Qalandariyya

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

The Qalandariyyah (Arabic: قلندرية‎, Hindi: क़लन्दरिय्या, Bengali: ক়লন্দরিয়্য়া), Qalandaris, Qalandars or Kalandars are wandering ascetic Sufi dervishes. The term covers a variety of sects, not centrally organized and may not be connected to a specific tariqat. One was founded by Qalandar Yusuf al-Andalusi of Andalusia, Spain. They were mostly in Iran, Central Asia, India and Pakistan. (The word also entered English as calender.)

Starting in the early 12th century, the movement gained popularity in Greater Khorasan and neighbouring regions, including South Asia.[1] The first references are found in the 11th-century prose text Qalandarname (The Tale of the Kalandar) attributed to Ansarī Harawī. The term Qalandariyyat (the Qalandar condition) appears to be first applied by Sanai Ghaznavi (died 1131) in seminal poetic works where diverse practices are described. Particular to the qalandar genre of poetry are terms that refer to gambling, games, intoxicants and Nazar ila'l-murd, themes commonly referred to as kufriyyat or kharabat. The genre was further developed by poets such as Fakhr-al-Din Iraqi and Farid al-Din Attar.

Origin[edit]

The Qalandariyya are an unorthodox tariqa of Sufi dervishes that originated in medieval al-Andalus as an answer to the state sponsored Zahirism of the Almohad Caliphate. From there they quickly spread into North Africa, the Mashriq, Greater Iran, Central Asia, Pakistan and India.[2][3]

Qalandariyya in South Asia[edit]

The Qalandariya may have arisen from the earlier Malamatiyya and exhibited some Buddhist and Hindu influences in South Asia.[4] The Malamatiya condemned the use of drugs and dressed only in blankets or in hip-length hairshirts.[5]

The writings of qalandars were not a mere celebration of libertinism, but antinomial practices of affirmation from negative action. The order was often viewed suspiciously by authorities.

The term remains in popular culture. Sufi qawwali singers the Sabri brothers and international Qawwali star Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan favoured the chant dam a dam masta qalandar (with every breath ecstatic Qalandar!), and a similar refrain appeared in a hit song from Runa Laila from movie Ek Se Badhkar Ek that became a dancefloor crossover hit in the 1970s.

In Pakistan and North India, descendants of Qalandariyah faqirs now form a distinct community, known as the Qalandar biradari.


 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Malāmat’īyyah
 
Polytheism
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Islam
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Buddhism
 
 
Hinduism
 
Tengriism
 
 
 
Kharijites
 
 
 
 
Shiʿism
 
 
 
Tasawwuf
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sunni[6]
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Animism
 
Shaman’īyyah
 
Totemism
 
 
Batin’īyyah
 
 
Shiʿa
 
 
Ghulat
 
 
 
 
Hanafi
 
 
Maliki
 
 
Shafi'i
 
 
Hanbali
 
Ẓāhirī
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Qālandar’īyyah
 
 
Wafā’īyyah
 
Qāddāh’īyyah
 
 
Ismā‘īl’īyyah
 
 
Ithnā‘āshar’īyyah
 
 
Zu al-Nūn
 
 
Ibn Adham
 
Ash-Shādhilī
 
 
Abu al-Najib
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ishaq’īyyah[7]
 
Nezār’īyyah
 
Ismā‘īl’i`Shi'a
 
 
Zaid’īyyah
 
 
Saba’īyyah
 
 
 
 
 
Bastāmī
 
 
Shādhilī’yyah
 
 
Suhraward’īyyah
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Bābā’īyyah[7]
 
Sābbāh’īyyah
 
Mustā‘līyyah
 
 
Da‘ī al-kabīr
 
 
Seveners
 
 
Qarmatians
 
 
 
 
 
Kharaqānī
 
 
Abu Hafs Umar
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Yassaw’īyyah Tariqa
 
 
Alamut State
 
 
Turkestan Alevism
 
Nāsir Khusraw
 
 
The Twelve Imams[8]
 
Kaysān’īyyah
 
 
Sahl al-Tūstārī
 
 
Arslan Baba
 
 
Yusūf Hamadānī
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Anatolian Alevism
 
 
 
Alāvids
 
Dā’ī Kabīr al-Nāṣir li’l-Haqq
 
 
Sāfav’īyyah Tariqa
 
Būʿmūslim’īyyah
 
 
Mansur Al-Hallaj
 
 
Ahmed-i Yassawi
 
Abd’ūl`Khaliq Gajadwani
 
 
Abd’ūl`Qadir Gilani
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Haydār’īyyah Tariqa
 
 
Sāfavids
 
Shāh Ismāʿīl
 
Shaykh Haydar
 
Twelver`Shi'a
 
Ishaq al-Turk’īyyah
 
Fażlu l-Lāh Astar`Ābādī
 
 
 
 
 
 
Nāqshband’īyyah Tariqa
 
 
Qādir’īyyah Tariqa
 
 
Sheikh’ūl`Akbar Ibn ʿArabī
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sāfav’īyyah-Kızılbaş
 
