or died, new members were brought into this council." However, it should be borne in mind that the term "wali songo" was created retroactively by historians, and so there was no official "group of nine" that had membership. Further, the differences in chronology of the wali suggest that there might never have been a time when nine of them were alive contemporaneously.
Some of the family relationships described below are well-documented; others are less certain. Even today, it is common in Java for a family friend to be called "uncle" or "brother" despite the lack of blood relationship.
- Maulana Malik Ibrahim also known as Sunan Gresik: Arrived on Java 1404 CE, died in 1419 CE, buried in Gresik, East Java. Activities included commerce, healing, and improvement of agricultural techniques. Father of Sunan Ampel and uncle of Sunan Giri.
- Sunan Ampel: Born in Champa in 1401 CE, died in 1481 CE in Demak, Central Java. Can be considered a focal point of the wali songo: he was the son of Sunan Gresik and the father of Sunan Bonang and Sunan Dradjat. Sunan Ampel was also the cousin and father-in-law of Sunan Giri. In addition, Sunan Ampel was the grandfather of Sunan Kudus. Sunan Bonang in turn taught Sunan Kalijaga, who was the father of Sunan Muria. Sunan Ampel was also the teacher of Raden Patah.
- Sunan Giri: Born in Blambangan (now Banyuwangi, the easternmost part of Java) in 1442 CE. His father Maulana Ishak was the brother of Maulana Malik Ibrahim. Sunan Giri's grave is in Gresik near Surabaya.
- Sunan Bonang: Born in 1465 CE in Rembang (near Tuban) on the north coast of Central Java. Died in 1525 CE and buried in Tuban. Brother of Sunan Drajat. Composed songs for gamelan orchestra.
- Sunan Drajat: Born in 1470 CE. Brother of Sunan Bonang. Composed songs for gamelan orchestra.
- Sunan Kudus: Died 1550 CE, buried in Kudus. Possible originator of wayang golek puppetry.
- Sunan Kalijaga: His born name is Raden Mas Said, and he is the son of Adipati Tuban, Tumenggung Harya Wilatikta. Buried in Kadilangu, Demak. Used wayang kulit shadow puppets and gamelan music to convey spiritual teachings.
- Sunan Muria: Buried in Gunung Muria, Kudus. Son of Sunan Kalijaga and Dewi Soejinah (sister of Sunan Giri), thus grandson of Maulana Ishak.
- Sunan Gunung Jati: Buried in Cirebon. Founder and first ruler of the Cirebon Sultanate. His son, Maulana Hasanudin, become the founder and the first ruler of Banten Sultanate.
Additional Wali sanga
- Sunan Ngampel-Denta - (mentioned in the Babad Tanah Jawi)
- Sunan Sitijenar - (mentioned in the Babad Tanah Jawi)
- Sunan Walilanang - (mentioned in the Babad Tanah Jawi)
- Sunan Bayat (mentioned in Babad Tanah Jawi)
- Sunan Ngudung (son-in-law of Sunan Ampel and father of Sunan Kudus),
Sources of information
Information about Wali Sanga is usually available in three forms:
- (a) cerita rakyat: usually written as school texts for children to understand the lives and teaching of the holy men who propagated Islam in Java and Sumatra. Some have been made into TV series, segments of which are available on YouTube.
- (b) kraton (palace) manuscripts with 'sacred' connotations: in verse and subject to limited access.
- (c) articles and books about the historical personages: by Indonesian and non-Indonesian writers who attempt to ascertain historical accuracy, sometimes by seeking corroboration from non-Indonesian accounts of history or religion.
- Islam in Indonesia
- The spread of Islam in Indonesia (1200 to 1600)
- AmirMir Sayyid Ali Hamadani
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Islam in Indonesia.|
- Ricklefs, M.C. (1991). A History of Modern Indonesia since c.1300, 2nd Edition. London: MacMillan. pp. 9–10. ISBN 0-333-57689-6.
- Schoppert, P., Damais, S., Java Style, 1997, Didier Millet, Paris, pp. 50, ISBN 962-593-232-1
- Freitag,Ulrike (1997). Hadhrami Traders, Scholars and Statesmen in the Indian Ocean, 1750s to 1960s. Leiden: Brill. pp. 32–34.
- Martin van Bruinessen (1995). "Shari`a court, tarekat and pesantren: religious institutions in the sultanate of Banten". Archipel 50 (1): 165–200. doi:10.3406/arch.1995.3069.
- Muljana, Prof. Dr. Slamet (2005). Runtuhnya kerajaan hindu-jawa dan timbulnya negara-negara islam di nusantara. Yogyakarta: LKiS. pp. 86–101. ISBN 979-8451-16-3.
- "Sejarah Indonesia: Wali Songo". Gimonca.com. Retrieved 2013-03-08.
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- "Sunan Ngudung". IndonesiaCultures.Com. 2011-09-01. Retrieved 2013-03-08.
- Sunyoto, Agus (2014). Atlas Wali Songo: Buku Pertama yang Mengungkap Wali Songo Sebagai Fakta Sejarah. 6th edition. Depok: Pustaka IIMaN. ISBN 978-602-8648-09-7