Bābak’īyyah
 
Khurrām’īyyah
 
Mukannaʿīyyah
 
Sunbādh’īyyah
 
 
 
 
Hurūf’īyyah[9] Tariqa
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Zāhed’īyyah Tariqa
 
Akbar’īyyah Sūfīsm
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Hājjı Bektsh
 
 
Qizilbash[10]
 
Kul Nesîmî
 
Pir Sultan
 
Gül Baba
 
Balım Sultan
 
Nāsīmī
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Khālwat’īyyah
 
Wāhdat’ūl`Wūjood
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Yunus Emre
 
Abdal Mūsā
 
Kaygusuz Abdal
 
Baktāsh’īyyah tariqa
 
Baktāshi folk religion[11]
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Bāyrām’īyyah Tariqa
 
Hacı Bayram-ı Veli
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


Qalandariyya and Shia Islam

Dhamaal[edit]

Songs honoring famous qalandars are called qalandri dhamaal in Pakistan and India. Dhamaal are a popular South Asian musical subgenre about Sufi saints such as Lal Shahbaz Qalandar. These songs typically incorporate qawwali styles as well as different local folk styles, such as bhangra and intense naqareh or dhol drumming.[12]

See also[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • De Bruijn, The Qalandariyyat in Persian Mystical Poetry from Sana'i, in The Heritage of Sufism, 2003.
  • Ashk Dahlén, The Holy Fool in Medieval Islam: The Qalandariyat of Fakhr al-din Araqi, Orientalia Suecana, vol.52, 2004.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Merriam-Webster's Encyclopædia of World Religions". Merriam-Webster. 1999. Retrieved 22 October 2011. The movement is first mentioned in Khorasan in the 11th century; from there it spread to India, Syria, and western Iran.
  2. ^ Ivanov, Sergej Arkadevich (2006) Holy fools in Byzantium and beyond Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, page 368, ISBN 0-19-927251-4
  3. ^ de Bruijn, J. T. P. "The Qalandariyyat in Persian Mystical Poetry from Sand'i Onwards". In Lewisohn, Leonard (ed.) (1992) The Legacy of Mediæval Persian Sufism Khaniqahi Nimatullahi, London, pp. 61–75, ISBN 0-933546-45-9
  4. ^ "Merriam-Webster's Encyclopædia of World Religions". Merriam-Webster. 1999. Retrieved 22 October 2011. The Qalandariya seem to have arisen from the earlier MALAMATIYA in Central Asia and exhibited Buddhist and perhaps Hindu influences.
  5. ^ "Merriam-Webster's Encyclopædia of World Religions". Merriam-Webster. 1999. Retrieved 22 October 2011. The Qalandariya seem to have arisen from the earlier MALAMATIYA in Central Asia and exhibited Buddhist and perhaps Hindu influences.
  6. ^ Balcıoğlu, Tahir Harimî, Türk Tarihinde Mezhep Cereyanları - The course of madhhab events in Turkish history, (Preface and notes by Hilmi Ziya Ülken), Ahmet Sait Press, 271 pages, Kanaat Publications, Istanbul, 1940. (in Turkish)
  7. ^ a b Ocak, Ahmet Yaşar XII yüzyılda Anadolu'da Babâîler İsyânı - Babai Revolt in Anatolia in the Twelfth Century, pages 83-89, Istanbul, 1980. (in Turkish)
  8. ^ "Encyclopaedia of Islam of the Foundation of the Presidency of Religious Affairs," Volume 4, pages 373-374, Istanbul, 1991.
  9. ^ Balcıoğlu, Tahir Harimî, Türk Tarihinde Mezhep Cereyanları - The course of madhhab events in Turkish history – Two crucial front in Anatolian Shiism: The fundamental Islamic theology of the Hurufiyya madhhab, (Preface and notes by Hilmi Ziya Ülken), Ahmet Sait Press, page 198, Kanaat Publications, Istanbul, 1940. (in Turkish)
  10. ^ According to Turkish scholar, researcher, author and tariqa expert Abdülbaki Gölpınarlı, "Qizilbashs" ("Red-Heads") of the 16th century - a religious and political movement in Azerbaijan that helped to establish the Safavid dynasty - were nothing but "spiritual descendants of the Khurramites". Source: Roger M. Savory (ref. Abdülbaki Gölpinarli), Encyclopaedia of Islam, "Kizil-Bash", Online Edition 2005.
  11. ^ According to the famous Alevism expert Ahmet Yaşar Ocak, "Bektashiyyah" was nothing but the reemergence of Shamanism in Turkish societies under the polishment of Islam. (Source: Ocak, Ahmet Yaşar XII yüzyılda Anadolu'da Babâîler İsyânı - Babai Revolt in Anatolia in the Twelfth Century, pages 83-89, Istanbul, 1980. (in Turkish))
  12. ^ Malik, Iftikhar Haider (2006). Culture and customs of Pakistan. Greenwood Press, Westport, Connecticut, page 171, ISBN 0-313-33126-X